TODD BRAVER

Summary

Affiliation: Washington University School of Medicine
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:106-13. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Direct comparison of prefrontal cortex regions engaged by working and long-term memory tasks
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Neuroimage 14:48-59. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Extracting core components of cognitive control
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:529-32. 2006
  4. pmc Flexible neural mechanisms of cognitive control within human prefrontal cortex
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7351-6. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Context processing and context maintenance in healthy aging and early stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Psychol Aging 20:33-46. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint A theory of cognitive control, aging cognition, and neuromodulation
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:809-17. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Neural mechanisms of transient and sustained cognitive control during task switching
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Neuron 39:713-26. 2003
  8. pmc Vive les differences! Individual variation in neural mechanisms of executive control
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:242-50. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: effects of frequency, inhibition and errors
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Cereb Cortex 11:825-36. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Context processing in older adults: evidence for a theory relating cognitive control to neurobiology in healthy aging
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:746-63. 2001

Research Grants

  1. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    Todd S Braver; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. NEUROECONOMICS OF AGE RELATED CHANGES IN COGNITIVE CONTROL
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    Todd S Braver; Fiscal Year: 2011

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. pmc The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:106-13. 2012
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Direct comparison of prefrontal cortex regions engaged by working and long-term memory tasks
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Neuroimage 14:48-59. 2001
    ..g., task-selectivity vs material-selectivity in DL-PFC and VL-PFC) and for testing the applicability of memory domain-specific theories (e.g., FP-PFC in LTM retrieval)...
  3. ncbi request reprint Extracting core components of cognitive control
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:529-32. 2006
    ..A recent neuroimaging study by Dosenbach et al. offers a set of novel methodological tools to examine this issue and uncovers new candidate brain regions for a core system that might implement task sets...
  4. pmc Flexible neural mechanisms of cognitive control within human prefrontal cortex
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7351-6. 2009
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Context processing and context maintenance in healthy aging and early stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Psychol Aging 20:33-46. 2005
    ..The results suggest that context processing may be composed of functionally dissociable components and point to the utility of this construct in understanding the timecourse of cognitive decline in healthy and pathological aging...
  6. ncbi request reprint A theory of cognitive control, aging cognition, and neuromodulation
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:809-17. 2002
    ..These findings highlight the utility of a computational approach to cognitive aging. Current directions for further refinement and validation of the model are outlined...
  7. ncbi request reprint Neural mechanisms of transient and sustained cognitive control during task switching
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Neuron 39:713-26. 2003
    ....
  8. pmc Vive les differences! Individual variation in neural mechanisms of executive control
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:242-50. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: effects of frequency, inhibition and errors
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Cereb Cortex 11:825-36. 2001
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Context processing in older adults: evidence for a theory relating cognitive control to neurobiology in healthy aging
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:746-63. 2001
    ..Older adults exhibited both performance decrements and, counterintuitively, performance improvements that are in close agreement with model predictions...
  11. ncbi request reprint The role of frontopolar cortex in subgoal processing during working memory
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Neuroimage 15:523-36. 2002
    ..These results suggest a triple dissociation of function within PFC regions, and further indicate that FP-PFC is selectively engaged by the requirement to monitor and integrate subgoals during WM tasks...
  12. pmc Intellect as distinct from Openness: differences revealed by fMRI of working memory
    Colin G DeYoung
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 97:883-92. 2009
    ..Intellect was also correlated significantly with scores on tests of intelligence and WM capacity, but the association of Intellect with brain activity could not be entirely explained by cognitive ability...
  13. pmc Primary and secondary rewards differentially modulate neural activity dynamics during working memory
    Stefanie M Beck
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9251. 2010
    ..Cognitive control and working memory processes have been found to be influenced by changes in motivational state. Nevertheless, the impact of different motivational variables on behavior and brain activity remains unclear...
  14. doi request reprint Individual differences in delay discounting: relation to intelligence, working memory, and anterior prefrontal cortex
    Noah A Shamosh
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Psychol Sci 19:904-11. 2008
    ..Overall, the results suggest that delay discounting is associated with intelligence in part because of processes instantiated in anterior prefrontal cortex, a region known to support the integration of diverse information...
  15. ncbi request reprint Neural mechanisms of general fluid intelligence
    Jeremy R Gray
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:316-22. 2003
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Strategy-dependent changes in memory: effects on behavior and brain activity
    Nicole K Speer
    Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 3:155-67. 2003
    ..Taken together, the results imply that covert cognitive strategies play an important role in modulating brain activation and behavior during memory tasks...
  17. ncbi request reprint Sustained neural activity associated with cognitive control during temporally extended decision making
    Tal Yarkoni
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 23:71-84. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate the contribution of cognitive control mechanisms to temporally extended decision-making paradigms and highlight the benefits of decomposing activation responses into sustained and transient components...
  18. pmc Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex
    Jeremy R Gray
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4115-20. 2002
    ..Other regions in lateral PFC showed hemispheric specialization for emotion and for stimuli separately, consistent with a hierarchical and hemisphere-based mechanism of integration...
  19. pmc Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging
    Jessica L Paxton
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:1010-28. 2008
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that age-related impairments in goal maintenance abilities cause a compensatory shift in older adults from a proactive (seen in young adults) to a reactive cognitive control strategy...
  20. ncbi request reprint Prefrontal cortex and dynamic categorization tasks: representational organization and neuromodulatory control
    Randall C O'Reilly
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Cereb Cortex 12:246-57. 2002
    ..with orbital versus dorsolateral lesions supports the validity of these principles, many of which have also been useful in accounting for other frontal phenomena...
  21. ncbi request reprint Personality predicts working-memory-related activation in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex
    Jeremy R Gray
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2:64-75. 2002
    ..84), suggesting personality differences in cognitive control. The data bolster approach-withdrawal (action control) theories of personality and suggest refinements to the dominant views of ACC and personality...
  22. pmc Age-related changes in neural activity during performance matched working memory manipulation
    Lisa Emery
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Neuroimage 42:1577-86. 2008
    ..The results suggest that activation and age-differences in lateral PFC engagement during WM manipulation conditions may reflect strategy use and controlled processing demands rather than reflect the act of manipulation per se...
  23. pmc Distinct neural circuits support transient and sustained processes in prospective memory and working memory
    Jeremy R Reynolds
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80302, USA
    Cereb Cortex 19:1208-21. 2009
    ..The results support the conclusion that both sustained and transient processes contribute to efficient PM and provide novel constraints on the functional role of anterior PFC in higher-order cognition...
  24. ncbi request reprint Opiate addicts lack error-dependent activation of rostral anterior cingulate
    Steven D Forman
    Department of Psychology TSB, DMB, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:531-7. 2004
    ..Fundamental questions include whether this error-related activation provides a signal contributing to behavioral control and, given generally poorer performance on such tasks by addicts, whether this signal is disrupted in addiction...
  25. ncbi request reprint The effect of age on rule-based category learning
    Caroline A Racine
    Washington University, Department of Psychology, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 13:411-34. 2006
    ..These results are discussed in reference to the growing body of literature regarding age-related change in executive abilities and frontal lobe function...
  26. ncbi request reprint A computational model of anterior cingulate function in speeded response tasks: effects of frequency, sequence, and conflict
    Andrew D Jones
    Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2:300-17. 2002
    ..The results indicate that the conflict-monitoring hypothesis, augmented by mechanisms for encoding stimulus history, can explain key phenomena associated with performance in sequential speeded response tasks...
  27. ncbi request reprint Learned predictions of error likelihood in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Joshua W Brown
    Department of Psychology, CB 1125, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Science 307:1118-21. 2005
    ..These results support a more general error-likelihood theory of ACC function based on reinforcement learning, of which conflict and error detection are special cases...
  28. doi request reprint Are people really more patient than other animals? Evidence from human discounting of real liquid rewards
    Koji Jimura
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 16:1071-5. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Motivational influences on cognitive control: behavior, brain activation, and individual differences
    Hannah S Locke
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 8:99-112. 2008
    ..These results suggest that changes in motivational state may modulate performance through sustained activity in cognitive control regions and that the effect of incentives may be affected by the personalities of the participants...
  30. ncbi request reprint Principles of pleasure prediction: specifying the neural dynamics of human reward learning
    Todd S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Neuron 38:150-2. 2003
    ..and O'Doherty et al. use event-related fMRI to provide some of the strongest evidence to date that the reward prediction error model of dopamine system activity applies equally well to human reward learning...
  31. pmc CNTRICS final task selection: executive control
    Deanna M Barch
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Schizophr Bull 35:115-35. 2009
    ..This article describes the ways in which each of these tasks met the criteria used by the breakout group to recommend tasks for further development...
  32. pmc BOLD correlates of trial-by-trial reaction time variability in gray and white matter: a multi-study fMRI analysis
    Tal Yarkoni
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4257. 2009
    ..Using a multi-study approach, we investigated whether there are brain regions that show a general relationship between trial-by-trial RT variability and activation across a range of cognitive tasks...
  33. ncbi request reprint Context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: diagnostic specificity, 4-week course, and relationships to clinical symptoms
    Deanna M Barch
    Department of Psychology, St Louis, Missouri 63130 4899, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 112:132-43. 2003
    ..However, context-processing deficits improved in the psychotic comparison group at 4 weeks but did not improve in patients with schizophrenia...
  34. pmc Age-related shifts in brain activity dynamics during task switching
    Koji Jimura
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Cereb Cortex 20:1420-31. 2010
    ..Together, these results suggest that older adults may shift from a proactive to reactive cognitive control strategy as a means of retaining relatively preserved behavioral performance in the face of age-related neurocognitive changes...
  35. pmc Prefrontal cortex mediation of cognitive enhancement in rewarding motivational contexts
    Koji Jimura
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8871-6. 2010
    ..Reward-sensitive individuals appear preferentially motivated to adopt this resource-demanding strategy, resulting in paradoxical benefits selectively for nonrewarded events...
  36. pmc Motivated cognitive control: reward incentives modulate preparatory neural activity during task-switching
    Adam C Savine
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63139, USA
    J Neurosci 30:10294-305. 2010
    ....
  37. doi request reprint Exploring emotional and cognitive conflict using speeded voluntary facial expressions
    Kimberly S Chiew
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Emotion 10:842-54. 2010
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Item- and task-level processes in the left inferior prefrontal cortex: positive and negative correlates of encoding
    Jeremy R Reynolds
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Neuroimage 21:1472-83. 2004
    ..When devoted to the latter, the diversion of LIPC processes to the task level can have a negative consequence for item-level analysis and encoding...
  39. ncbi request reprint Dopaminergic modulation of response inhibition: an fMRI study
    Tamara Hershey
    Psychiatry Department, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 20:438-48. 2004
    ..In summary, right parietal and cerebellar regions important in mediating specific aspects of the GNG task were modulated by levodopa, suggesting a region-specific role for dopamine in response inhibition...
  40. ncbi request reprint Functional specializations in lateral prefrontal cortex associated with the integration and segregation of information in working memory
    Nicola De Pisapia
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Cereb Cortex 17:993-1006. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Effects of environmental support and strategy training on older adults' use of context
    Jessica L Paxton
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Psychol Aging 21:499-509. 2006
    ..These results suggest that age-related differences in context processing can be ameliorated by directed strategy training or extended practice...
  42. pmc Prefrontal brain activity predicts temporally extended decision-making behavior
    Tal Yarkoni
    Washington University, Department of Psychology, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 84:537-54. 2005
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint A direct comparison of anterior prefrontal cortex involvement in episodic retrieval and integration
    Jeremy R Reynolds
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63139, USA
    Cereb Cortex 16:519-28. 2006
    ..Moreover, the study highlights the benefits of activation latency analysis for understanding functional contributions and dissociations between closely linked brain regions...
  44. pmc Event perception: a mind-brain perspective
    Jeffrey M Zacks
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Psychol Bull 133:273-93. 2007
    ....
  45. pmc Neural circuitry of emotional and cognitive conflict revealed through facial expressions
    Kimberly S Chiew
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e17635. 2011
    ....
  46. pmc Prefrontal cortex and flexible cognitive control: rules without symbols
    Nicolas P Rougier
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, 345 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7338-43. 2005
    ..The same model is shown to apply to benchmark PFC tasks (Stroop and Wisconsin card sorting), accurately simulating the behavior of neurologically intact and frontally damaged people...
  47. ncbi request reprint Cognitive-pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging in tourette syndrome: a pilot study
    Tamara Hershey
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:916-25. 2004
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Computational perspectives on dopamine function in prefrontal cortex
    Jonathan D Cohen
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:223-9. 2002
    ..Recently, computational models have tried to elucidate the specific and intricate roles of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, at the neurophysiological, system and behavioral levels, with varying degrees of success...
  49. ncbi request reprint Reliability of functional localization using fMRI
    Khena M Swallow
    Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130 1125, USA
    Neuroimage 20:1561-77. 2003
    ..We conclude that, for typical sample sizes and numbers of observations per subject, functional localization is most reliable when performed for each individual using data in atlas space...
  50. ncbi request reprint A computational model of fractionated conflict-control mechanisms in task-switching
    Joshua W Brown
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Cogn Psychol 55:37-85. 2007
    ..The results suggest numerous testable predictions regarding the neural substrates of cognitive control...
  51. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms underlying dependencies of performance on stimulus history in a two-alternative forced-choice task
    Raymond Y Cho
    Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2:283-99. 2002
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Affective personality differences in neural processing efficiency confirmed using fMRI
    Jeremy R Gray
    Psychology Department, Yale University, Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 5:182-90. 2005
    ....
  53. pmc A computational model of risk, conflict, and individual difference effects in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Joshua W Brown
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E Tenth St, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Brain Res 1202:99-108. 2008
    ..The results clarify the basic computational mechanisms of learned risk aversion and may have broad implications for predicting and managing risky behavior in healthy and clinical populations...
  54. ncbi request reprint Accounting for cognitive aging: context processing, inhibition or processing speed?
    Beth K Rush
    Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 13:588-610. 2006
    ..The sensitivity of the AX-CPT to cognitive aging is discussed in the context of existing theories of cognitive aging. The authors suggest that deficits in context processing and utilization may underlie cognitive aging phenomena...
  55. pmc Individual differences in amygdala activity predict response speed during working memory
    Alexandre Schaefer
    Psychology Department, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Neurosci 26:10120-8. 2006
    ..These results support models of amygdala function that can account for its involvement not only in emotion but also higher cognition...
  56. doi request reprint Executive functioning component mechanisms and schizophrenia
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 64:26-33. 2008
    ..Although there is general consensus about what cognitive tasks involve executive functioning, there is disagreement about the specific cognitive mechanisms that comprise executive functioning...
  57. ncbi request reprint Risk prediction and aversion by anterior cingulate cortex
    Joshua W Brown
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7:266-77. 2007
    ..Taken together, the results are consistent with an expected risk model of ACC and suggest that ACC may generally contribute to cognitive control by recruiting brain activity to avoid risk...
  58. doi request reprint Preparation for integration: the role of anterior prefrontal cortex in working memory
    Nicola De Pisapia
    CIMeC Center for Mind Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Mattarello TN, Italy
    Neuroreport 19:15-9. 2008
    ..We find that this region is involved in the preparation for integration, possibly by ensuring that goal-relevant information is maintained in an accessible form, while at the same time protected from subtask interference...
  59. ncbi request reprint Individual differences
    Sharon L Thompson-Schill
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 5:115-6. 2005
  60. ncbi request reprint Medial frontal cortex function: an introduction and overview
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7:261-5. 2007
    ..The present article presents a brief introduction, overview, and road map to the field and to the special issue devoted to MFC function...

Research Grants12

  1. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    Todd S Braver; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such knowledge could be used to drive the development of more effective interventions ..
  2. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such knowledge could be used to drive the development of more effective interventions ..
  3. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such knowledge could be used to drive the development of more effective interventions ..
  4. NEUROECONOMICS OF AGE RELATED CHANGES IN COGNITIVE CONTROL
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  5. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    TODD BRAVER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Such knowledge could be used to drive the development of more effective interventions. ..
  6. Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control
    Todd S Braver; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Such knowledge could be used to drive the development of more effective interventions ..