T B Clarkson

Summary

Affiliation: Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Distribution, size, shape, growth potential and extent of abdominal aortic calcified deposits predict mortality in postmenopausal women
    Mads Nielsen
    Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord 10:56. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint A comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on coronary artery atherosclerosis and bone density of postmenopausal monkeys
    T B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:5396-404. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Lessons to be learned from animal studies on hormones and the breast
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 49:79-89. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Raloxifene revisited
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Fertil Steril 77:445-7. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Soy, soy phytoestrogens and cardiovascular disease
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 132:566S-569S. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Stroke 33:2700-3. 2002
  7. doi request reprint Coronary heart disease of females: lessons learned from nonhuman primates
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:785-93. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint MPA and postmenopausal coronary artery atherosclerosis revisited
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Steroids 68:941-51. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Controversies about HRT--lessons from monkey models
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 51:64-74. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Multisystem evaluations of the long-term effects of tibolone on postmenopausal monkeys
    T B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 48:S24-9. 2004

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. pmc Distribution, size, shape, growth potential and extent of abdominal aortic calcified deposits predict mortality in postmenopausal women
    Mads Nielsen
    Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord 10:56. 2010
    ..We investigated the relationship between mortality and the composite markers of number, size, morphology and distribution of calcified plaques in the lumbar aorta...
  2. ncbi request reprint A comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on coronary artery atherosclerosis and bone density of postmenopausal monkeys
    T B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:5396-404. 2001
    ..01). Despite adverse effects of tibolone on plasma lipoprotein concentrations, there was no increase in CAA, suggesting that tibolone is a cardiovascular-safe treatment for climacteric symptoms and the prevention of osteoporosis...
  3. ncbi request reprint Lessons to be learned from animal studies on hormones and the breast
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 49:79-89. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Raloxifene revisited
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Fertil Steril 77:445-7. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Soy, soy phytoestrogens and cardiovascular disease
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 132:566S-569S. 2002
    ..No definite experimental evidence exists currently to establish that the cardiovascular benefits of soy protein are accounted for by its isoflavones...
  6. ncbi request reprint Comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Stroke 33:2700-3. 2002
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Coronary heart disease of females: lessons learned from nonhuman primates
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:785-93. 2009
    ..These studies will hopefully clarify the role of estrogen and eliminate the need for the possibly harmful progestin effects through the use of a highly selective estrogen receptor modulator...
  8. ncbi request reprint MPA and postmenopausal coronary artery atherosclerosis revisited
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Steroids 68:941-51. 2003
    ..In conclusion, it is evident that the current experimental, clinical, and observational data do not provide evidence that progestins attenuate estrogen's cardiovascular benefits...
  9. ncbi request reprint Controversies about HRT--lessons from monkey models
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 51:64-74. 2005
    ..The results of monkey studies suggest little or no effects of estrogen only treatment; whereas, estrogen+progestin clearly increases breast cancer risk...
  10. ncbi request reprint Multisystem evaluations of the long-term effects of tibolone on postmenopausal monkeys
    T B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 48:S24-9. 2004
    ..In conclusion, the results suggest that tibolone is a cardiovascular-safe treatment that is effective for the prevention of osteoporosis and that may have advantages over CEE or CEE + MPA with regard to endometrial and breast safety...
  11. ncbi request reprint Estrogen effects on arteries vary with stage of reproductive life and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis progression
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 14:373-84. 2007
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Soybean isoflavones improve cardiovascular risk factors without affecting the reproductive system of peripubertal rhesus monkeys
    M S Anthony
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 126:43-50. 1996
    ..Thus, the isoflavones in soy protein improve cardiovascular disease risk factors without apparent deleterious effects on the reproductive system of peripubertal rhesus monkeys...
  13. ncbi request reprint The potential of soybean phytoestrogens for postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy
    T B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217:365-8. 1998
    ..In this review, we summarize the results of our ongoing research...
  14. ncbi request reprint Lack of effect of raloxifene on coronary artery atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys
    T B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:721-6. 1998
    ..The low dose raloxifene group had about 2 times more atherosclerosis and the high dose group had about 3 times more atherosclerosis than the CEE group...
  15. ncbi request reprint Estrogen replacement therapy, atherosclerosis, and vascular function
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 53:605-19. 2002
    ..Future regimens may overcome that fear by the co-administration of a breast cancer preventive agent (i.e., selective estrogen receptor modulators, phytoestrogens) with low dose estrogen...
  16. pmc Impairment of ovarian function and associated health-related abnormalities are attributable to low social status in premenopausal monkeys and not mitigated by a high-isoflavone soy diet
    J R Kaplan
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Hum Reprod 25:3083-94. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that reproductive compromise and adverse health outcomes would be induced in subordinate when compared with dominant monkeys and be mitigated by exposure to soy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Evidence for up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA by soy phytoestrogens in the frontal cortex of retired breeder female rats
    Y Pan
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Neurosci Lett 261:17-20. 1999
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Effect of estradiol and soy phytoestrogens on choline acetyltransferase and nerve growth factor mRNAs in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of female rats
    Y Pan
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 221:118-25. 1999
    ..Our data suggest that soy phytoestrogens may function as estrogen agonists in regulating ChAT and NGF mRNAs in the brain of female rats...
  19. ncbi request reprint Esterified estrogens with and without methyltestosterone decrease arterial LDL metabolism in cynomolgus monkeys
    J D Wagner
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 16:1473-80. 1996
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint A comparison of oral micronized estradiol with soy phytoestrogen effects on tail skin temperatures of ovariectomized rats
    Y Pan
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Menopause 8:171-4. 2001
    ..8 degrees C reduction from Control). CONCLUSIONS: Soy phytoestrogens have a modest effect on average skin temperatures, being about half that of E2, even at high doses in the rat model...
  21. ncbi request reprint Effects of 17 alpha-dihydroequilenin sulfate on atherosclerotic male and female rhesus monkeys
    S A Washburn
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:341-9; discussion 349-51. 1996
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate on body composition and fasting carbohydrate measures in surgically postmenopausal monkeys
    Melanie K Shadoan
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1032, USA
    Metabolism 52:1085-91. 2003
    ..03), except CEE (P =.12). In conclusion, HRT with CEE + MPA or tibolone results in greater BW, abdominal soft tissue, and insulin resistance (CEE + MPA and HiTib) compared to control-treated monkeys...
  23. ncbi request reprint Premenopausal social status and hormone exposure predict postmenopausal atherosclerosis in female monkeys
    J R Kaplan
    Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 99:381-8. 2002
    ..To determine whether premenopausal social subordination in female monkeys predicts postmenopausal atherosclerosis, and whether any such effect is altered by chronic exposure to contraceptive steroids or postmenopausal hormone replacement...
  24. ncbi request reprint Conjugated equine estrogens alone, but not in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate, inhibit aortic connective tissue remodeling after plasma lipid lowering in female monkeys
    T C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center and the Department of Comparative Medicine of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18:1164-71. 1998
    ..These results have implications for combinations of lipid-lowering and hormone replacement therapies in relation to vascular remodeling and abdominal aortic aneurysm development...
  25. ncbi request reprint Serum cholesterol efflux potential is an independent predictor of coronary artery atherosclerosis
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Atherosclerosis 170:31-8. 2003
    ..6 and 10.7% of the variability (P<0.0001), respectively. Thus, the potential of serum to promote cholesterol efflux from Fu5AH cells may represent a useful independent measure for improving the assessment of CAA risk...
  26. ncbi request reprint The new conundrum: do estrogens have any cardiovascular benefits?
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Int J Fertil Womens Med 47:61-8. 2002
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Effects of soy isoflavones on atherosclerosis: potential mechanisms
    M S Anthony
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 68:1390S-1393S. 1998
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in equol production capability modulate blood pressure in tibolone-treated postmenopausal women: lack of effect of soy supplementation
    R M Törmälä
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Climacteric 10:471-9. 2007
    ..Recent studies indicate that women with intestinal capacity to convert daidzein to equol also have the capacity to alter steroid metabolism and bioavailability of estrogens...
  29. ncbi request reprint Effects of hormone replacement therapy and social stress on body fat distribution in surgically postmenopausal monkeys
    J M Wallace
    Department of Pathology, The Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23:518-27. 1999
    ..To investigate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and social stress on body fat distribution in an animal model of women's health, the female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)...
  30. ncbi request reprint Serum cholesterol efflux potential in postmenopausal monkeys treated with tibolone or conjugated estrogens
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Department of Pathology, Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Metabolism 51:523-30. 2002
    ..Because changes in cholesterol efflux potential of serum were seen only in Fu5AH cells, a cell line rich in SR-B1 receptors, this implies that the changes seen in this study were mediated largely by the SR-B1 pathway...
  31. ncbi request reprint Oral contraceptives, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis
    M R Adams
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27103
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 163:1388-93. 1990
    ..We concluded that ethinyl estradiol neutralized the atherogenic influence of the progestin component of oral contraceptives...
  32. pmc Plasma lipid-dependent and -independent effects of dietary soy protein and social status on atherogenesis in premenopausal monkeys: implications for postmenopausal atherosclerosis burden
    Sara E Walker
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Section on Comparative, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 15:950-7. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) and social status on atherogenesis and arterial gene expression in a premenopausal monkey model...
  33. ncbi request reprint Dietary soy isoflavones inhibit in-vivo constrictor responses of coronary arteries to collagen-induced platelet activation
    J K Williams
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Coron Artery Dis 9:759-64. 1998
    ..Studies were therefore designed to examine the effects of soy protein (with and without the isoflavones) on platelet-induced constrictor responses of coronary arteries of primates...
  34. pmc Replacement of dietary soy protein isolate with concentrates of soy 7S or 11S globulin has minimal or no effects on plasma lipoprotein profiles and biomarkers of coronary risk in monkeys
    Michael R Adams
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Atherosclerosis 196:76-80. 2008
    ..Replacement of dietary soy protein isolate with concentrated 7S or 11S does not result in improvement of plasma lipoprotein profiles or cardiovascular biomarkers in monkeys...
  35. ncbi request reprint Effects of soybean glyceollins and estradiol in postmenopausal female monkeys
    Charles E Wood
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Nutr Cancer 56:74-81. 2006
    ..05 for both) but not in the GLY group. These preliminary findings suggest that soybean glyceollins are natural compounds with potential estrogen-modulating properties in the breast...
  36. ncbi request reprint Destruction of primordial ovarian follicles in adult cynomolgus macaques after exposure to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide: a nonhuman primate model of the menopausal transition
    Susan E Appt
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Fertil Steril 86:1210-6. 2006
    ....
  37. pmc Experimental induction of reduced ovarian reserve in a nonhuman primate model (Macaca fascicularis)
    Susan E Appt
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University Primate Center, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Comp Med 60:380-8. 2010
    ..These data indicate that VCD treatment markedly reduced primordial follicles while preserving larger estradiol- and testosterone-producing follicles and ovarian stroma, a condition that mimics ROR in women...
  38. doi request reprint Social stress, visceral obesity, and coronary artery atherosclerosis: product of a primate adaptation
    Carol A Shively
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina NC 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:742-51. 2009
    ..Social stress may be engaging these same physiological systems, increasing the visceral deposition of fat and its sequelae, which increase CHD risk...
  39. doi request reprint Comparative effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens and micronized 17beta-estradiol on breast proliferation: a retrospective analysis
    Charles E Wood
    Departments of 1Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 15:890-8. 2008
    ..To evaluate the effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and micronized 17beta-estradiol (E2) on breast proliferation in a postmenopausal primate model...
  40. doi request reprint Depressive behavior and coronary artery atherogenesis in adult female cynomolgus monkeys
    Carol A Shively
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Psychosom Med 70:637-45. 2008
    ..Thus, in prospective studies of depression and CHD, CAA was likely present at baseline in most subjects who experienced cardiac events. Little is known about the relationship between depression and CAA...
  41. doi request reprint The unique value of primate models in translational research. Nonhuman primate models of women's health: introduction and overview
    Carol A Shively
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:715-21. 2009
    ....
  42. pmc Soy-tibolone combination - effect on lipids in postmenopausal monkeys and women
    Susan E Appt
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 60:216-22. 2008
    ..To determine whether co-administration of soy during tibolone treatment would prevent tibolone-induced dyslipoproteinemia in postmenopausal monkeys and women...
  43. doi request reprint Social stress, visceral obesity, and coronary artery atherosclerosis in female primates
    Carol A Shively
    Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1513-20. 2009
    ..Further studies are needed to understand the complex and multifactorial temporal relationship among relative visceral obesity, physiological stress responses, and CAA...
  44. pmc The effect of diet and cardiovascular risk on ovarian aging in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
    Susan E Appt
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 17:741-8. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among dietary protein source, cardiovascular risk, reproductive hormones, and ovarian aging...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of high-dose soy isoflavones and equol on reproductive tissues in female cynomolgus monkeys
    Charles E Wood
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Biol Reprod 75:477-86. 2006
    ..1 for all). These findings indicate that high doses of dietary soy isoflavonoids have minimal uterotrophic or mammotrophic effects in an established primate model...
  46. ncbi request reprint Low dose estrogens inhibit coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys
    Susan E Appt
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, United States
    Maturitas 55:187-94. 2006
    ..To determine if low dose conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) result in a reduction of coronary artery atherosclerosis progression, and to relate these findings to previous studies using the traditional dose...
  47. pmc Serum antimüllerian hormone predicts ovarian reserve in a monkey model
    Susan E Appt
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 16:597-601. 2009
    ..Here, we describe the relationship between AMH and ovarian reserve in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) estimated to be 12 to 15 years of age (approximately 36-45 y in women)...
  48. ncbi request reprint Treatment with antibiotics reduces plasma equol concentration in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
    Robert M Blair
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 133:2262-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, treatment with antibiotics resulted in a marked reduction in plasma equol concentrations and altered plasma isoflavonoid patterns in cynomolgus monkeys...
  49. ncbi request reprint Effects of soy isoflavones and conjugated equine estrogens on inflammatory markers in atherosclerotic, ovariectomized monkeys
    Thomas C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1734-40. 2005
    ..The sites of IF inhibitory effects on sVCAM-1 production are not known, but likely candidates include the liver and/or the cardiovascular system...
  50. ncbi request reprint The applicability of hormonal effects on atherosclerosis in animals to heart disease in postmenopausal women
    Janice D Wagner
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Semin Reprod Med 23:149-56. 2005
    ..Future studies should be directed at studying hormone therapy in relevant ages of women (perimenopausal women) using the lowest effective doses of hormones and comparing oral and parenteral forms of delivery...
  51. ncbi request reprint Dietary soy and soy isoflavones have gender-specific effects on plasma lipids and isoflavones in golden Syrian f(1)b hybrid hamsters
    Robert M Blair
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 132:3585-91. 2002
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and hormone replacement therapy on the breast of cynomolgus monkeys
    J Mark Cline
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 9:422-9. 2002
    ..To measure the effects of 2 years of treatment with tibolone on the breasts of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in comparison with conventional hormone replacement therapy...
  53. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and conventional hormone replacement therapies on arterial and hepatic cholesterol accumulation and on circulating endothelin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in surgically menopausal monkeys
    Thomas C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 9:411-21. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone on bone quality in ovariectomized monkeys
    Cynthia J Lees
    Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 12:613-8. 2005
    ..The purpose of this report is to examine the effects of two doses of tibolone on bone quality (bone biomarkers, bone density, and bone strength) in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys fed high-fat diets...
  55. ncbi request reprint Comparative effects of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate on the reproductive tract of female cynomolgus monkeys
    J Mark Cline
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 9:242-52. 2002
    ..To measure the effects of 2 years' treatment with tibolone on the reproductive tract of female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in comparison with conventional hormone replacement therapy...
  56. ncbi request reprint Use of the progestin challenge test in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis)
    Robert M Blair
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Fertil Steril 77:387-91. 2002
    ..DESIGN; Randomized, 2x2, crossover study. SETTING; Nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis) in an academic research environment...
  57. ncbi request reprint A comparison of tibolone and hormone replacement therapy on coronary artery and myocardial function in ovariectomized atherosclerotic monkeys
    J Koudy Williams
    The Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 9:41-51. 2002
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Value of the micropig model of menopause in the assessment of benefits and risks of postmenopausal therapies for cardiovascular and reproductive tissues
    James A Goodrich
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Fertil Steril 79:779-88. 2003
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Understanding the divergent data on postmenopausal hormone therapy
    Francine Grodstein
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:645-50. 2003
  60. ncbi request reprint The Women's Health Initiative could not have detected cardioprotective effects of starting hormone therapy during the menopausal transition
    Frederick Naftolin
    Yale University, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8063, USA
    Fertil Steril 81:1498-501. 2004
    ..Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to test cardioprotection in women starting treatment during the menopausal transition...
  61. ncbi request reprint Equol production capability is associated with favorable vascular function in postmenopausal women using tibolone; no effect with soy supplementation
    Riina Törmälä
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 198:174-8. 2008
    ..We studied the effects of equol production and soy supplementation on vascular function in postmenopausal women under long-term tibolone use...
  62. ncbi request reprint Postmenopausal hormone therapy before and after the women's health initiative study: what consequences?
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Ann Med 36:402-13. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Coronary heart disease and postmenopausal hormone therapy: conundrum explained by timing?
    Tomi S Mikkola
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 15:51-3. 2006
  64. ncbi request reprint Do the cardiovascular disease risks and benefits of oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy differ between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women?
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Menopause 14:963-7. 2007
  65. ncbi request reprint Women, hormones, and clinical trials: a beginning, not an end
    Virginia M Miller
    J Appl Physiol 99:381-3. 2005
  66. pmc Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society
    Wulf H Utian
    Menopause 15:584-602. 2008
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Does tibolone exacerbate atherosclerosis?
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Eur Heart J 27:635-7. 2006
  68. ncbi request reprint Determination of plasma genistein fatty acid esters following administration of genistein or genistein 4'7-O-dioleate in monkeys
    Maija Badeau
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1738:115-20. 2005
    ..The results suggest that it may be possible to introduce intact genistein ester molecules into plasma by parenteral but not oral administration...
  69. ncbi request reprint Multidetector computed tomographic morphology of ovaries in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
    Jeryl C Jones
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
    J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 46:54-63. 2007
    ..41 to 0.67 ml compared with 0.40 to 0.65 ml by water displacement. MDCT is a promising technique for measuring longitudinal changes in macaque ovarian morphology reliably and noninvasively...
  70. ncbi request reprint Can women be identified that will derive considerable cardiovascular benefits from postmenopausal estrogen therapy?
    Thomas B Clarkson
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:37-9. 2008
  71. ncbi request reprint Metabolic phenotype of isoflavones differ among female rats, pigs, monkeys, and women
    Liwei Gu
    Arkansas Children s Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    J Nutr 136:1215-21. 2006
    ..Thus, there were significant interspecies differences in isoflavone metabolism, and the overall metabolic profile of pigs was closer to that of women than that of rats or monkeys...