Balmer O, Stearns S, Schotzau A, Brun R. Intraspecific competition between co-infecting parasite strains enhances host survival in African trypanosomes. Ecology. 2009;90:3367-78 pubmed
..Our results are therefore not only of basic ecological interest investigating an important form of intraspecific competition, but may also have applied relevance for public health. ..
Balmer O, Caccone A. Multiple-strain infections of Trypanosoma brucei across Africa. Acta Trop. 2008;107:275-9 pubmed publisher
..Together with previous results, these findings strongly suggest that multiple-strain infections are common for this parasite and that their consequences for epidemiology and parasite evolution should be investigated in detail. ..
Balmer O, Beadell J, Gibson W, Caccone A. Phylogeography and taxonomy of Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e961 pubmed publisher
Balmer O, Tanner M. Prevalence and implications of multiple-strain infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:868-78 pubmed publisher
..Co-infection enables gene transfer among strains. Taking multiple-strain infections into account will improve our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and disease dynamics, and will provide a basis for novel control approaches. ..