Michael N Sawka

Summary

Affiliation: Walter Reed Army Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress
    Michael N Sawka
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, USA
    Compr Physiol 1:1883-928. 2011
  2. ncbi request reprint Human water needs
    Michael N Sawka
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Nutr Rev 63:S30-9. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Intermittent microclimate cooling during exercise-heat stress in US army chemical protective clothing
    Bruce S Cadarette
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Ergonomics 49:209-19. 2006
  4. doi request reprint Efficacy of body ventilation system for reducing strain in warm and hot climates
    Troy D Chinevere
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Boston, MA 01757, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 103:307-14. 2008
  5. doi request reprint Prior heat stress: effect on subsequent 15-min time trial performance in the heat
    Robert W Kenefick
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:1311-6. 2009
  6. doi request reprint Effect of hypohydration and altitude exposure on aerobic exercise performance and acute mountain sickness
    John W Castellani
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 42 Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 109:1792-800. 2010
  7. doi request reprint DEET insect repellent: effects on thermoregulatory sweating and physiological strain
    Robert W Kenefick
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 111:3061-8. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Seven intermittent exposures to altitude improves exercise performance at 4300 m
    Beth A Beidleman
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:141-8. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Impact of a protective vest and spacer garment on exercise-heat strain
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 102:577-83. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Water-deficit equation: systematic analysis and improvement
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 97:79-85. 2013

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. doi request reprint Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress
    Michael N Sawka
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, USA
    Compr Physiol 1:1883-928. 2011
    ..Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA...
  2. ncbi request reprint Human water needs
    Michael N Sawka
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Nutr Rev 63:S30-9. 2005
    ..7 L for adult women meets the needs of the vast majority of persons. However, strenuous physical exercise and heat stress can greatly increase daily water needs, and the individual variability between athletes can be substantial...
  3. ncbi request reprint Intermittent microclimate cooling during exercise-heat stress in US army chemical protective clothing
    Bruce S Cadarette
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Ergonomics 49:209-19. 2006
    ..m(-2)) ( p < 0.05). These findings suggest that IC provided a favourable skin to LCG gradient for heat dissipation by conduction and reduced heat strain comparable to CC during exercise-heat stress in chemical protective clothing...
  4. doi request reprint Efficacy of body ventilation system for reducing strain in warm and hot climates
    Troy D Chinevere
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Boston, MA 01757, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 103:307-14. 2008
    ..05), but not HW. These results indicate that BVS(On) reduces physiological strain in all three environments by a similar amount; however, in hot-dry conditions the BVS(Off) increases physiological strain...
  5. doi request reprint Prior heat stress: effect on subsequent 15-min time trial performance in the heat
    Robert W Kenefick
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:1311-6. 2009
    ..The impact of prior heat stress on subsequent aerobic exercise-heat performance has not been studied...
  6. doi request reprint Effect of hypohydration and altitude exposure on aerobic exercise performance and acute mountain sickness
    John W Castellani
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 42 Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 109:1792-800. 2010
    ..07). In conclusion, hypohydration at 3,048 m 1) degrades aerobic performance in an additive manner with that induced by ALT; and 2) did not appear to increase the prevalence/severity of AMS symptoms...
  7. doi request reprint DEET insect repellent: effects on thermoregulatory sweating and physiological strain
    Robert W Kenefick
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 111:3061-8. 2011
    ..DEET can be safely worn during military, occupational and recreational activities in hot, insect infested environments...
  8. ncbi request reprint Seven intermittent exposures to altitude improves exercise performance at 4300 m
    Beth A Beidleman
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:141-8. 2008
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Impact of a protective vest and spacer garment on exercise-heat strain
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 102:577-83. 2008
    ..05). SR was higher (P < 0.05) in P and S versus B, but the magnitude of differences was small. A protective vest increases physiological strain independent of added load, while a spacer garment does not alter this outcome...
  10. doi request reprint Water-deficit equation: systematic analysis and improvement
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 97:79-85. 2013
    ..Several equation assumptions may limit its accuracy, but none have been systematically tested...
  11. doi request reprint No effect of nutritional adenosine receptor antagonists on exercise performance in the heat
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R394-401. 2009
    ..05) or the self-selected pacing strategy employed. These findings indicate that the nutritional adenosine receptor antagonists caffeine and quercetin do not enhance endurance exercise performance during compensable heat stress...
  12. doi request reprint Serum S-100beta response to exercise-heat strain before and after acclimation
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1477-82. 2008
    ..However, the explanatory power of exercise with marked environmental heat stress on the appearance of S-100beta is questionable. It is possible that the process of heat acclimation might afford additional insight...
  13. doi request reprint A simple and valid method to determine thermoregulatory sweating threshold and sensitivity
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 107:69-75. 2009
    ..Rater and SReg were not different by conventional t-test (P > 0.05). SReg provides a simple, valid, and standardized way to determine sweating threshold temperature and sweating sensitivity values for thermoregulatory studies...
  14. doi request reprint Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 109:1989-95. 2010
    ..Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases...
  15. ncbi request reprint White blood cell and hormonal responses to 4300 m altitude before and after intermittent altitude exposure
    Beth A Beidleman
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Clin Sci (Lond) 111:163-9. 2006
    ..This method of pre-acclimatization can therefore be highly recommended for inducing altitude acclimatization without the 'altitude residency' requirement...
  16. ncbi request reprint Comparison of sweat loss estimates for women during prolonged high-intensity running
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1344-50. 2002
    ..This study evaluated the error produced by four commonly used field estimates and two prediction equations of total body sweat loss...
  17. ncbi request reprint Hypohydration impairs endurance exercise performance in temperate but not cold air
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 99:1972-6. 2005
    ..05). These data demonstrate that 1) HYP impairs endurance exercise performance in temperate but not cold air but 2) cold stress per se does not...
  18. ncbi request reprint No effect of moderate hypohydration or hyperthermia on anaerobic exercise performance
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1093-7. 2006
    ..This study examined the effects of hypohydration and moderate hyperthermia (core temperature elevation) on anaerobic exercise performance in a temperate environment...
  19. doi request reprint Biological and analytical variation of the human sweating response: implications for study design and analysis
    Robert W Kenefick
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302:R252-8. 2012
    ..changes in SR. These findings provide a quantitative basis for study design and optimization of power/sample size analysis in the evaluation of thermoregulatory sweating...
  20. doi request reprint Hydration effects on cognitive performance during military tasks in temperate and cold environments
    Gina E Adam
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Physiol Behav 93:748-56. 2008
    ..Moderate HYP had no effect on cognitive and psychomotor performance in either environment, cold exposure produced equivocal effects, and aerobic exercise improved some aspects of military task performance...
  21. doi request reprint High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance
    Michael N Sawka
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 42 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Exp Physiol 97:327-32. 2012
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Limitations of salivary osmolality as a marker of hydration status
    Brett R Ely
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1080-4. 2011
    ..Salivary osmolality (Sosm) is a potentially useful hydration marker but may be confounded by oral artifacts...
  23. doi request reprint Reference change values for monitoring dehydration
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Clin Chem Lab Med 49:1033-7. 2011
    ..A secondary purpose was to validate use of the tool by dehydrating a group of volunteers...
  24. ncbi request reprint Hydration at the work site
    Robert W Kenefick
    United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 42 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    J Am Coll Nutr 26:597S-603S. 2007
    ..Improved occupational guidelines for fluid and electrolyte replacement during hot weather occupational activities should be developed to include recommendations for fluid consumption before, during, and after work...
  25. doi request reprint Aerobic performance is degraded, despite modest hyperthermia, in hot environments
    Brett R Ely
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:135-41. 2010
    ..Environmental heat stress degrades aerobic performance; however, little research has focused on performance when the selected task elicits modest elevations in core body temperature (<38.5 degrees C)...
  26. doi request reprint Hydration assessment using the cardiovascular response to standing
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 112:4081-9. 2012
    ..SSΔHR increased significantly in response to severe hypertonic hypohydration and moderate isotonic hypohydration, but not moderate hypertonic hypohydration. However, the 20 beats/min cut point afforded only marginal diagnostic accuracy...
  27. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the limits to accurate sweat loss prediction during prolonged exercise
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 101:215-24. 2007
    ..Adjustments for NSL and clothing saturation dynamics help explain SHAP errors at 2 and 8 h, respectively. These results provide a basis for future development of accurate algorithms with broader utility...
  28. ncbi request reprint Daily body mass variability and stability in active men undergoing exercise-heat stress
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14:532-40. 2004
    ..The data also suggest that daily BM is a sufficiently stable physiological parameter for potential daily fluid balance monitoring...
  29. ncbi request reprint Glycerol hyperhydration: physiological responses during cold-air exposure
    Catherine O'Brien
    Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 99:515-21. 2005
    ..Differences in urine flow rate and fluid retention were the result of a greater free water clearance with WI. These data indicate glycerol can be an effective hyperhydrating agent during CAE...
  30. doi request reprint Biological variation and diagnostic accuracy of dehydration assessment markers
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:565-73. 2010
    ..Well-recognized markers for static (one time) or dynamic (monitoring over time) dehydration assessment have not been rigorously tested for their usefulness in clinical, military, and sports medicine communities...
  31. doi request reprint United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years
    Kent B Pandolf
    United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760 5007, USA
    Adv Physiol Educ 35:353-60. 2011
    ..This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr...
  32. ncbi request reprint Exercise-heat acclimation in humans alters baseline levels and ex vivo heat inducibility of HSP72 and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    James P McClung
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R185-91. 2008
    ..These data demonstrate that physiological adaptations in humans undergoing HA are accompanied by both increases in baseline levels and changes in regulation of cytoprotective HSPs...
  33. doi request reprint Hypohydration reduces vertical ground reaction impulse but not jump height
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 109:1163-70. 2010
    ..05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the failure to improve jump height when HYP can be explained by offsetting reductions in both VGRI and body mass...
  34. ncbi request reprint Reflective inserts to reduce heat strain in body armor: tests with and without irradiance
    Bruce S Cadarette
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 78:809-13. 2007
    ..This study evaluated adding reflective thermal inserts (RTI) to reduce the physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with a radiant load. RTI were used with a U.S. Army desert battle dress uniform, body armor, and helmet...
  35. ncbi request reprint Cold thermoregulatory responses following exertional fatigue
    John W Castellani
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2:854-65. 2010
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and human performance when hypohydrated in the heat
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 97:1275-82. 2004
    ..BC did not alter time-trial performance, cognitive performance, mood, perceived exertion, or perceived thermal comfort. We conclude that BCAA does not alter exercise or cognitive performance in the heat when subjects are hypohydrated...
  37. doi request reprint Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 97:455-62. 2013
    ..Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment...
  38. doi request reprint Thermal face protection delays finger cooling and improves thermal comfort during cold air exposure
    Catherine O'Brien
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 111:3097-105. 2011
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of hospitalizations and deaths from heat illness in soldiers
    Robert Carter
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1338-44. 2005
    ..Serious heat illness has received considerable recent attention due to catastrophic heat waves in the United States and Europe, the deaths of high-profile athletes, and military deployments...
  40. ncbi request reprint Fluid balance and endurance exercise performance
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, 42 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Curr Sports Med Rep 2:202-8. 2003
    ..This can usually be achieved with fluid intakes of under 1 L x h(-1)...
  41. ncbi request reprint Upper body cooling during exercise-heat stress wearing the improved toxicological agent protective system for HAZMAT operations
    Bruce S Cadarette
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas St, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    AIHA J (Fairfax, Va) 64:510-5. 2003
    ..PICS could also be used with civilian Levels A and B PPE increasing work time and worker safety...
  42. doi request reprint Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing
    Catherine O'Brien
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760 5007, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 8:588-99. 2011
    ..By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards...
  43. doi request reprint Effect of heat acclimation on sweat minerals
    Troy D Chinevere
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:886-91. 2008
    ..This study examined the impact of 10 d of exercise-heat acclimation on sweat mineral concentrations...
  44. ncbi request reprint Heat exhaustion and dehydration as causes of marathon collapse
    Robert W Kenefick
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760, USA
    Sports Med 37:378-81. 2007
    ..Other factors contributing to post-race collapse might include reduced skeletal muscle pump activity and dehydration and prior heat stress mediated changes in cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic challenges...
  45. ncbi request reprint Fluid replacement and performance during the marathon
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760 5007, USA
    Sports Med 37:353-7. 2007
    ..Recommendations are provided to individualise fluid intakes with the goal of preventing excessive dehydration (>2% body mass) as well as weight gain. The minor importance of 'matters of debate' to fluid replacement is also discussed...
  46. ncbi request reprint Ventilation after supplemental oxygen administration at high altitude
    Stephen R Muza
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 15:18-24. 2004
    ..The present study assessed the effects of acute hyperoxia on resting-minute ventilation (VE) during altitude acclimatization to 4300 m...
  47. ncbi request reprint Hypohydration and prior heat stress exacerbates decreases in cerebral blood flow velocity during standing
    Robert Carter
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760, USA
    J Appl Physiol 101:1744-50. 2006
    ..These observations suggest that hypohydration and prior heat stress are associated with greater reductions in CBFV with greater CVR, which likely contribute to orthostatic intolerance...
  48. ncbi request reprint Heat strain reduction by ice-based and vapor compression liquid cooling systems with a toxic agent protective uniform
    Bruce S Cadarette
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 73:665-72. 2002
    ..It was hypothesized that the cooling systems would be equally effective, and total body cooling would allow 4 h of physical work in the heat while wearing STEPO...
  49. ncbi request reprint A case report of idiosyncratic hyperthermia and review of U.S. Army heat stroke hospitalizations
    Robert Carter
    CRRSA, Department of Human Factors, France
    J Sport Rehabil 16:238-43. 2007
    ..S. Army. It is known that prior infection is a risk factor for heat illness and some of the 37 heat stroke deaths cited infections (eg, pneumonia, influenza) in the medical records...
  50. ncbi request reprint Pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-thyroid hormone responses during exercise-cold exposure after 7 days of exhaustive exercise
    John W Castellani
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Natick, MA 01760 5007, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 73:544-50. 2002
    ..The effects of exertional fatigue on pituitary-adrenal hormones and thyroid hormone responses to exercise-cold stress are unknown...
  51. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of intermittent, regional microclimate cooling
    Samuel N Cheuvront
    United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760 5007, USA
    J Appl Physiol 94:1841-8. 2003
    ..These findings indicate that the IRC approach to MCC is a more efficient means of cooling when compared with CC paradigms and can improve MCC capacity by reducing power requirements...
  52. ncbi request reprint Intermittent altitude exposures improve muscular performance at 4,300 m
    Beth A Beidleman
    Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760, USA
    J Appl Physiol 95:1824-32. 2003
    ..IAE may therefore be used as an alternative to chronic altitude residence to facilitate improvements in muscular performance in athletes, soldiers, mountaineers, shift workers, and others that are deployed to altitude...
  53. ncbi request reprint Thermoregulatory function during the marathon
    Robert W Kenefick
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760, USA
    Sports Med 37:312-5. 2007
    ..The combined challenge of exercise and environment associated with marathon running can substantially challenge the human thermoregulatory system...
  54. ncbi request reprint Exertional heat injury and gene expression changes: a DNA microarray analysis study
    Larry A Sonna
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Div, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    J Appl Physiol 96:1943-53. 2004
    ..The molecular evidence from these patients is thus consistent with the hypothesis that EHI can result from cumulative effects of multiple adverse interacting stimuli...
  55. ncbi request reprint Intermittent altitude exposures reduce acute mountain sickness at 4300 m
    Beth A Beidleman
    Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
    Clin Sci (Lond) 106:321-8. 2004
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that 3 weeks of IAE provide an effective alternative to chronic altitude residence for increasing resting ventilation and reducing the incidence and severity of AMS...
  56. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of revised fluid replacement guidelines for military training in hot weather
    Margaret A Kolka
    Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 5001, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 74:242-6. 2003
    ..S. Army fluid replacement guidelines (REV) with the old guidelines (OLD) on daily changes in serum sodium concentration (Na+) and body mass (BM) during Basic Combat Training at Fort Benning, GA during two successive summers...
  57. ncbi request reprint Does dehydration impair exercise performance?
    Michael N Sawka
    U S Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine Natick, MA, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1209-17. 2007
  58. ncbi request reprint American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement
    Michael N Sawka
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:377-90. 2007
    ..After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited...
  59. ncbi request reprint How hot is the human body?
    Michael N Sawka
    J Appl Physiol 103:419-20. 2007
  60. ncbi request reprint Water and electrolyte needs for football training and match-play
    Susan M Shirreffs
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, UK
    J Sports Sci 24:699-707. 2006
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Exertional heat illness and human gene expression
    Larry A Sonna
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Prog Brain Res 162:321-46. 2007
    ....