WILLIAM HUNDLEY

Summary

Affiliation: Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Location of arterial stiffening differs in those with impaired fasting glucose versus diabetes: implications for left ventricular hypertrophy from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Diabetes 58:946-53. 2009
  2. pmc Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure
    Chirapa Puntawangkoon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:48. 2009
  3. pmc Adverse effect of increased left ventricular wall thickness on five year outcomes of patients with negative dobutamine stress
    Thomas F Walsh
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:25. 2009
  4. pmc The 20 year evolution of dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance
    Charaslak Charoenpanichkit
    Department of Internal Medicine Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 12:59. 2010
  5. pmc Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiology and Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:5. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Relation of cardiac prognosis to segment location with apical left ventricular ischemia
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Cardiol 92:1206-8. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Visualization and functional assessment of proximal and middle left anterior descending coronary stenoses in humans with magnetic resonance imaging
    W G Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, The Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circulation 99:3248-54. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Leg flow-mediated arterial dilation in elderly patients with heart failure and normal left ventricular ejection fraction
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest Univ School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H1427-34. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Utility of fast cine magnetic resonance imaging and display for the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients not well suited for second harmonic stress echocardiography
    W G Hundley
    Cardiology Section, Division of Radiological Sciences, The Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circulation 100:1697-702. 1999
  10. ncbi request reprint Assessment of coronary arterial restenosis with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurements of coronary flow reserve
    W G Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circulation 101:2375-81. 2000

Research Grants

  1. Vascular Stiffness and Pulmonary Congestion
    William Gregory Hundley; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Vascular Stiffness and Pulmonary Congestion
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. MRI Detection of Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Optimized CMR imaging of chemotherapy cardiotoxicity
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. Vascular Stiffness and Pulmonary Congestion
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. pmc Location of arterial stiffening differs in those with impaired fasting glucose versus diabetes: implications for left ventricular hypertrophy from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Diabetes 58:946-53. 2009
    ....
  2. pmc Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure
    Chirapa Puntawangkoon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:48. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF) due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients...
  3. pmc Adverse effect of increased left ventricular wall thickness on five year outcomes of patients with negative dobutamine stress
    Thomas F Walsh
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:25. 2009
    ..To determine if patients without dobutamine induced left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA) but an increased LV end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) exhibit a favorable cardiac prognosis...
  4. pmc The 20 year evolution of dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance
    Charaslak Charoenpanichkit
    Department of Internal Medicine Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 12:59. 2010
    ..This article traces these developments and reviews the data utilized to substantiate this relatively new noninvasive imaging procedure...
  5. pmc Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiology and Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:5. 2009
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Relation of cardiac prognosis to segment location with apical left ventricular ischemia
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Cardiol 92:1206-8. 2003
    ..In this study, we find this heightened risk is present independent of the location of the distal segment within the left ventricular apex...
  7. ncbi request reprint Visualization and functional assessment of proximal and middle left anterior descending coronary stenoses in humans with magnetic resonance imaging
    W G Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, The Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circulation 99:3248-54. 1999
    ..Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to visualize coronary arteries and to measure flow reserve noninvasively, the utility of MRI for detecting significant LAD stenoses is unknown...
  8. ncbi request reprint Leg flow-mediated arterial dilation in elderly patients with heart failure and normal left ventricular ejection fraction
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest Univ School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H1427-34. 2007
    ..Many elderly patients with heart failure exhibit a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF). It is unknown whether FMAD is severely reduced in the elderly with HFNEF...
  9. ncbi request reprint Utility of fast cine magnetic resonance imaging and display for the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients not well suited for second harmonic stress echocardiography
    W G Hundley
    Cardiology Section, Division of Radiological Sciences, The Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circulation 100:1697-702. 1999
    ..Fast cine MRI can be used to assess left ventricular contraction, but its utility for detection of myocardial ischemia in patients poorly suited for echocardiography is unknown...
  10. ncbi request reprint Assessment of coronary arterial restenosis with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurements of coronary flow reserve
    W G Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circulation 101:2375-81. 2000
    ..This study was performed to determine if phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) could be used to detect restenosis noninvasively in patients with recurrent chest pain after percutaneous revascularization...
  11. ncbi request reprint Cardiac cycle-dependent changes in aortic area and distensibility are reduced in older patients with isolated diastolic heart failure and correlate with exercise intolerance
    W G Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Section, The Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 38:796-802. 2001
    ..The goal of this study was to determine if cardiac cycle-dependent changes in proximal thoracic aortic area and distensibility are associated with exercise intolerance in elderly patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF)...
  12. ncbi request reprint Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cardiac function
    W Gregory Hundley
    Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Curr Cardiol Rep 5:69-74. 2003
    ..This relatively new development may enhance a physician's ability to provide care to patients with cardiovascular disease...
  13. ncbi request reprint Magnetic resonance imaging determination of cardiac prognosis
    W Gregory Hundley
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Circulation 106:2328-33. 2002
    ....
  14. pmc Dobutamine cardiac magnetic resonance results predict cardiac prognosis in women with known or suspected ischemic heart disease
    Eric L Wallace
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2:299-307. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of dobutamine cardiac magnetic resonance (DCMR) stress test results in women...
  15. ncbi request reprint The effect of alagebrium chloride (ALT-711), a novel glucose cross-link breaker, in the treatment of elderly patients with diastolic heart failure
    William C Little
    Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Card Fail 11:191-5. 2005
    ..Despite its high prevalence, optimal therapy for diastolic heart failure (DHF) has not been determined. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is a novel compound that breaks glucose crosslinks and may improve ventricular and arterial compliance...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effect of the transmural extent of myocardial scar on left ventricular systolic wall thickening during intravenous dobutamine administration
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Am J Cardiol 95:495-8. 2005
    ..The transmural extent of hyperenhancement correlated inversely with dobutamine SWT (r = -0.7, p <0.001). All segments with dobutamine SWT >/=2 mm showed a transmural extent of hyperenhancement of <50%...
  17. ncbi request reprint Relation of aortic distensibility determined by magnetic resonance imaging in patients > or =60 years of age to systolic heart failure and exercise capacity
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Cardiol 90:1221-5. 2002
    ..These data suggest that decreased aortic distensibility may contribute to exercise intolerance in older patients with HF due to LV systolic dysfunction...
  18. pmc Novel approach to early detection of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in an experimental model
    James C Lightfoot
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:550-8. 2010
    ....
  19. pmc Modification of the effect of glycemic status on aortic distensibility by age in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis
    R Brandon Stacey
    Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Cardiology Section, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Hypertension 55:26-32. 2010
    ..However, age modified the effect of glucose status such that differences between the groups diminished with advancing age...
  20. pmc Submaximal exercise coronary artery flow increases in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease after estrogen and atorvastatin
    Chirapa Puntawangkoon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 17:114-20. 2010
    ....
  21. pmc Prediction of cardiac events in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of wall motion score index
    Erica Dall'Armellina
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 52:279-86. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) results for predicting cardiac events in individuals with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...
  22. ncbi request reprint Assessment of ventricular function with cardiovascular magnetic resonance
    Thomas F Walsh
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Cardiol Clin 25:15-33, v. 2007
    ..This article reviews CMR methods used to assess regional and global ventricular function...
  23. pmc Noninterleaved velocity encodings for improved temporal and spatial resolution in phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging
    Craig A Hamilton
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1022, USA
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 34:570-4. 2010
    ..5-T GE Echospeed scanner, using both interleaved and noninterleaved velocity encodings. The results demonstrate that the use of noninterleaved velocity encodings reduces spatial and temporal blur by improving the temporal resolution...
  24. pmc A randomized double-blind trial of enalapril in older patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: effects on exercise tolerance and arterial distensibility
    Dalane W Kitzman
    Cardiology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 3:477-85. 2010
    ..Exercise intolerance is the primary symptom in older patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF); however, little is known regarding its mechanisms and therapy...
  25. ncbi request reprint Assessment of preoperative cardiac risk with magnetic resonance imaging
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Cardiol 90:416-9. 2002
  26. ncbi request reprint Feasibility to detect severe coronary artery stenoses with upright treadmill exercise magnetic resonance imaging
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Am J Cardiol 92:603-6. 2003
    ..The sensitivity and specificity for detecting >70% coronary artery luminal diameter narrowings on contrast coronary angiography were 79% and 85%, respectively...
  27. pmc Relationship of physical function to vastus lateralis capillary density and metabolic enzyme activity in elderly men and women
    Barbara J Nicklas
    Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Aging Clin Exp Res 20:302-9. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical function is independently associated with histologic and metabolic properties of skeletal muscle in elderly adults...
  28. ncbi request reprint Relationship between arterial stiffness and subclinical aortic atherosclerosis
    David M Herrington
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Circulation 110:432-7. 2004
    ..Noninvasive measures of arterial compliance may be useful for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis...
  29. ncbi request reprint Diabetic cardiomyopathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
    Alain G Bertoni
    Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Diabetes Care 29:588-94. 2006
    ..We examined whether diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and if abnormalities are found with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)...
  30. ncbi request reprint Pathophysiological characterization of isolated diastolic heart failure in comparison to systolic heart failure
    Dalane W Kitzman
    Section of Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045
    JAMA 288:2144-50. 2002
    ..However, the pathophysiology of this disorder, presumptively termed diastolic heart failure (DHF), is not well characterized and it is unknown whether it represents true heart failure...
  31. ncbi request reprint Detection of pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle by fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 5:399-402. 2003
    ..With heightened image clarity, physicians unexpectedly identified a LV pseudoaneurysm...
  32. pmc Left ventricular hypertrophy influences cardiac prognosis in patients undergoing dobutamine cardiac stress testing
    Charaslak Charoenpanichkit
    Departments of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Public Health Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, and Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:392-7. 2010
    ..This study was performed to determine the utility of dobutamine stress test results for predicting myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac death in patients with chest pain and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effects of phase encode order and segment interpolation methods on the quality and accuracy of myocardial tags during assessment of left ventricular contraction
    Tiffany B Salido
    Department of Medical Engineering, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 4:245-54. 2002
    ....
  34. pmc Stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with observation unit care reduces cost for patients with emergent chest pain: a randomized trial
    Chadwick D Miller
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 56:209-219.e2. 2010
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Left ventricular spherical remodeling and apical myocardial relaxation: cardiovascular MR imaging measurement of myocardial segments
    Monravee Tumkosit
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Radiology 244:411-8. 2007
    ..To prospectively evaluate left ventricular (LV) shape and regional relaxation to determine if rapid, early relaxation of the LV is lost with spherical remodeling of the LV...
  36. pmc Left ventricular infarct size assessed with 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine correlates with that assessed with 0.2 mmol/kg of gadopentetate dimeglumine
    Monravee Tumkosit
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 33:328-33. 2009
    ..To determine myocardial infarct (MI) size during cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 1.5 Tesla using 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and 0.2 mmol/kg body weight of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA)...
  37. ncbi request reprint Heart failure prevalence, incidence, and mortality in the elderly with diabetes
    Alain G Bertoni
    Department of Public Health Science, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Diabetes Care 27:699-703. 2004
    ..The goal of this study was to determine heart failure prevalence and incidence rates, subsequent mortality, and risk factors for heart failure among older populations in Medicare with diabetes...
  38. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
    Stephen N Darty
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Nursing, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Am J Nurs 102:34-8; quiz 39. 2002
  39. ncbi request reprint Assessment of cardiac function with MR imaging
    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat
    Cardiology Section, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, The Bowman Gray Campus, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1045, USA
    Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 11:67-80. 2003
    ..In addition to providing information about LV function at rest, these techniques provide diagnostic and prognostic information regarding myocardial ischemia and viability during MR imaging stress tests...
  40. ncbi request reprint Automated analysis of phase-contrast magnetic resonance images in the assessment of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation
    Ping Tan
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 5:325-32. 2003
    ..This methodology may prove useful for the rapid MRI assessment of peripheral arterial endothelial function in a clinical setting when studying patients with cardiovascular disease...
  41. pmc Renal sinus fat and poor blood pressure control in middle-aged and elderly individuals at risk for cardiovascular events
    Haroon L Chughtai
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Hypertension 56:901-6. 2010
    ..These results indicate that further studies are warranted to determine whether fat accumulation in the RS promotes hypertension...
  42. pmc Aortic stiffness increases upon receipt of anthracycline chemotherapy
    Narumol Chaosuwannakit
    Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Bowman Gray Campus, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1045, USA
    J Clin Oncol 28:166-72. 2010
    ..These results indicate that previously regarded cardiotoxic cancer therapy adversely increases thoracic aortic stiffness, a known independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events...
  43. ncbi request reprint Dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a review
    Sangeeta Mandapaka
    Cardiology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 24:499-512. 2006
    ..This article reviews the performance and utility of DCMR, its association with dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), and areas of active investigative research...

Research Grants8

  1. Vascular Stiffness and Pulmonary Congestion
    William Gregory Hundley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..With this understanding, we will gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of flash PE that will be useful for developing interventions to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with this disorder. ..
  2. Vascular Stiffness and Pulmonary Congestion
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..With this understanding, we will gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of flash PE that will be useful for developing interventions to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with this disorder. ..
  3. MRI Detection of Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, further animal studies will be designed to identify treatment strategies for Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. ..
  4. Optimized CMR imaging of chemotherapy cardiotoxicity
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Each phase (R21 & R33) contains separate sections A-D, and as directed by the instructions, we designate (but do not repeat or re-type) the components of sections A through D of the R21 phase that are applicable to the R33 phase. ..
  5. Vascular Stiffness and Pulmonary Congestion
    WILLIAM HUNDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..With this understanding, we will gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of flash PE that will be useful for developing interventions to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with this disorder. ..