Arpana Agrawal

Summary

Affiliation: Washington University School of Medicine
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc DSM-5 cannabis use disorder: a phenotypic and genomic perspective
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO, USA Electronic address
    Drug Alcohol Depend 134:362-9. 2014
  2. pmc Characterizing alcohol use disorders and suicidal ideation in young women
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 74:406-12. 2013
  3. pmc Do early experiences with cannabis vary in cigarette smokers?
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 660 S Euclid, CB 8134, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 128:255-9. 2013
  4. pmc Genetic influences on craving for alcohol
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, 660 S Euclid, CB 8134, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addict Behav 38:1501-8. 2013
  5. pmc Cannabinoid receptor genotype moderation of the effects of childhood physical abuse on anhedonia and depression
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:732-40. 2012
  6. pmc The genetics of addiction-a translational perspective
    A Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Transl Psychiatry 2:e140. 2012
  7. pmc The co-occurring use and misuse of cannabis and tobacco: a review
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 107:1221-33. 2012
  8. pmc Measuring alcohol consumption for genomic meta-analyses of alcohol intake: opportunities and challenges
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:539-47. 2012
  9. pmc Developing a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for genomic studies on prospective cohorts
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Box 8134, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 70:157-68. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Risk for initiation of substance use as a function of age of onset of cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use: findings in a Midwestern female twin cohort
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Prev Med 43:125-8. 2006

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. pmc DSM-5 cannabis use disorder: a phenotypic and genomic perspective
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO, USA Electronic address
    Drug Alcohol Depend 134:362-9. 2014
    ..We also estimate the heritability of DSM-5 cannabis use disorders explained by these common SNPs...
  2. pmc Characterizing alcohol use disorders and suicidal ideation in young women
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 74:406-12. 2013
    ..Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and suicidal ideation (SI) co-occur, yet few studies have investigated the risk and protective factors that infl uence their comorbidity...
  3. pmc Do early experiences with cannabis vary in cigarette smokers?
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 660 S Euclid, CB 8134, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 128:255-9. 2013
    ....
  4. pmc Genetic influences on craving for alcohol
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, 660 S Euclid, CB 8134, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addict Behav 38:1501-8. 2013
    ..However, little is known of its genetic underpinnings - specifically, whether genetic influences on craving are distinct from those influencing DSM-IV alcohol dependence...
  5. pmc Cannabinoid receptor genotype moderation of the effects of childhood physical abuse on anhedonia and depression
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:732-40. 2012
    ..The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in stress adaptation and the regulation of mood in rodent studies, but few human association studies have examined these links and replications are limited...
  6. pmc The genetics of addiction-a translational perspective
    A Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Transl Psychiatry 2:e140. 2012
    ....
  7. pmc The co-occurring use and misuse of cannabis and tobacco: a review
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 107:1221-33. 2012
    ..We also discuss respiratory harms associated with co-use of cannabis and tobacco, overlapping withdrawal syndromes and outline treatment implications for co-occurring use...
  8. pmc Measuring alcohol consumption for genomic meta-analyses of alcohol intake: opportunities and challenges
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:539-47. 2012
    ..In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with harmonizing alcohol-consumption data from studies with widely different assessment instruments, with a particular focus on large-scale genetic studies...
  9. pmc Developing a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for genomic studies on prospective cohorts
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Box 8134, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 70:157-68. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for gene-mapping studies...
  10. ncbi request reprint Risk for initiation of substance use as a function of age of onset of cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use: findings in a Midwestern female twin cohort
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Prev Med 43:125-8. 2006
    ..We investigated whether use and early-onset use of cigarettes, alcohol and cannabis contributed an increase in risk for initiation of subsequent psychoactive substances in women (N = 3729, mean age = 21.7)...
  11. pmc Candidate genes for cannabis use disorders: findings, challenges and directions
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 104:518-32. 2009
    ....
  12. pmc Correlates of later-onset cannabis use in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 660 S Euclid, CB 8134, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 105:71-5. 2009
    ..However, there is growing evidence that cannabis onset occurs later in life as well and little is known of the risk and protective influences that are associated with late-onset cannabis initiation...
  13. pmc Further evidence for an association between the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A, subunit 4 genes on chromosome 4 and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 104:471-7. 2009
    ..In the present report, we extend the previous study by expanding our genotyping efforts significantly for these two genes...
  14. pmc Simultaneous cannabis and tobacco use and cannabis-related outcomes in young women
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 101:8-12. 2009
    ....
  15. pmc Early cannabis use and DSM-IV nicotine dependence: a twin study
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 103:1896-904. 2008
    ..We examine whether cannabis use prior to age 17 years is associated with an increased likelihood of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to this association...
  16. pmc Evidence for association between polymorphisms in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:736-40. 2009
    ..05) and rs806380 (P = 0.009)]. Haplotype analyses revealed the association to be largely driven by the SNP rs806380. These results suggest a role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene in cannabis dependence...
  17. pmc Tobacco and cannabis co-occurrence: does route of administration matter?
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 660 S Euclid, CB 8134, St Louis, MO 63110, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 99:240-7. 2009
    ..Qualitative research suggests that a shared route of administration (i.e. via inhalation) for the common forms of both tobacco (i.e. cigarettes) and cannabis (i.e. joints) may contribute to their co-occurring use...
  18. doi request reprint An autosomal linkage scan for cannabis use disorders in the nicotine addiction genetics project
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8134, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:713-21. 2008
    ..Despite accumulating evidence that there is a genetic basis for cannabis use disorders (ie, abuse and dependence), few studies have identified genomic regions that may harbor biological risk and protective factors...
  19. pmc Evidence for an interaction between age at first drink and genetic influences on DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:2047-56. 2009
    ..In this study, we examine whether age at first drink moderates genetic and environmental influences, via gene x environment interactions, on DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms...
  20. pmc Item response modeling of DSM-IV mania symptoms in two representative US epidemiological samples
    A Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Psychol Med 40:1549-58. 2010
    ..There is considerable debate surrounding the effective measurement of DSM-IV symptoms used to assess manic disorders in epidemiological samples...
  21. pmc Patterns of use, sequence of onsets and correlates of tobacco and cannabis
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry and the Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addict Behav 36:1141-7. 2011
    ..In this study, we characterize patterns of cannabis and tobacco use (tobacco but not cannabis, cannabis but not tobacco or both) and compare the factors associated with onset of tobacco before cannabis and cannabis before tobacco...
  22. pmc A latent class analysis of DSM-IV and Fagerström (FTND) criteria for nicotine dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:972-81. 2011
    ....
  23. pmc A genome-wide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addict Biol 16:514-8. 2011
    ..While replication is required, this study represents an important first step toward clarifying the biological underpinnings of cannabis dependence...
  24. pmc DSM-IV to DSM-5: the impact of proposed revisions on diagnosis of alcohol use disorders
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 106:1935-43. 2011
    ....
  25. pmc Developing a genetically informative measure of alcohol consumption using past-12-month indices
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid, CB 8134, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 72:444-52. 2011
    ..The goal of this study was to develop a factor score derived from measures of past-12-month alcohol consumption...
  26. pmc DSM-IV alcohol abuse due to hazardous use: a less severe form of abuse?
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, CB 8134, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 71:857-63. 2010
    ....
  27. pmc Cannabis involvement in individuals with bipolar disorder
    Arpana Agrawal
    Dept of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Psychiatry Res 185:459-61. 2011
    ..Rates of DSM-IV cannabis use disorders in those with BD were 29.4% and were independently and significantly associated with increased suicide attempts, greater likelihood of mixed episodes and greater disability attributable to BD...
  28. pmc Peer substance involvement modifies genetic influences on regular substance involvement in young women
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 105:1844-53. 2010
    ..We examine mechanisms by which PSI influences the etiology of regular substance involvement (RSI), particularly in women...
  29. pmc Mechanisms underlying the lifetime co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescent and young adult twins
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 108:49-55. 2010
    ..Given the high addictive potential of nicotine and the ubiquitous nature of cannabis use, this is a public health concern worthy of considerable attention...
  30. pmc The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring outcomes
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Prev Med 50:13-8. 2010
    ....
  31. pmc Correlates of smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Addict Behav 33:1223-6. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint A latent class analysis of illicit drug abuse/dependence: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 102:94-104. 2007
    ..We examine the co-occurrence of abuse/dependence across different illicit drugs and test associations between these classes and major psychiatric disorders...
  33. ncbi request reprint The genetic epidemiology of cannabis use, abuse and dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 101:801-12. 2006
    ..The genetic etiology of cannabis use, abuse and dependence has elicited significant interest from genetic epidemiologists...
  34. pmc Does gender contribute to heterogeneity in criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence? Results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, Box 8134, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 88:300-7. 2007
    ..We conclude that the criteria that serve as indicators of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence do not function identically in men and women and that certain criteria (e.g. hazardous use) require further refinement...
  35. doi request reprint Drinking expectancies and motives: a genetic study of young adult women
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 103:194-204. 2008
    ..However, little is known of the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to individual differences in expectancies and motives...
  36. doi request reprint Correlates of cigarette smoking during pregnancy and its genetic and environmental overlap with nicotine dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:567-78. 2008
    ....
  37. pmc Correlates of cannabis initiation in a longitudinal sample of young women: the importance of peer influences
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Prev Med 45:31-4. 2007
    ..In adolescent girls especially, rates of cannabis use have increased over the last decade, urging the need to characterize the potential correlates of onset of cannabis use during emerging adulthood...
  38. doi request reprint Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor genes and nicotine dependence: evidence for association from a case-control study
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 103:1027-38. 2008
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Contrasting models of genetic co-morbidity for cannabis and other illicit drugs in adult Australian twins
    A Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Psychol Med 37:49-60. 2007
    ....
  40. pmc Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 93:12-20. 2008
    ..0 on chromosome 2 (3.2, 234 cM), 10 (2.4 and 2.6 at 60 cM and 116 cM) and 13 (2.1 at 64 cM). These regions may harbor genes that contribute to the biological basis of alcohol and drug dependence...
  41. ncbi request reprint Are there genetic influences on addiction: evidence from family, adoption and twin studies
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 103:1069-81. 2008
    ..With a focus on the classical twin design that utilizes data on monozygotic and dizygotic twins, we discuss support in favor of heritable influences on alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drug dependence...
  42. pmc Transitions to regular smoking and to nicotine dependence in women using cannabis
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 95:107-14. 2008
    ..If there is evidence in its favor, the increased rates of cigarette smoking in cannabis users may prove to be the most significant public health problem associated with cannabis use...
  43. pmc A candidate gene association study of alcohol consumption in young women
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:550-8. 2011
    ..We used data on a previously defined alcohol consumption factor score in a sample of 827 young women to investigate association with 1,014 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes related to addiction...
  44. pmc H2 haplotype at chromosome 17q21.31 protects against childhood sexual abuse-associated risk for alcohol consumption and dependence
    Elliot C Nelson
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
    Addict Biol 15:1-11. 2010
    ..Our results also suggest that severe early trauma may prove to be an important clinical covariate in the treatment of alcohol dependence...
  45. pmc Alcohol consumption indices of genetic risk for alcohol dependence
    Julia D Grant
    Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:795-800. 2009
    ..A high genetic correlation between these measures would suggest that a continuous measure of consumption may have a useful role in the discovery of genes contributing to dependence risk...
  46. pmc Associations of alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and drug use/dependence with educational attainment: evidence from cotwin-control analyses
    Julia D Grant
    Midwest Alcoholism Research Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:1412-20. 2012
    ..We tested whether alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug use and dependence were associated with lifetime educational attainment after controlling for familial background characteristics...
  47. pmc Common genetic contributions to alcohol and cannabis use and dependence symptomatology
    Carolyn E Sartor
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:545-54. 2010
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Association of GABRA2 with drug dependence in the collaborative study of the genetics of alcoholism sample
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA
    Behav Genet 36:640-50. 2006
    ..There was no association with other genes in the GABAA cluster on chromosome 4 with illicit drug dependence...
  49. ncbi request reprint Spousal concordance for alcohol dependence: evidence for assortative mating or spousal interaction effects?
    Julia D Grant
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:717-28. 2007
    ..The primary goal of the present analyses is to test hypotheses about the source(s) and magnitude of spousal associations for AD using a twin-spouse design...
  50. pmc Genetic linkage findings for DSM-IV nicotine withdrawal in two populations
    Michele L Pergadia
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:950-9. 2009
    ..Other studies have reported that chromosome 11 may harbor genes associated with various aspects of smoking behavior. This study adds to that literature by highlighting evidence for NW...
  51. pmc Drinking motives in female smokers: factor structure, alcohol dependence, and genetic influences
    Sean D Kristjansson
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:345-54. 2011
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Clustering of eating disorder symptoms in a general population female twin sample: a latent class analysis
    Alexis E Duncan
    Department of Psychiatry and Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Psychol Med 37:1097-107. 2007
    ..The objective of the current study was to examine the clustering of ED symptoms in a general population sample using latent class analysis (LCA)...
  53. pmc Multiple distinct risk loci for nicotine dependence identified by dense coverage of the complete family of nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes
    Nancy L Saccone
    Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:453-66. 2009
    ....
  54. pmc Smoking outcome expectancies in young adult female smokers: individual differences and associations with nicotine dependence in a genetically informative sample
    Sean D Kristjansson
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 116:37-44. 2011
    ....
  55. pmc Suicidal behavior, smoking, and familial vulnerability
    Jeffrey F Scherrer
    Research Service 151 JC, St Louis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:415-24. 2012
    ..Smoking is a well-established correlate of suicidal behavior. It is not known if familial risk factors contribute to this association...
  56. pmc An Australian twin study of cannabis and other illicit drug use and misuse, and other psychopathology
    Michael T Lynskey
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Twin Res Hum Genet 15:631-41. 2012
    ....
  57. pmc A genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence
    Laura J Bierut
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5082-7. 2010
    ..11 and 1.16. Further dissection of the alcoholism phenotype, to disentangle the influence of comorbid substance-use disorders, will be a next step in identifying genetic variants associated with alcohol dependence...
  58. pmc Incorporating age at onset of smoking into genetic models for nicotine dependence: evidence for interaction with multiple genes
    Richard A Grucza
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addict Biol 15:346-57. 2010
    ..Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation and constitutes a promising avenue for gene discovery...
  59. pmc Genetic and environmental contributions to BMI in adolescent and young adult women
    Alexis E Duncan
    Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1040-3. 2009
    ..Additional research is needed to better characterize the environmental and genetic factors related to BMI in persons of different races to aid understanding of the complex determinants of body weight in individuals...
  60. pmc Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women
    Carolyn E Sartor
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8134, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 102:49-55. 2009
    ..Differences in findings may also reflect a distinct etiological pathway for substance use initiation in African-American women that could not be detected in previous studies...
  61. pmc CHRNB3 is more strongly associated with Fagerström test for cigarette dependence-based nicotine dependence than cigarettes per day: phenotype definition changes genome-wide association studies results
    John P Rice
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addiction 107:2019-28. 2012
    ..e., CPD versus Fagerström test for cigarette dependence (FTCD) score as a measure of nicotine dependence) on genome-wide association studies of nicotine dependence...
  62. pmc How phenotype and developmental stage affect the genes we find: GABRA2 and impulsivity
    Danielle M Dick
    Department of Psychiatry, Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Twin Res Hum Genet 16:661-9. 2013
    ..Phenotypic measurement has been offered as one explanation, although most of this discussion has focused on problems with binary diagnoses...
  63. pmc Examining the association of NRXN3 SNPs with borderline personality disorder phenotypes in heroin dependent cases and socio-economically disadvantaged controls
    Vassilis N Panagopoulos
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 128:187-93. 2013
    ..The current report focuses on the association of neurexin 3 (NRXN3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BPD symptoms in heroin dependent cases and controls...
  64. pmc ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 polymorphisms and heroin dependence: importance of considering drug exposure
    Elliot C Nelson
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    JAMA Psychiatry 70:325-33. 2013
    ..The genetic contribution to liability for opioid dependence is well established; identification of the responsible genes has proved challenging...
  65. pmc The relationship between rs3779084 in the dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene and alcohol consumption is mediated by drinking motives in regular smokers
    Sean D Kristjansson
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:162-70. 2012
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Subtypes of illicit drug users: a latent class analysis of data from an Australian twin sample
    Michael T Lynskey
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, United States of America
    Twin Res Hum Genet 9:523-30. 2006
    ..Aggregation of population-level data may obscure important subgroup differences in patterns of illicit drug use and psychiatric comorbidity. Further exploration of a 'self-medicating' subgroup is needed...
  67. ncbi request reprint Correlates of regular cigarette smoking in a population-based sample of Australian twins
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Addiction 100:1709-19. 2005
    ..Design Members of monozygotic and dizygotic, including unlike-sex twin pairs (n = 6257) from a young adult cohort from the Australian Twin Registry...
  68. ncbi request reprint Marital status, alcohol dependence, and GABRA2: evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction
    Danielle M Dick
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Box 8134, 660 South Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    J Stud Alcohol 67:185-94. 2006
    ..This article explores how this genetic risk factor interacts with marital status, another factor previously shown to be associated with the risk for alcohol dependence...
  69. pmc Genetic linkage to chromosome 22q12 for a heavy-smoking quantitative trait in two independent samples
    Scott F Saccone
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 80:856-66. 2007
    ..Fine mapping of this linkage region may reveal variants contributing to heaviness of smoking, which will lead to a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence...
  70. pmc A quantitative-trait genome-wide association study of alcoholism risk in the community: findings and implications
    Andrew C Heath
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 70:513-8. 2011
    ....
  71. pmc A 3p26-3p25 genetic linkage finding for DSM-IV major depression in heavy smoking families
    Michele L Pergadia
    Department of Psychiatry, WashingtonUniversity School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 168:848-52. 2011
    ..The authors tested for genetic linkage of DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder in families that were ascertained for cigarette smoking...
  72. pmc A cotwin-control analysis of drug use and abuse/dependence risk associated with early-onset cannabis use
    Julia D Grant
    The Midwest Alcoholism Research Center at Washington University, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Addict Behav 35:35-41. 2010
    ..In contrast to previous research, there is limited evidence for increased risk associated with early-onset use in this sample of Vietnam-era veterans...
  73. pmc Autosomal linkage analysis for cannabis use behaviors in Australian adults
    Arpana Agrawal
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 98:185-90. 2008
    ....
  74. pmc Genetic and environmental influences on the rate of progression to alcohol dependence in young women
    Carolyn E Sartor
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:632-8. 2008
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk
    Danielle M Dick
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Addiction 102:1131-9. 2007
    ....
  76. pmc Correlates of alcohol abuse/dependence in early-onset alcohol-using women
    Mitchell B Jenkins
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Addict 20:429-34. 2011
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint The implications of simultaneous smoking initiation for inferences about the genetics of smoking behavior from twin data
    Michele L Pergadia
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63100, USA
    Behav Genet 36:567-76. 2006
    ..68%). These results indicate the important social influences that may occur for smoking initiation do not appear to seriously bias estimates of genetic effects on later stages of smoking...
  78. pmc Genetically informative research on adolescent substance use: methods, findings, and challenges
    Michael T Lynskey
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:1202-14. 2010
    ..To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents...
  79. ncbi request reprint Is there evidence for symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in the national epidemiologic survey of alcohol and related conditions?
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Am J Addict 17:199-208. 2008
    ..Evidence from this and prior studies demonstrating withdrawal strongly suggest that future editions of DSM need to reconsider the exclusion of withdrawal from criteria for cannabis dependence...
  80. pmc Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach
    Alexis E Duncan
    George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 116:222-7. 2011
    ..Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct...
  81. ncbi request reprint Assortative mating for cigarette smoking and for alcohol consumption in female Australian twins and their spouses
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid, 8134, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Behav Genet 36:553-66. 2006
    ..We aim to clarify the mechanisms contributing to spousal similarity for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption...
  82. pmc The association between DSM-IV nicotine dependence and stressful life events in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
    Emily Balk
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 35:85-90. 2009
    ..While both ND and SLEs have been studied extensively in relation to other variables, there are few instances in which they have been investigated in concert...
  83. pmc Disentangling the complex association between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol-related problems: a review of methodological issues and approaches
    Carolyn E Sartor
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8134, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 69:718-27. 2008
    ..Additional directions for research, including the incorporation of measured genes and the use of longitudinal designs, are proposed to further efforts to model the pathways from CSA to alcohol-related problems...
  84. pmc Nicotine withdrawal symptoms in adolescent and adult twins
    Michele L Pergadia
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Twin Res Hum Genet 13:359-69. 2010
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Cannabis and other illicit drugs: comorbid use and abuse/dependence in males and females
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Human Genetics, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    Behav Genet 34:217-28. 2004
    ..Overall, our results suggest that the use and abuse/dependence of cannabis and other illicit drugs are strongly linked via common risk factors that jointly influence their individual liabilities...
  86. doi request reprint Long-term stability and heritability of telephone interview measures of alcohol consumption and dependence
    Narelle K Hansell
    Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Brisbane Hospital, Queensland, 4029, Australia
    Twin Res Hum Genet 11:287-305. 2008
    ..42 to .51 for dependence and from .31 to .51 for consumption. Consumption was significantly less heritable in the younger Phase 2 cohort (23-39 years) compared to the older Phase 1 cohort (28-90 years)...
  87. ncbi request reprint Forms of cannabis and cocaine: a twin study
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0003, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 129:125-8. 2004
    ..These findings also reinforce the validity of composite variables in epidemiological and genetic research...
  88. ncbi request reprint A twin study of early cannabis use and subsequent use and abuse/dependence of other illicit drugs
    Arpana Agrawal
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Human Genetics, Richmond, VA 23298 0003, USA
    Psychol Med 34:1227-37. 2004
    ..Gateway and common liabilities models have been employed to explain this relationship. We sought to examine this association using a combination of the discordant twin design and modeling methods...
  89. ncbi request reprint The differential impact of risk factors on illicit drug involvement in females
    Arpana Agrawal
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Dept of Human Genetics, Richmond, VA, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40:454-66. 2005
    ..Are there risk factors that associate with illicit drug use or illicit drug abuse/dependence? Is the magnitude of the association the same for use and abuse/dependence? Does this pattern of association differ across categories of drugs?..
  90. ncbi request reprint A population based twin study of sex differences in depressive symptoms
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond 23298, USA
    Twin Res 7:176-81. 2004
    ..Our analyses suggest that while there may be mean differences in the levels of depressive symptoms across sexes, the genetic and environmental factors that predispose males and females to depressive symptoms are not different...
  91. ncbi request reprint A twin study of personality and illicit drug use and abuse/dependence
    Arpana Agrawal
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Depts Of Human Genetics and Psychiatry, Richmond, USA
    Twin Res 7:72-81. 2004
    ..NS was most closely related to cannabis use while N showed significant genetic overlap with sedative use. NS in males appears to be a good indicator of risk for cannabis use. This result may be useful for candidate gene studies...