Charles W Hoge

Summary

Affiliation: Walter Reed Army Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Strengthening the validity of population-based suicide rate comparisons: an illustration using U.S. military and civilian data
    Karen M Eaton
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Department of Military Psychiatry at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, MD 20910, USA
    Suicide Life Threat Behav 36:182-91. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Post-traumatic stress disorder in UK and US forces deployed to Iraq
    Charles W Hoge
    Lancet 368:837; author reply 837. 2006
  3. pmc Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort
    Molly L Kelton
    Department of Defense Center for Deployment Health Research at the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:94. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, USA
    JAMA 295:1023-32. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Commentary: women in combat and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Medical Research and Material Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 36:327-9. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic symptoms, health care visits, and absenteeism among Iraq war veterans
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:150-3. 2007
  7. doi request reprint Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:453-63. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq
    Jeffrey L Thomas
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Military Psychiatry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:614-23. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of mental health problems, treatment need, and barriers to care among primary care-seeking spouses of military service members involved in Iraq and Afghanistan deployments
    Karen M Eaton
    Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring MD 20910, USA
    Mil Med 173:1051-6. 2008
  10. doi request reprint U.S. military mental health care utilization and attrition prior to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
    Abigail L Garvey Wilson
    George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 44:473-81. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi request reprint Strengthening the validity of population-based suicide rate comparisons: an illustration using U.S. military and civilian data
    Karen M Eaton
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Department of Military Psychiatry at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, MD 20910, USA
    Suicide Life Threat Behav 36:182-91. 2006
    ..Direct adjustment essentially controlled for the demographic confounds in this sample. Applying the Poisson-based method, we demonstrate that suicide rate fluctuations as large as 20-40% in any year may be attributed to random error...
  2. ncbi request reprint Post-traumatic stress disorder in UK and US forces deployed to Iraq
    Charles W Hoge
    Lancet 368:837; author reply 837. 2006
  3. pmc Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort
    Molly L Kelton
    Department of Defense Center for Deployment Health Research at the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:94. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors...
  4. ncbi request reprint Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, USA
    JAMA 295:1023-32. 2006
    ..To date, no systematic analysis of this program has been conducted, and studies have not assessed the impact of these deployments on mental health care utilization after deployment...
  5. ncbi request reprint Commentary: women in combat and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Medical Research and Material Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 36:327-9. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic symptoms, health care visits, and absenteeism among Iraq war veterans
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:150-3. 2007
    ..The current Iraq war has posed a considerable PTSD risk, but the association with physical health has not been well studied...
  7. doi request reprint Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:453-63. 2008
    ..However, the epidemiology of combat-related mild traumatic brain injury is poorly understood...
  8. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq
    Jeffrey L Thomas
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Military Psychiatry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:614-23. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of mental health problems, treatment need, and barriers to care among primary care-seeking spouses of military service members involved in Iraq and Afghanistan deployments
    Karen M Eaton
    Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring MD 20910, USA
    Mil Med 173:1051-6. 2008
    ..Services were most often received from primary care physicians, rather than specialty mental health professionals, which may relate to the lack of availability of mental health services for spouses on military installations...
  10. doi request reprint U.S. military mental health care utilization and attrition prior to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
    Abigail L Garvey Wilson
    George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 44:473-81. 2009
    ..This study establishes baseline rates of mental health care utilization in military mental health clinics in 2000 and serves as a comparison for future studies of the mental health care burden of the current war...
  11. doi request reprint Post-combat invincibility: violent combat experiences are associated with increased risk-taking propensity following deployment
    William D S Killgore
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 42:1112-21. 2008
    ..Findings highlight the importance of education and counseling for returning service members to mitigate the public health consequences of elevated risk-propensity associated with combat exposure...
  12. ncbi request reprint Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    N Engl J Med 351:13-22. 2004
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Relationship of combat experiences to alcohol misuse among U.S. soldiers returning from the Iraq war
    Joshua E Wilk
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 108:115-21. 2010
    ..The current study examined the association of specific types of combat experiences with a positive screen for alcohol misuse...
  14. doi request reprint Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) during combat: lack of association of blast mechanism with persistent postconcussive symptoms
    Joshua E Wilk
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
    J Head Trauma Rehabil 25:9-14. 2010
    ..To determine whether screening for a blast mechanism of concussion identifies individuals at higher risk of persistent postconcussive symptoms (PCS)...
  15. ncbi request reprint The occupational burden of mental disorders in theU.S. military: psychiatric hospitalizations, involuntary separations, and disability
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:585-91. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to characterize the risk and reasons for service separation for soldiers hospitalized with mental disorders compared with those hospitalized for other illnesses...
  16. doi request reprint Application of a new method for linking anonymous survey data in a population of soldiers returning from Iraq
    Abigail L Garvey Wilson
    George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 20:931-8. 2010
    ..The research purpose is to validate the use of a linkage method on anonymous survey data for longitudinal analysis...
  17. doi request reprint Unethical battlefield conduct reported by soldiers serving in the Iraq war
    Joshua E Wilk
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 201:259-65. 2013
    ..30) and specific combat experiences (particularly, witnessing war atrocities [β = 0.14] and fighting [β = 0.13]) are much more strongly associated with unethical conduct than is PTSD (β = 0.04)...
  18. doi request reprint Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion), posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in U.S. soldiers involved in combat deployments: association with postdeployment symptoms
    Joshua E Wilk
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
    Psychosom Med 74:249-57. 2012
    ..This study examined the associations of single and multiple deployment-related mTBIs on postdeployment health...
  19. doi request reprint Stability of combat exposure recall in Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans
    Abigail L Garvey Wilson
    George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 20:939-47. 2010
    ..The research purpose is to assess whether recall of combat exposures is consistent at different time points; if not, what demographic and/or PTSD symptom risk factors exist for any directional instability...
  20. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war
    Charles S Milliken
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
    JAMA 298:2141-8. 2007
    ..A previous article focusing only on the initial screening is likely to have underestimated the mental health burden...
  21. ncbi request reprint Assessing risk propensity in American soldiers: preliminary reliability and validity of the Evaluation of Risks (EVAR) scale--English version
    William D S Killgore
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Mil Med 171:233-9. 2006
    ..The data support the reliability and validity of the English version of the EVAR for evaluating risk propensity in U.S. soldiers...
  22. ncbi request reprint Stigma, barriers to care, and use of mental health services among active duty and National Guard soldiers after combat
    Paul Y Kim
    Department of Military Psychiatry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 61:582-8. 2010
    ..Stigma and barriers to care were also reported for each component (active duty and National Guard)...
  23. doi request reprint Grief and physical health outcomes in U.S. soldiers returning from combat
    Robin L Toblin
    Military Psychiatry Branch, Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Affect Disord 136:469-75. 2012
    ..We aimed to identify the prevalence of post-deployment physical health problems and their association with difficulty coping with grief...
  24. ncbi request reprint Preliminary normative data for the Evaluation of Risks Scale-Bubble Sheet Version (EVAR-B) for large-scale surveys of returning combat veterans
    William D S Killgore
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Mil Med 175:725-31. 2010
    ..This report provides preliminary reliability, validity, and normative data on a modified version of the instrument designed to facilitate data entry with optical scanners, the Evaluation of Risks-Bubble Sheet version (EVAR-B)...
  25. ncbi request reprint The effects of prior combat experience on the expression of somatic and affective symptoms in deploying soldiers
    William D S Killgore
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Psychosom Res 60:379-85. 2006
    ..It was hypothesized that, when faced with an impending wartime deployment, soldiers with prior combat experience would report minimal emotional problems accompanied by high rates of somatic complaints compared with combat-naive soldiers...
  26. ncbi request reprint Development of a brief questionnaire to measure mental health outcomes among Pentagon employees following the September 11, 2001 attack
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 20307, USA
    Mil Med 167:60-3. 2002
    ..Further analyses will assess the usefulness of this questionnaire as a public health tool for rapid assessment of mental health symptoms following the attack...
  27. doi request reprint Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with combat service in Iraq or Afghanistan: reconciling prevalence differences between studies
    Brian C Kok
    Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 200:444-50. 2012
    ..7) in operational infantry units. Both population-level and unit-specific studies provided valuable and unique information for public health purposes; understanding the military context is essential for interpreting prevalence studies...
  28. ncbi request reprint Priorities for psychiatric research in the U.S. military: an epidemiological approach
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Washington, DC 20307, USA
    Mil Med 168:182-5. 2003
    ..The highly structured occupational environment of the military lends itself to studies of preventive interventions designed to reduce disability or occupational attrition resulting from mental/behavioral problems...
  29. doi request reprint Coming home may hurt: risk factors for mental ill health in US reservists after deployment in Iraq
    Lyndon A Riviere
    Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland, MD 20910, USA
    Br J Psychiatry 198:136-42. 2011
    ..Little research has been conducted on the factors that may explain the higher rates of mental health problems in United States National Guard soldiers who have deployed to the Iraq War...
  30. doi request reprint Mental health outcomes in US and UK military personnel returning from Iraq
    Josefin Sundin
    Josefin Sundin, PhD, King s College London, Academic Centre for Defence Mental Health ACDMH, London, UK Richard K Herrell, PhD, Charles W Hoge, MD, Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA Nicola T Fear, DPhil Oxon, King s College London, King s Centre for Military Health Research KCMHR, London, UK Amy B Adler, PhD, US Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Heidelberg, Germany Neil Greenberg, MD, King s College London, Academic Centre for Defence Mental Health ACDMH, London, UK Lyndon A Riviere, PhD, Jeffrey L Thomas, PhD, Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, Maryland, Germany
    Br J Psychiatry 204:200-7. 2014
    ..Research of military personnel who deployed to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan has suggested that there are differences in mental health outcomes between UK and US military personnel...
  31. doi request reprint Modifying instructions on the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for military populations does not change symptom reporting
    Lyndon A Riviere
    Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 199:199-202. 2011
    ..The findings indicate that researchers may make modifications to the PCL instructions to meet research needs without affecting PTSD symptom reporting or prevalence estimates...
  32. ncbi request reprint Principles guiding implementation of the Operation Solace plan: "Pieces of PIES," therapy by walking around, and care management
    Charles S Milliken
    Operation Solace, Department of Psychiatry, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307, USA
    Mil Med 167:48-57. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Projecting mental disorder prevalence from national surveys to populations-of-interest--an illustration using ECA data and the U. S. Army
    Stephen C Messer
    Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 39:419-26. 2004
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Mental disorders among U.S. military personnel in the 1990s: association with high levels of health care utilization and early military attrition
    Charles W Hoge
    Department of Psychiatry, Deployment Health Clinic Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 159:1576-83. 2002
    ..However, measurement of the burden of mental disorders by using population-based methods in large working populations, such as the U.S. military, has been limited...
  35. ncbi request reprint Contrasting approaches to psychological screening with U.S. combat soldiers
    Kathleen M Wright
    U S Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Trauma Stress 20:965-75. 2007
    ..A composite screen with measures of posttraumatic stress, depression, and alcohol problems, along with a single self-referral item, performed most effectively...
  36. doi request reprint Validating the primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist with soldiers returning from combat
    Paul D Bliese
    US Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Consult Clin Psychol 76:272-81. 2008
    ..Item analyses also identified that the most discriminate item in both scales pertained to symptoms of avoidance. Implications and limitations are discussed...
  37. ncbi request reprint Mental health impact of 9/11 Pentagon attack: validation of a rapid assessment tool
    Nikki N Jordan
    U S Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Directorate of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Edgewood, Maryland 21010, USA
    Am J Prev Med 26:284-93. 2004
    ..The PPDHA was fielded from October 15, 2001, to January 15, 2002. Fundamental in this assessment was the evaluation of the mental health impact as a result of the attack...
  38. doi request reprint Battlemind debriefing and battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from iraq: Randomization by platoon
    Amy B Adler
    U S Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Consult Clin Psychol 77:928-40. 2009
    ..Findings demonstrate that brief early interventions have the potential to be effective with at-risk occupational groups...
  39. ncbi request reprint Operation Solace: overview of the mental health intervention following the September 11, 2001 Pentagon attack
    Charles W Hoge
    Behavioral Health Division, Health Policy and Services Directorate, US Army Medical Command, Fort Sam, Houston, TX 78234, USA
    Mil Med 167:44-7. 2002
    ..S. mass casualty scenarios. This article summarizes the goals, methods, and rationale used to develop the plan, as well as the key elements of the behavioral health intervention developed in response to the attack...
  40. ncbi request reprint Childhood adversity and combat as predictors of depression and post-traumatic stress in deployed troops
    Oscar A Cabrera
    U S Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Prev Med 33:77-82. 2007
    ..To date, no comprehensive studies of childhood adversity have been conducted with military samples that have included combat troops before and after a combat deployment...
  41. ncbi request reprint A2 diagnostic criterion for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder
    Amy B Adler
    US Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Trauma Stress 21:301-8. 2008
    ..The A2 criterion for PTSD should be expanded so as not to underestimate the number of individuals trained for high-risk occupations who might benefit from treatment...
  42. ncbi request reprint Characteristics of repeat users of an inpatient psychiatry service at a large military tertiary care hospital
    William V Bobo
    Department of Psychiatry, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 20307, USA
    Mil Med 169:648-53. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and demographic variables that correlated with readmission to a large tertiary care military psychiatric inpatient service located in the Washington, DC area...
  43. ncbi request reprint Suicide surveillance in the U.S. Military--reporting and classification biases in rate calculations
    Joel R Carr
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Neuropsychiatry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Suicide Life Threat Behav 34:233-41. 2004
    ..These findings are comparable to rates seen in civilian studies and add to the literature regarding the problems inherent in using administrative death classification data for medical surveillance purposes...
  44. ncbi request reprint Pentagon employees after September 11, 2001
    Charles W Hoge
    Psychiatr Serv 55:319-20; author reply 320. 2004
  45. doi request reprint Re: "Psychiatric diagnoses in historic and contemporary military cohorts: combat deployment and the healthy warrior effect
    Charles W Hoge
    Am J Epidemiol 168:1095-6; author reply 1096-8. 2008
  46. ncbi request reprint Deployment to the Iraq war and neuropsychological sequelae
    Charles W Hoge
    JAMA 296:2678-9; author reply 2679-80. 2006
  47. ncbi request reprint Estimating population prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder: an example using the PTSD checklist
    Artin Terhakopian
    Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Trauma Stress 21:290-300. 2008
    ..In populations with a true PTSD prevalence of 15% or less, cutoff values below 44 will substantially overestimate PTSD prevalence. Uncalibrated use of the PCL for prevalence estimation may lead to large errors...
  48. pmc The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort
    Tyler C Smith
    Department of Defense Center for Deployment Health Research, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, USA
    BMC Public Health 7:340. 2007
    ..Effective military operations require optimal health of deployed service members, and both mental and physical health can be affected by military operations...
  49. ncbi request reprint Millennium Cohort: the 2001-2003 baseline prevalence of mental disorders in the U.S. military
    James R Riddle
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 60:192-201. 2007
    ..The mental health of service members affects organizational productivity and effectiveness and is of great importance to the health of U.S. military members and public health in general...
  50. ncbi request reprint Psychological screening procedures for deploying U.S. Forces
    Kathleen M Wright
    U S Army Medical Research Unit Europe, Heidelberg, Germany
    Mil Med 170:555-62. 2005
    ..Construct validity and content validity were demonstrated. Risks, benefits, and future directions of the Army's psychological screening research program are discussed...
  51. ncbi request reprint Screening for psychological illness in the military
    Kathleen M Wright
    JAMA 294:42-3. 2005
  52. ncbi request reprint Psychological sequelae of September 11
    Charles W Hoge
    N Engl J Med 347:443-5; author reply 443-5. 2002