Phillip I Tarr
Affiliation: Washington University School of Medicine
- Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndromePhillip I Tarr
Division of Gastroenterology, Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8208, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Lancet 365:1073-86. 2005..The vascular injury leading to HUS is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhoea. The best way to prevent HUS is to prevent primary infection with Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria...
- Further evidence of constrained radiation in the evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7Shana R Leopold
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
Infect Genet Evol 10:1282-5. 2010..Our results suggest that successful Cluster 2 strains have radiated on only two branches from their founder; one of these two branches leads to Cluster 3. Constrained radiation appears to be a common theme among this pathogenic clade...
- Intestinal inflammatory biomarkers and outcome in pediatric Clostridium difficile infectionsRana E El Feghaly
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO
J Pediatr 163:1697-1704.e2. 2013..To identify specific fecal biomarkers for symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection and predictors of poor outcomes...
- Diarrhea etiology in a pediatric emergency department: a case control studyDonna M Denno
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Clin Infect Dis 55:897-904. 2012..The etiology of childhood diarrhea is frequently unknown...
- Fim operon variation in the emergence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: an evolutionary and functional analysisNurmohammad Shaikh
Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
FEMS Microbiol Lett 273:58-63. 2007..coli (EHEC) tested. An N135K FimH mutation in the two most evolved O157:H7 clusters is not found in other EHEC. These data refine the evolutionary history of an emerging pathogen...
- Deer sausage: a newly identified vehicle of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7Christina K Ahn
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Pediatr 155:587-9. 2009....
- The late 1970s: a lull in the action on kuruPhillip I Tarr
Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3668-70. 2008
- Precise dissection of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak by single nucleotide polymorphism analysisGeorge Turabelidze
Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, St Louis, Missouri, USA
J Clin Microbiol 51:3950-4. 2013..The backbone DNAs of 9 of 9 and 3 of 3 cases who reported or were unsure about exposure, respectively, were isogenic. Backbone ORF SNP set sequencing offers pathogen differentiation capabilities that exceed those of PFGE and MLVA. ..
- Viral co-infections are common and are associated with higher bacterial burden in children with clostridium difficile infectionRana E El Feghaly
Departments of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 57:813-6. 2013..011), but were clinically indistinguishable. The contribution of viral co-infection to C difficile disease in children warrants future investigation...
- Detection of low-concentration host mRNA transcripts in Malawian children at risk for environmental enteropathySophia Agapova
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56:66-71. 2013..Our objective was to develop a method for detecting human mRNA suggestive of environmental enteropathy (EE) in feces...
- Obscured phylogeny and possible recombinational dormancy in Escherichia coliShana R Leopold
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, USA
BMC Evol Biol 11:183. 2011..We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms in chromosomes of representative strains to reconstruct the topology of its emergence...
- Markers of intestinal inflammation, not bacterial burden, correlate with clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infectionRana E El Feghaly
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Clin Infect Dis 56:1713-21. 2013..To assess the contribution of ongoing infection vs persistent inflammation, we examined the correlation between fecal cytokine levels, fecal C. difficile burden, and disease outcomes in C. difficile infection (CDI)...
- Treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infectionsT Keefe Davis
Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Infect Dis Clin North Am 27:577-97. 2013..The opportunities during STEC infections to avert the worst outcomes are brief, and this article emphasizes practical matters relevant to making a diagnosis, anticipating the trajectory of illness, and optimizing care. ..
- Use and accuracy of diagnostic imaging by hospital type in pediatric appendicitisJacqueline M Saito
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Washington University, One Children s Pl, Suite 5S40, St Louis, MO 63110 63110, USA
Pediatrics 131:e37-44. 2013..Here, we characterize recent preoperative imaging use and accuracy among pediatric appendectomy subjects...
- Bacterial DNA content in the intestinal wall from infants with necrotizing enterocolitisBrian T Bucher
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Pediatr Surg 46:1029-33. 2011..The objective of our study was to quantify mucosal bacterial DNA within specimens from neonates undergoing small bowel resection for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
- A precise reconstruction of the emergence and constrained radiations of Escherichia coli O157 portrayed by backbone concatenomic analysisShana R Leopold
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8713-8. 2009..However, constrained radiations raise the possibility of making false associations between isolates...
- ABO and P1 blood group antigen expression and stx genotype and outcome of childhood Escherichia coli O157:H7 infectionsSrdjan Jelacic
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
J Infect Dis 185:214-9. 2002..In the present study, ABO antigens and stx genotypes were not major determinants of the outcome of E. coli O157:H7 infections, and P1 expression did not protect against the development of HUS...
- Platelet-activating factor and Escherichia coliO157:H7 infectionsJodi M Smith
Division of Nephrology, Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Pediatr Nephrol 17:1047-52. 2002..Thus, elevated plasma PAF levels occur in E. coliO157:H7-infected children, even without HUS, but diminish when HUS develops. The PAF-AH ( G994T) allele does not contribute to the risk of developing HUS...
- Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infectionsMike A Carl
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri
Clin Infect Dis 58:1211-8. 2014..Late-onset sepsis is a major problem in neonatology, but the habitat of the pathogens before bloodstream invasion occurs is not well established...
- Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genesAimee M Moore
Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
PLoS ONE 8:e78822. 2013..coli) host also suggests that the potential for gut-associated resistomes to threaten human health by mediating antibiotic resistance in pathogens warrants further investigation. ..
- Acute bloody diarrhea: a medical emergency for patients of all agesLori R Holtz
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Gastroenterology 136:1887-98. 2009..These topics are discussed in the context of the medical care that is available to children and adults with bloody diarrhea in most institutions in developed nations...
- Enteric infections and diagnostic testingWilliam E Bennett
Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:1-7. 2009..We aim to provide a clinically pertinent assessment of the current state of our ability to diagnose human gastrointestinal pathogens and describe (and decry) the unsophistication of many current diagnostic methods and strategies...
- The IrgA homologue adhesin Iha is an Escherichia coli virulence factor in murine urinary tract infectionJames R Johnson
Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8208, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Infect Immun 73:965-71. 2005..11). These data suggest that Iha(CFT073) is a virulence factor and might be a target for anti-UTI interventions...
- Metagenomic analysis of human diarrhea: viral detection and discoveryStacy R Finkbeiner
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000011. 2008..Using this methodology we detected known enteric viruses as well as multiple sequences from putatively novel viruses with only limited sequence similarity to viruses in GenBank...
- Early volume expansion during diarrhea and relative nephroprotection during subsequent hemolytic uremic syndromeChristina A Hickey
Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 1 Children s Place, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 165:884-9. 2011..To determine if interventions during the pre-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) diarrhea phase are associated with maintenance of urine output during HUS...
- Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea: a prospective point-of-care studyEileen J Klein
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, 98105, USA
J Pediatr 141:172-7. 2002....
- Cardiac ischemia during hemolytic uremic syndromeMeena Thayu
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
Pediatr Nephrol 18:286-9. 2003..It is possible that myocardial ischemia and secondary arrhythmias account for some sudden deaths that occur during acute HUS...
- Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of common strains of Escherichia coliJoshua Hill
Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
J Clin Microbiol 46:2800-4. 2008..It detected all 36 of 36 E. coli isolates and all 22 urine samples (out of 89 samples tested) that had E. coli. This assay is rapid, low in cost, and simple to perform...
- Parental management of childhood diarrheaSu Ting T Li
Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 48:295-303. 2009..Further data on effectiveness of functional foods and education regarding avoidance of potentially harmful medications are needed...
- Etiology of diarrhea in pediatric outpatient settingsDonna M Denno
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington and Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:142-8. 2005..We attempted to determine the microbiologic etiology of diarrhea in a private pediatric practice (site A) and a clinic serving largely immigrant children (site B) and to establish guidelines for bacterial culture...
- Diarrhea etiology in a Children's Hospital Emergency Department: a prospective cohort studyEileen J Klein
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA
Clin Infect Dis 43:807-13. 2006..We evaluated the frequency of recovery of pathogens from children with diarrhea who presented to a pediatric emergency department and characterized the associated illnesses, to develop guidelines for performing a bacterial enteric culture...
- Risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome from antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 colitisPhillip I Tarr
JAMA 288:3111-2; author reply 3112. 2002
- Molecular characterization of a serotype O121:H19 clone, a distinct Shiga toxin-producing clone of pathogenic Escherichia coliCheryl L Tarr
Microbial Evolution Laboratory, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
Infect Immun 70:6853-9. 2002..On the basis of sequencing analysis with 13 housekeeping genes, the O121:H19 clone did not fall into any of the four classical EHEC and enteropathogenic E. coli groups but instead was closely related to two eae-negative STEC strains...
- Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Montana: bacterial genotypes and clinical profilesJill K Jelacic
University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
J Infect Dis 188:719-29. 2003..033). Non-O157:H7 STEC are more heterogeneous and cause bloody diarrhea less frequently than do E. coli O157:H7. Bloody diarrhea cannot be attributed simply to the stx genotype of the infecting organism...
- Relative nephroprotection during Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: association with intravenous volume expansionJulie A Ake
Department of Medicine, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington, USA
Pediatrics 115:e673-80. 2005....
- Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: discordance between filterable fecal shiga toxin and disease outcomeNancy A Cornick
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
J Infect Dis 186:57-63. 2002..These data suggest that therapeutic and diagnostic strategies directed toward binding or identifying intraintestinal fecal Stx may have limited success...
- Rebuttal to: von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease in childhood diarrhoea-associated haemolytic uraemic syndromeHan Mou Tsai
Thromb Haemost 87:548-9; author's reply 549-50. 2002
- Isolation of patients acutely infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7: low-tech, highly effective prevention of hemolytic uremic syndromeChristina K Ahn
Clin Infect Dis 46:1197-9. 2008
- Prothrombotic coagulation abnormalities preceding the hemolytic-uremic syndromeWayne L Chandler
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98105, USA
N Engl J Med 346:23-32. 2002..The hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a thrombotic complication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. It is not known whether the coagulation abnormalities precede, and potentially cause, this disorder...
- Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicineHelge Karch
Institute for Hygiene, and National Consulting Laboratory on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
Int J Med Microbiol 295:405-18. 2005..This review will focus on the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of EHEC-associated diseases, and illustrate future challenges and opportunities for their control...
- Greater diversity of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites among Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle than in those from humansThomas E Besser
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 73:671-9. 2007..coli O157:H7 genotypes...
- Explaining unexplained diarrhea and associating risks and infectionsDonna M Denno
Department of Health Services, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
Anim Health Res Rev 8:69-80. 2007..By filling these gaps in our knowledge it should be possible to formulate rational prevention mechanisms for human gastrointestinal illnesses...
- Using antibiotics in suspected haemolytic-uraemic syndrome: antibiotics should not be used in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infectionStephanie Dundas
BMJ 330:1209; author reply 1209. 2005
- Expression of putative virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 differs in bovine and human infectionsRebecca A Rashid
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 1959 N E Pacific St, Mail Stop 357242, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Infect Immun 74:4142-8. 2006..Our results support the hypothesis that some virulence-associated genes of O157:H7 are differentially expressed in a host-specific manner...
- Proteomics-based expression library screening (PELS): a novel method for rapidly defining microbial immunoproteomesIndira T Kudva
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Mol Cell Proteomics 5:1514-9. 2006..In this report, we demonstrate "proof-of-principle" by identifying 207 proteins of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 immunome in bovine reservoirs in only 3 weeks...
- StcE, a metalloprotease secreted by Escherichia coli O157:H7, specifically cleaves C1 esterase inhibitorWyndham W Lathem
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Mol Microbiol 45:277-88. 2002..Cleavage of C1-INH by StcE could plausibly cause localized pro-inflammatory and coagulation responses resulting in tissue damage, intestinal oedema and thrombotic abnormalities...
- Lipopolysaccharide from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli binds to platelets through TLR4 and CD62 and is detected on circulating platelets in patients with hemolytic uremic syndromeAnne lie Ståhl
Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Sciences Lund, the Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Microbiology, Immunology and Glycobiology, Lund University, 22185 Lund, Sweden
Blood 108:167-76. 2006..These data suggest that O157LPS on platelets might contribute to platelet consumption in HUS...
- Analysis of urinary Escherichia coli isolates for ability to produce Shiga toxinJames R Johnson
Medical Service, VA Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
J Clin Microbiol 40:2247-8. 2002..We tested 597 urinary E. coli isolates by Stx immunoassay and found no STEC. The routine screening of urinary E. coli for the ability to produce Stx is not warranted...
- Basic fibroblast growth factor and Shiga toxin-O157:H7-associated hemolytic uremic syndromePhillip I Tarr
J Am Soc Nephrol 13:817-20. 2002
- Thrombotic microangiopathiesPhillip I Tarr
N Engl J Med 347:2171-3; author reply 2171-3. 2002
- Single multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect diverse loci associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coliCatalina Lopez-Saucedo
Dpto de Biomedicina Molecular, CINVESTAV IPN, Mexico D F, Mexico
Emerg Infect Dis 9:127-31. 2003..Because of its simplicity, economy, and efficiency, this protocol warrants further evaluation in large, prospective studies of polymicrobial substances...
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome in association with typhoid feverAli Albaqali
Department of Internal Medicine, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain
Am J Kidney Dis 41:709-13. 2003..The authors report on a patient with typhoid fever in whom HUS and myocarditis developed during the course of his illness and in whom there was no evidence of a Shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing organism...
- Use of in vivo-induced antigen technology for identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 proteins expressed during human infectionManohar John
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Infect Immun 73:2665-79. 2005..Also, such proteins may be exploited as markers of O157 infection in stool specimens...
- Confirmation of an old adage: you find what you seekPhilip M Sherman
J Pediatr 146:11-3. 2005
- Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humansMartina Bielaszewska
Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Germany
Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3144-50. 2007..The suggested occurrence of this process in the human intestine has diagnostic, clinical, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications...
- Reducing stunting among children: the potential contribution of diagnosticsKaren A Ricci
RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, California 90407 2138, USA
Nature 444:29-38. 2006
- Shiga toxin antigen detection should not replace sorbitol MacConkey agar screening of stool specimensEileen J Klein
J Clin Microbiol 42:4416; author reply 4416-7. 2004
- Intestinal infections and environmental enteropathy: Working Group report of the second World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and NutritionEduardo Salazar-Lindo
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:S662-9. 2004
- Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages: integrations, excisions, truncations, and evolutionary implicationsNurmohammad Shaikh
Children s Hospital and the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
J Bacteriol 185:3596-605. 2003....
- Expression of the Escherichia coli IrgA homolog adhesin is regulated by the ferric uptake regulation proteinRebecca A Rashid
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St Mailstop 357242, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Microb Pathog 41:207-17. 2006..We identified strain-dependent differences in iha expression and determined that single nucleotide polymorphisms upstream of the iha promoter, in particular position -85, contribute to differences in expression levels...
- Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting O157:NM clinical isolatesMartina Bielaszewska
Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
J Clin Microbiol 43:452-4. 2005..5%) of 86 sorbitol-fermenting (SF) EHEC O157:NM strains had Te MICs of </=4 microg/ml, did not grow on Te-containing media, and lacked ter genes. Optimal detection of SF EHEC O157:NM strains requires Te-independent strategies...