K A Brayton

Summary

Affiliation: Washington State University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Identification of Rhipicephalus microplus genes that modulate the infection rate of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale
    Ricardo F Mercado-Curiel
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology and Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e91062. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint Global transcriptional analysis reveals surface remodeling of Anaplasma marginale in the tick vector
    G Kenitra Hammac
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Paul G, Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Parasit Vectors 7:193. 2014
  3. pmc Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
    Andrew M Heekin
    Knipling Bushland US Livestock Insect Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 2700 Fredericksburg Rd, Kerrville, TX 78028, USA
    Parasit Vectors 5:162. 2012
  4. pmc Transcriptional pathways associated with the slow growth phenotype of transformed Anaplasma marginale
    Sebastian Aguilar Pierle
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    BMC Genomics 14:272. 2013
  5. pmc Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of trait-gene association
    Sebastian Aguilar Pierle
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Paul G, Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:669. 2012
  6. pmc Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi
    Lowell S Kappmeyer
    Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Pullman, WA 99164 7030, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:603. 2012
  7. pmc Temporal characterisation of the organ-specific Rhipicephalus microplus transcriptional response to Anaplasma marginale infection
    Ricardo F Mercado-Curiel
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology and Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Int J Parasitol 41:851-60. 2011
  8. pmc Conservation in the face of diversity: multistrain analysis of an intracellular bacterium
    Michael J Dark
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:16. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint A processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity
    Kelly A Brayton
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Gene 326:167-73. 2004
  10. pmc Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer membrane proteins
    Kelly A Brayton
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washingston State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:844-9. 2005

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. doi request reprint Identification of Rhipicephalus microplus genes that modulate the infection rate of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale
    Ricardo F Mercado-Curiel
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology and Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e91062. 2014
    ..Identifying vector genes and subsequent determination of the encoded functions are initial steps in discovery of new targets for inhibiting pathogen development and subsequent transmission. ..
  2. ncbi request reprint Global transcriptional analysis reveals surface remodeling of Anaplasma marginale in the tick vector
    G Kenitra Hammac
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Paul G, Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Parasit Vectors 7:193. 2014
    ..Differential gene transcription, especially of potential vaccine candidates, is of interest in Anaplasma marginale, the tick-borne causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis...
  3. pmc Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
    Andrew M Heekin
    Knipling Bushland US Livestock Insect Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 2700 Fredericksburg Rd, Kerrville, TX 78028, USA
    Parasit Vectors 5:162. 2012
    ..We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis...
  4. pmc Transcriptional pathways associated with the slow growth phenotype of transformed Anaplasma marginale
    Sebastian Aguilar Pierle
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    BMC Genomics 14:272. 2013
    ....
  5. pmc Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of trait-gene association
    Sebastian Aguilar Pierle
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Paul G, Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:669. 2012
    ..We combined DNA/RNA comparative genomic approaches using strains with different tick transmission phenotypes and identified genes that segregate with transmissibility...
  6. pmc Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi
    Lowell S Kappmeyer
    Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Pullman, WA 99164 7030, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:603. 2012
    ..equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites...
  7. pmc Temporal characterisation of the organ-specific Rhipicephalus microplus transcriptional response to Anaplasma marginale infection
    Ricardo F Mercado-Curiel
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology and Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Int J Parasitol 41:851-60. 2011
    ..The small set of predominantly hypothetical genes regulated by infection suggests that A. marginale is affecting a novel set of tick genes and may provide new opportunities for blocking transmission from the tick...
  8. pmc Conservation in the face of diversity: multistrain analysis of an intracellular bacterium
    Michael J Dark
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:16. 2009
    ..Maries strain genome...
  9. ncbi request reprint A processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity
    Kelly A Brayton
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Gene 326:167-73. 2004
    ..Therefore, selection of a genotyping method specific for the functional gene is critical for large-scale studies to identify the role of the PRNP gene in susceptibility to CWD in mule deer...
  10. pmc Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer membrane proteins
    Kelly A Brayton
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washingston State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:844-9. 2005
    ....
  11. pmc Simultaneous variation of the immunodominant outer membrane proteins, MSP2 and MSP3, during anaplasma marginale persistence in vivo
    Kelly A Brayton
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 71:6627-32. 2003
    ..marginale followed by emergence of unique variants indicates that the switch rates and immune selection for MSP2 and MSP3 are sufficiently similar to explain the cyclic bacteremia observed during infection in the immunocompetent host...
  12. pmc Efficient use of a small genome to generate antigenic diversity in tick-borne ehrlichial pathogens
    K A Brayton
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4130-5. 2001
    ..Coordinated control of the recombination of these genes would allow these two gene families to act synergistically to evade the host immune response...
  13. ncbi request reprint Preparation of Ehrlichia ruminantium challenge material for quantifiable and reproducible challenge in mice and sheep
    Kelly A Brayton
    Molecular Biology Section, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
    Vet Parasitol 112:63-73. 2003
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale msp2 occurs by combinatorial gene conversion
    Kelly A Brayton
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Mol Microbiol 43:1151-9. 2002
    ..marginale provides for a combinatorial number of possible expressed MSP2 variants sufficient for lifelong persistence...
  15. ncbi request reprint Genomic and proteomic approaches to vaccine candidate identification for Anaplasma marginale
    Kelly A Brayton
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163 7040, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:95-101. 2006
    ..These data were mapped back to the annotated A. marginale genome and have identified several new outer membrane proteins that are vaccine candidates...
  16. ncbi request reprint Genetic immunization with Ehrlichia ruminantium GroEL and GroES homologues
    Alri Pretorius
    Molecular Biology Section, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Pretoria, South Africa
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 969:151-4. 2002
    ..None of the mice inoculated with the genetic vaccine survived. Immunological memory was also tested in these mice and a correlation between splenocyte proliferation and the survival rate was observed...
  17. ncbi request reprint Distinctly different msp2 pseudogene repertoires in Anaplasma marginale strains that are capable of superinfection
    Jose Luis Rodriguez
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Gene 361:127-32. 2005
    ..This finding supports the hypothesis that the occurrence of superinfection reflects the differences in the msp2 repertoire and corresponding diversity of variants...
  18. ncbi request reprint Development of improved attenuated and nucleic acid vaccines for heartwater
    N E Collins
    Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa
    Dev Biol (Basel) 114:121-36. 2003
    ..Boosting with live organisms after DNA vaccination results in much higher levels of protection against tick challenge than DNA vaccination alone, suggesting that improved methods of boosting could lead to more effective immunization...
  19. ncbi request reprint Purification of Cowdria ruminantium organisms for use in genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
    E P De Villiers
    Molecular Biology Section, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Republic of South Africa
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 849:313-20. 1998
    ..This is the first time that the genome size of C. ruminantium has been determined and the first demonstration of an extrachromosomal element...
  20. pmc Genome sequence of Babesia bovis and comparative analysis of apicomplexan hemoprotozoa
    Kelly A Brayton
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
    PLoS Pathog 3:1401-13. 2007
    ..The genome sequence provides a greater understanding of B. bovis metabolism and potential avenues for drug therapies and vaccine development...
  21. pmc Immunogenicity of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system proteins in a protective outer membrane vaccine
    Job E Lopez
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 75:2333-42. 2007
    ..marginale and related pathogens...
  22. ncbi request reprint Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants
    James E Futse
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Mol Microbiol 57:212-21. 2005
    ..Importantly, the anchoring model, which can account for more variants than a strict segmental sequence identity mechanism, is consistent with the number of msp2 variants predicted and empirically identified during persistent infection...
  23. ncbi request reprint A partially protective clone from Cowdria ruminantium identified by using a Salmonella vaccine delivery system
    K A Brayton
    Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 849:247-52. 1998
    ..This clone has been tested repeatedly in larger groups of mice and is proven to protect 14% of outbred mice against a lethal Cowdria challenge...
  24. pmc Identification of novel antigenic proteins in a complex Anaplasma marginale outer membrane immunogen by mass spectrometry and genomic mapping
    Job E Lopez
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 73:8109-18. 2005
    ..The identification of these novel antigenic proteins markedly expands current understanding of the composition of the protective immunogen and provides new candidates for vaccine development...
  25. pmc Tick-borne transmission of two genetically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains following superinfection of the mammalian reservoir host
    Christina K Leverich
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Program in Vector Borne Diseases, School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 76:4066-70. 2008
    ..marginale strain capable of superinfecting the mammalian host can subsequently be cotransmitted and become established within the host population despite the presence of an existing established strain...
  26. ncbi request reprint Sequencing of a 15-kb Ehrlichia ruminantium clone and evaluation of the cpg1 open reading frame for protection against heartwater
    Elmarié Louw
    Molecular Biology Section, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Pretoria, South Africa
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 969:147-50. 2002
    ..Although all of the immunized mice died, there was a trend for mice that received larger amounts of pCMViUB/cpg1 DNA to survive longer. Four out of five sheep immunized with the construct survived lethal challenge...
  27. pmc Analysis of the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1 complex protein composition by tandem mass spectrometry
    Henriette Macmillan
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:4983-91. 2006
    ..The msp1beta sequences were highly conserved throughout infection. However, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified only a single MSP1b protein, MSP1b1, within the MSP1 complex...
  28. pmc Identification of Anaplasma marginale proteins specifically upregulated during colonization of the tick vector
    Solomon S Ramabu
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology and School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 78:3047-52. 2010
    ....
  29. pmc Generation of antigenic variants via gene conversion: Evidence for recombination fitness selection at the locus level in Anaplasma marginale
    James E Futse
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, 99164, USA
    Infect Immun 77:3181-7. 2009
    ..Identification of highly fit variants provides targets for vaccines that will prevent the high-level bacteremia associated with acute disease...
  30. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 locus and its synteny with the omp1/p30 loci of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. canis
    CHRISTIANE V LOHR
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Gene 325:115-21. 2004
    ..This supports the hypothesis that the expression sites of these important immunogenic proteins are derived from a common precursor with later divergent evolution along genus lines...
  31. pmc Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system proteins VirB2, VirB7, VirB11, and VirD4 are immunogenic components of a protective bacterial membrane vaccine
    Eric L Sutten
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 78:1314-25. 2010
    ..The discovery of novel immunogenic T4SS proteins recognized by outbred individuals with common MHC haplotypes further justifies evaluating the T4SS as a potential vaccine candidate for pathogenic bacteria...
  32. pmc Maintenance of antibody to pathogen epitopes generated by segmental gene conversion is highly dynamic during long-term persistent infection
    Yan Zhuang
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases and Immunology, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5185-90. 2007
    ..The results unify the genetic potential of segmental gene conversion with escape from antibody recognition and identify immunological effects of variant mosaic structure...
  33. ncbi request reprint Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice
    Weiguo Liu
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, 402 Bustad Hall, PO Box 647040, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 110:11-6. 2006
    ..Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease...
  34. pmc Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 operon-associated proteins during mammalian and arthropod infection
    CHRISTIANE V LOHR
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 70:6005-12. 2002
    ....
  35. pmc The genome of the heartwater agent Ehrlichia ruminantium contains multiple tandem repeats of actively variable copy number
    Nicola E Collins
    Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:838-43. 2005
    ..Rather then being the result of the reductive evolution seen in other intracellular bacteria, these pseudogenes appear to be the product of ongoing sequence duplication events...
  36. pmc Independence of Anaplasma marginale strains with high and low transmission efficiencies in the tick vector following simultaneous acquisition by feeding on a superinfected mammalian reservoir host
    Maria F B M Galletti
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA
    Infect Immun 77:1459-64. 2009
    ..These results support the idea that the strain predominance in regions of endemicity is mediated by the intrinsic transmission efficiency of specific strains regardless of occurrence of superinfection...
  37. pmc Composition of the surface proteome of Anaplasma marginale and its role in protective immunity induced by outer membrane immunization
    Susan M Noh
    Animal Disease Research Unit, Agriculture Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Pullman, WA 99164 7030, USA
    Infect Immun 76:2219-26. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the data support that remodeling of the surface proteome accompanies the transition between mammalian and arthropod hosts and identify novel targets for blocking transmission...
  38. doi request reprint Babesia bovis: a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of plastid-encoded genes supports green algal origin of apicoplasts
    Audrey O T Lau
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, School for Global Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Exp Parasitol 123:236-43. 2009
    ..The results also substantiate earlier findings that plastids found in Heterokonts such as Odontella and Thalassiosira were derived from a separate secondary endosymbiotic event likely originating from a red algal lineage...
  39. ncbi request reprint Conservation of the unique rickettsial rRNA gene arrangement in Anaplasma
    Fred R Rurangirwa
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1405-9. 2002
    ..In contrast, the fmt gene located upstream of the 23S rRNA gene in most Rickettsia spp. is not maintained in A. marginale, consistent with the fmt arrangement being a relatively late event in the evolution of rickettsial species...
  40. pmc Association of pathogen strain-specific gene transcription and transmission efficiency phenotype of Anaplasma marginale
    Joseph T Agnes
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 78:2446-53. 2010
    ....
  41. pmc Differential expression and sequence conservation of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 gene superfamily outer membrane proteins
    Susan M Noh
    Program in Vector borne Diseas, Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 6630, USA
    Infect Immun 74:3471-9. 2006
    ..Maries strain and Florida strain genomes...
  42. pmc Stability and tick transmission phenotype of gfp-transformed Anaplasma marginale through a complete in vivo infection cycle
    Susan M Noh
    Animal Disease Research Unit, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Pullman, WA 99164 7030, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:330-4. 2011
    ..Despite the lower levels of replication, ticks transmitted the transformant. Transformants can serve as valuable tools to dissect the molecular requirements of tick colonization and pathogen transmission...
  43. ncbi request reprint The hypervariable region of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP2) contains multiple immunodominant CD4+ T lymphocyte epitopes that elicit variant-specific proliferative and IFN-gamma responses in MSP2 vaccinates
    Wendy C Brown
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    J Immunol 170:3790-8. 2003
    ..Antigenic variation in MSP2 Th cell and B cell epitopes may contribute to immune evasion that allows long-term persistence of A. marginale in the mammalian reservoir...
  44. pmc The immunization-induced antibody response to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 and its association with protective immunity
    Susan M Noh
    Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Pullman, WA 99164 7030, USA
    Vaccine 28:3741-7. 2010
    ....
  45. pmc Superinfection as a driver of genomic diversification in antigenically variant pathogens
    James E Futse
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2123-7. 2008
    ....
  46. pmc Physical linkage of naturally complexed bacterial outer membrane proteins enhances immunogenicity
    Henriette Macmillan
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    Infect Immun 76:1223-9. 2008
    ..Understanding how the naturally occurring intermolecular interactions between OMPs influence the immune response may lead to more effective vaccine design...
  47. pmc Sequence variation and immunologic cross-reactivity among Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 proteins from vaccine strains and vaccine breakthrough isolates
    Tanya LeRoith
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 73:5388-94. 2005
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Gene conversion is a convergent strategy for pathogen antigenic variation
    Guy H Palmer
    Programs in Vector borne Diseases and Genomics, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Trends Parasitol 23:408-13. 2007
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Comparison of ovine herpesvirus 2 genomes isolated from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and a clinically affected cow (Bos bovis)
    Naomi S Taus
    Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, PO Box 646630, Pullman, WA 99164 6630, USA
    J Gen Virol 88:40-5. 2007
    ..Polymorphism in ORF73 was due primarily to variability in the G/E-rich repetitive central region of the ORF...
  50. pmc Stochastic transmission of multiple genotypically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains in a herd with high prevalence of Anaplasma infection
    Guy H Palmer
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5381-4. 2004
    ....
  51. pmc Selection for simple major surface protein 2 variants during Anaplasma marginale transmission to immunologically naïve animals
    Guy H Palmer
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 75:1502-6. 2007
    ..However, these mosaics have a selective advantage only in the presence of adaptive immunity and are rapidly replaced by simple variants following transmission...
  52. ncbi request reprint Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
    Katherine I O'Rourke
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease Research Unit, 3003 ADBF, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    J Gen Virol 85:1339-46. 2004
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Insights into mechanisms of bacterial antigenic variation derived from the complete genome sequence of Anaplasma marginale
    Guy H Palmer
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:15-25. 2006
    ..The resulting combinatorial diversity generates the number of variants both predicted and shown to emerge during persistence...
  54. pmc Merozoite surface antigen 2 proteins of Babesia bovis vaccine breakthrough isolates contain a unique hypervariable region composed of degenerate repeats
    Shawn J Berens
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 73:7180-9. 2005
    ..Variation in length and content of the HVR is primarily attributable to differences in the order and number of degenerate nucleotide repeats encoding three motifs of unknown function...
  55. pmc Coinfection with antigenically and genetically distinct virulent strains of Babesia bovis is maintained through all phases of the parasite life cycle
    Shawn J Berens
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5769-76. 2007
    ..While coinfection of the tick vector provides the context in which allelic antigenic diversity can be generated, recombination of VMSA genes could not be confirmed, suggesting that VMSA allelic changes are slow to accumulate...
  56. pmc CD4+ T lymphocytes from Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP2) vaccinees recognize naturally processed epitopes conserved in MSP3
    Wendy C Brown
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 72:3688-92. 2004
    ..This T-lymphocyte response to conserved and partially conserved epitopes may contribute to the immunodominance of MSP2 and MSP3...
  57. ncbi request reprint Induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-12 in bovine B lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages by a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN 2059) containing the GTCGTT motif
    Y Zhang
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 21:871-81. 2001
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Development of improved vaccines for heartwater
    Nicola E Collins
    Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 990:474-84. 2003
    ..This suggests that the local E. ruminantium genotypes were different from any which were administered by needle challenge, or that needle challenge is not a good model for tick challenge in the field...
  59. pmc The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 hypervariable region induces surface-reactive antibodies that block merozoite invasion
    Tanya LeRoith
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    Infect Immun 74:3663-7. 2006
    ..The results indicate that the MSA-1 HVR is involved in erythrocyte invasion and suggest that selection of MSA-1 variants may be driven by invasion-blocking antibodies...
  60. pmc Complete genome sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale
    David R Herndon
    Animal Diseases Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:379-80. 2010
    ..marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein candidates for development of a safer inactivated vaccine and provides insight into the diversity among strains of senso lato A. marginale...
  61. ncbi request reprint Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica leukotoxin utilizes CD18 as its receptor on bighorn sheep leukocytes
    Weiguo Liu
    Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7040, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:75-81. 2007
    ....
  62. pmc Expression of major surface protein 2 variants with conserved T-cell epitopes in Anaplasma centrale vaccinates
    Varda Shkap
    Department of Parasitology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel
    Infect Immun 70:642-8. 2002
    ..centrale vaccine efficacy...
  63. ncbi request reprint Characterization of a major outer membrane protein multigene family in Ehrlichia ruminantium
    Henriette van Heerden
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rand Afrikaans University, P O Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
    Gene 330:159-68. 2004
    ..All 16 map1 paralogs were transcriptionally active in E. ruminantium grown in endothelial cells and paralogs with short intergenic spaces were co-transcribed with their adjacent genes...
  64. pmc Identification of a novel Anaplasma marginale appendage-associated protein that localizes with actin filaments during intraerythrocytic infection
    Roger W Stich
    Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1900 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Infect Immun 72:7257-64. 2004
    ..Understanding how this protein influences the cycle of invasion, replication, and egress in the host cell may provide new insights into pathogen-host interactions...
  65. ncbi request reprint Identification of functional promoters in the msp2 expression loci of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum
    Anthony F Barbet
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Box 110880, Gainesville, FL 32611 0880, USA
    Gene 353:89-97. 2005
    ..These data enhance our understanding of how expression of these variable outer membrane proteins may be controlled in the key stages of tick-borne transmission and infection...
  66. doi request reprint Succinate dehydrogenase gene arrangement and expression in Anaplasma phagocytophilum
    Robert F Massung
    Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Gene 414:41-8. 2008
    ..OMB DISCLAIMER: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC or the Department of Health and Human Services...
  67. ncbi request reprint Conservation of a gene conversion mechanism in two distantly related paralogues of Anaplasma marginale
    Patrick F M Meeus
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32611 0880, USA
    Mol Microbiol 47:633-43. 2003
    ..A. marginale thus maintains two large, separate systems within its small genome to generate antigenic variation of its surface proteins, while analogous structural elements indicate a common mechanism...