Affiliation: Washington State University
Country: USA


  1. request reprint
    Brown W, Corral R. Stimulation of B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells by protozoan DNA. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:969-74 pubmed
    ..This novel mechanism of protozoan parasite recognition by the innate immune system could facilitate recovery from acute infection or contribute to infection-related pathology. ..
  2. Brown W, Turse J, Lawrence P, Johnson W, Scoles G, Deringer J, et al. Loss of Immunization-Induced Epitope-Specific CD4 T-Cell Response following Anaplasma marginale Infection Requires Presence of the T-Cell Epitope on the Pathogen and Is Not Associated with an Increase in Lymphocytes Expressing Known Regulatory Cell P. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22:742-53 pubmed publisher
    ..As hypothesized, the induction of T-cell exhaustion occurred only following infection with A. marginale, which did not correlate with an increase in either CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cells or any γδ T-cell subset examined. ..
  3. Brown W, Estes D, Chantler S, Kegerreis K, Suarez C. DNA and a CpG oligonucleotide derived from Babesia bovis are mitogenic for bovine B cells. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5423-32 pubmed
    ..These ISS may be involved in host immune modulation during protozoal infection and may be useful as vaccine adjuvants. ..
  4. Brown W, McElwain T, Palmer G, Chantler S, Estes D. Bovine CD4(+) T-lymphocyte clones specific for rhoptry-associated protein 1 of Babesia bigemina stimulate enhanced immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 synthesis. Infect Immun. 1999;67:155-64 pubmed
    ..bigemina RAP-1 immune cattle and a biased IgG1 response in F. hepatica-immune cattle. ..
  5. Brown W, Palmer G, Lewin H, McGuire T. CD4(+) T lymphocytes from calves immunized with Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1 (MSP1), a heteromeric complex of MSP1a and MSP1b, preferentially recognize the MSP1a carboxyl terminus that is conserved among strains. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6853-62 pubmed
    ..The data provide a basis for determining whether selected MSP1a CD4(+) T-lymphocyte epitopes and selected MSP1a and MSP1b B-lymphocyte epitopes presented on the same molecule can stimulate a protective immune response. ..
  6. Brown W, Shkap V, Zhu D, McGuire T, Tuo W, McElwain T, et al. CD4(+) T-lymphocyte and immunoglobulin G2 responses in calves immunized with Anaplasma marginale outer membranes and protected against homologous challenge. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5406-13 pubmed
  7. request reprint
    Brown W, Norimine J, Knowles D, Goff W. Immune control of Babesia bovis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:75-87 pubmed
    ..The availability of an annotated B. bovis genome will, for the first time, enable identification of non-immunodominant proteins that may stimulate protective immunity. ..
  8. Brown W, Zhu D, Shkap V, McGuire T, Blouin E, Kocan K, et al. The repertoire of Anaplasma marginale antigens recognized by CD4(+) T-lymphocyte clones from protectively immunized cattle is diverse and includes major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) and MSP-3. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5414-22 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a rationale for identifying Th cell epitopes conserved among different strains of A. marginale for inclusion in a nucleic acid or recombinant protein vaccine. ..
  9. Zhang B, Cavallaro A, Mody K, Zhang J, Deringer J, Brown W, et al. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10 Produced in the Pichia pastoris Expression System. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall this study demonstrates the potential of self-adjuvanting silica vesicle formulations to address current deficiencies in vaccine delivery applications. ..

More Information


  1. Brown W, Barbet A. Persistent Infections and Immunity in Ruminants to Arthropod-Borne Bacteria in the Family Anaplasmataceae. Annu Rev Anim Biosci. 2016;4:177-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates highly adapted strategies of Anaplasma spp. to both suppress protective immune responses and evade those that do develop. However, conserved subdominant antigens are potential targets for immunization. ..
  2. Mudenda L, Pierlé S, Turse J, Scoles G, Purvine S, Nicora C, et al. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva. Int J Parasitol. 2014;44:1029-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. ..
  3. Deringer J, Forero Becerra E, Ueti M, Turse J, Futse J, Noh S, et al. Identification of a T-Cell Epitope That Is Globally Conserved among Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) OMP7, OMP8, and OMP9 of Anaplasma marginale Strains and with OMP7 from the A. marginale subsp. centrale Vaccine Strain. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017;24: pubmed publisher
    ..marginale that can provide protection against disease caused by globally distributed bacterial strains. ..
  4. request reprint
    Brown W, Norimine J, Goff W, Suarez C, McElwain T. Prospects for recombinant vaccines against Babesia bovis and related parasites. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:315-27 pubmed
    ..Development of successful non-living recombinant vaccines will depend on increased understanding of protective immune mechanisms and availability of parasite genomes...
  5. request reprint
    Brown W, Brayton K, Styer C, Palmer G. The hypervariable region of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP2) contains multiple immunodominant CD4+ T lymphocyte epitopes that elicit variant-specific proliferative and IFN-gamma responses in MSP2 vaccinates. J Immunol. 2003;170:3790-8 pubmed
    ..Antigenic variation in MSP2 Th cell and B cell epitopes may contribute to immune evasion that allows long-term persistence of A. marginale in the mammalian reservoir...
  6. Brown W, McGuire T, Mwangi W, Kegerreis K, Macmillan H, Lewin H, et al. Major histocompatibility complex class II DR-restricted memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes recognize conserved immunodominant epitopes of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5521-32 pubmed
    ..The presence of multiple CD4(+) T-cell epitopes in the MSP1a HD, in addition to the neutralization-sensitive epitope, supports the testing of this immunogen for induction of protective immunity against A. marginale challenge...
  7. Okagawa T, Konnai S, Deringer J, Ueti M, Scoles G, Murata S, et al. Cooperation of PD-1 and LAG-3 Contributes to T-Cell Exhaustion in Anaplasma marginale-Infected Cattle. Infect Immun. 2016;84:2779-90 pubmed publisher
    ..marginale-specific T cells following infection and that these immunoinhibitory receptors regulate T-cell responses during bovine anaplasmosis. ..
  8. request reprint
    Brown W. Molecular approaches to elucidating innate and acquired immune responses to Babesia bovis, a protozoan parasite that causes persistent infection. Vet Parasitol. 2001;101:233-48 pubmed