M Aschner

Summary

Affiliation: Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Immune and inflammatory responses in the CNS: modulation by astrocytes
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Toxicol Lett 102:283-7. 1998
  2. ncbi request reprint Interactions between pesticides and glia: an unexplored experimental field
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 21:175-80. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Ethanol-induced swelling in neonatal rat primary astrocyte cultures
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res 900:219-26. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint The neuropathogenesis of mercury toxicity
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 7:S40-1. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Neuron-astrocyte interactions: implications for cellular energetics and antioxidant levels
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 21:1101-7. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Open issues from the 15th International Conference on Manganese
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:123-5. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Astrocytic swelling, phospholipase A2, glutathione and glutamate: interactions in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem 27157 1083, USA
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 46:843-54. 2000
  8. pmc Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:429-32. 2000
  9. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury alters glutamate transport in astrocytes
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurochem Int 37:199-206. 2000
  10. ncbi request reprint The uptake of manganese in brain endothelial cultures
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:165-8. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications87

  1. ncbi request reprint Immune and inflammatory responses in the CNS: modulation by astrocytes
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Toxicol Lett 102:283-7. 1998
    ..The objective of this synopsis is to review the role played by astrocytes in the initiation and modulation of immune responses...
  2. ncbi request reprint Interactions between pesticides and glia: an unexplored experimental field
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 21:175-80. 2000
    ..This review will focus on astrocytic cholinergic receptors, choline uptake and metabolism, and address the potential importance of astrocytes in organophosphorous insecticide mediated neurotoxicity...
  3. ncbi request reprint Ethanol-induced swelling in neonatal rat primary astrocyte cultures
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res 900:219-26. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the changes associated with EtOH are osmotic in nature, and they are not reversed by anion cotransport blockers...
  4. ncbi request reprint The neuropathogenesis of mercury toxicity
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 7:S40-1. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Neuron-astrocyte interactions: implications for cellular energetics and antioxidant levels
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 21:1101-7. 2000
    ..Testing the developmental effects of compounds on this interaction is warranted and likely to establish the mechanisms by which it is compromised in a variety of disease states...
  6. ncbi request reprint Open issues from the 15th International Conference on Manganese
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:123-5. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Astrocytic swelling, phospholipase A2, glutathione and glutamate: interactions in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem 27157 1083, USA
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 46:843-54. 2000
    ..In addition, the effect of MeHg on glutathione (GSH) homeostasis will be discussed, with particular emphasis on its effects on cystine and cysteine uptake, precursors of GSH synthesis...
  8. pmc Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:429-32. 2000
    ..g., iron-deficient) to Mn exposure, and addresses future research needs for Mn...
  9. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury alters glutamate transport in astrocytes
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurochem Int 37:199-206. 2000
    ..This manuscript details the role of astrocytes in mediating MeHg-induced excitotoxicity, and elaborates on the protective role afforded by metallothioneins (MTs) in attenuating MeHg cytotoxicity...
  10. ncbi request reprint The uptake of manganese in brain endothelial cultures
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:165-8. 2002
    ..Mn phosphate had a lower rate of uptake than the other two Mn salts. These data show that brain endothelial cells efficiently transport Mn sulfate...
  11. ncbi request reprint Manganese uptake and distribution in the central nervous system (CNS)
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Neurotoxicology 20:173-80. 1999
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint The acute effects of acrylamide on astrocyte functions
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:296-304; discussion 345-9. 2003
    ..0 mM) mRNA expression levels. All other measurements were insignificant in comparison with controls, suggesting that astrocytic function is minimally compromised even at exceedingly high levels of acute acrylamide exposure...
  13. ncbi request reprint The transport of manganese across the blood-brain barrier
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 27:311-4. 2006
    ..Specifically, putative carriers for manganese into and out of the brain will be discussed...
  14. ncbi request reprint Astrocyte modulation of neurotoxic injury
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Pathol 12:475-81. 2002
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Aspartate and glutamate transport in acutely and chronically ethanol exposed neonatal rat primary astrocyte cultures
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 22:601-5. 2001
    ..In the course of these studies, we have investigated the effects of acute and chronic exposure to EtOH on cell volume, as well as uptake and release of amino acids in neonatal rat primary astrocyte cultures...
  16. ncbi request reprint Astrocytes in methylmercury, ammonia, methionine sulfoximine and alcohol-induced neurotoxicity
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 21:573-9. 2000
    ..In addition, the potential role of astrocytic proteins, the metallothioneins, in attenuating the neurotoxicity of methylmercury is discussed...
  17. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury inhibits cysteine uptake in cultured primary astrocytes, but not in neurons
    G Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1083, USA
    Brain Res 914:159-65. 2001
    ..These results suggest that the inhibition of cysteine uptake by MeHg in astrocytes occurs through specific inhibition of both the X(AG(-)) as well as the ASC transport system...
  18. ncbi request reprint The uptake of cysteine in cultured primary astrocytes and neurons
    G Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, 27157-1083, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
    Brain Res 902:156-63. 2001
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Metallothionein induction in fetal rat brain and neonatal primary astrocyte cultures by in utero exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0)
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res 778:222-32. 1997
    ..It is concluded that induction of MT by fetal/neonatal astrocytes represents an attempt by these glial cells to protect against Hg cytotoxicity in maintaining cerebral homeostasis...
  20. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury-induced astrocytic swelling is associated with activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter, and is fully reversed by amiloride
    M Aschner
    Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Brain Res 799:207-14. 1998
    ..Accordingly, increased cellular permeability to Na+ via the Na+/H+ antiporter is invoked as the primary mechanism of MeHg-induced astrocytic swelling...
  21. ncbi request reprint Induction of astrocyte metallothioneins (MTs) by zinc confers resistance against the acute cytotoxic effects of methylmercury on cell swelling, Na+ uptake, and K+ release
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Brain Res 813:254-61. 1998
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that astrocytic MT induction offers effective cellular adaptation to MeHg cytotoxicity...
  22. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury inhibits the in vitro uptake of the glutathione precursor, cystine, in astrocytes, but not in neurons
    J W Allen
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1083, USA
    Brain Res 894:131-40. 2001
    ..Inhibition of cystine uptake in astrocytes by methylmercury appears to be due to actions on the System X(AG)- transporter...
  23. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury has a selective effect on mitochondria in cultured astrocytes in the presence of [U-(13)C]glutamate
    J W Allen
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1083, USA
    Brain Res 908:149-54. 2001
    ..The decreased lactate production from glutamate might be detrimental to surrounding cells since lactate has been shown to be an important substrate for neurons...
  24. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury-mediated inhibition of 3H-D-aspartate transport in cultured astrocytes is reversed by the antioxidant catalase
    J W Allen
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1083, USA
    Brain Res 902:92-100. 2001
    ..This study suggests that methylmercury-induced overproduction of H2O2 is a mechanism for inhibition of glutamate transport and transporter expression in cultured astrocytes...
  25. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury-induced inhibition of regulatory volume decrease in astrocytes: characterization of osmoregulator efflux and its reversal by amiloride
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res 811:133-42. 1998
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of uptake systems for cystine and cysteine in cultured astrocytes and neurons: evidence for methylmercury-targeted disruption of astrocyte transport
    G Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1083, USA
    J Neurosci Res 66:998-1002. 2001
    ..The review summarizes recent observations on transport systems for cysteine and cystine, precursors of GSH, in primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, and their sensitivity to MeHg treatment...
  27. ncbi request reprint Induction of metallothionein-I (MT-I) mRNA in primary astrocyte cultures is mediated by hypotonicity and not ethanol (EtOH) per se
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res 770:289-93. 1997
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Astrocyte metallothioneins (MTs) and their neuroprotective role
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1083, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 825:334-47. 1997
    ..Future studies on the expression and regulation of MT genes are likely to culminate in novel strategies for manipulating intracellular MT levels, providing insight to their role in both health and disease...
  29. ncbi request reprint Transendothelial permeability of chlorpyrifos in RBE4 monolayers is modulated by astrocyte-conditioned medium
    J Yang
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 97:43-50. 2001
    ..This work demonstrates that with additional refinements the RBE4 monolayers might serve as a useful in vitro model for the study of BBB permeability and modulation by astrocyte-derived soluble factors...
  30. ncbi request reprint Glial cells in neurotoxicity development
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 39:151-73. 1999
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint The functional significance of brain metallothioneins
    M Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 10:1129-36. 1996
    ..Aschner, M. The functional significance of brain metallothioneins...
  32. ncbi request reprint The in vitro uptake of glutamate in GLAST and GLT-1 transfected mutant CHO-K1 cells is inhibited by manganese
    Lysette Mutkus
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 107:221-30. 2005
    ..05) of glutamate uptake compared with transfected control in the absence of Mn treatment. These studies suggest that Mn accumulation in the CNS might contribute to dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis...
  33. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury alters the in vitro uptake of glutamate in GLAST- and GLT-1-transfected mutant CHO-K1 cells
    Lysette Mutkus
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 107:231-45. 2005
    ..01) increased following exposure to 5 and 10 microM MeHg. These studies suggest that MeHg contributes to the dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis and that its effects are distinct for GLAST and GLT-1...
  34. ncbi request reprint Determining the oxidation states of manganese in NT2 cells and cultured astrocytes
    Karlene K Gunter
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 575 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 27:1816-26. 2006
    ..Again we find no evidence for stabilization or accumulation of any Mn(3+) complex derived from oxidation of Mn(2+) under a range of conditions...
  35. ncbi request reprint The role of MT in neurological disorders
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 2495, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 8:139-45; discussion 209-15. 2005
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Growth hormone administration to aged animals reduces disulfide glutathione levels in hippocampus
    Ashley N Donahue
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Mech Ageing Dev 127:57-63. 2006
    ..We conclude that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone and IGF-1 contribute to increased oxidative stress in hippocampus with age...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effects of acrylamide on primary neonatal rat astrocyte functions
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, B 3307 Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1162 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2495, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:444-54. 2005
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that acrylamide promotes astrocytic cell proliferation in the CNS even though DNA synthesis did not appear stimulated...
  38. ncbi request reprint Acrylamide stimulates glutamine uptake in Fischer 344 rat astrocytes by a mechanism involving upregulation of the amino acid transport system N
    Qi Wu
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:435-43. 2005
    ..The acrylamide-induced upregulation of astrocytic Gln transport via system N is likely to affect Gln homeostasis in these cells and may be causally related to the increased astrocytoma incidence observed in Fischer 344 rats...
  39. ncbi request reprint Characteristics of manganese (Mn) transport in rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier
    Vanessa A Fitsanakis
    Department of Pediatrics, B 3307 Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2495, USA
    Neurotoxicology 27:60-70. 2006
    ..These data reinforce observations that transport of Mn across the BBB occurs in part through active transport process...
  40. ncbi request reprint Manganese in the shower: mere speculation over an invalidated public health danger
    Michael Aschner
    Med Hypotheses 66:200-1. 2006
  41. ncbi request reprint Increased manganese uptake by primary astrocyte cultures with altered iron status is mediated primarily by divalent metal transporter
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina Greensboro, 318 Stone Building, UNCG, POB 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402 6170, USA
    Neurotoxicology 27:125-30. 2006
    ..The decreased TfR associated with +Fe treatment and the increased DMT-1 levels suggest that DMT-1 is a likely putative transporter of Mn in astrocytes...
  42. ncbi request reprint In vitro uptake of glutamate in GLAST- and GLT-1-transfected mutant CHO-K1 cells is inhibited by the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal
    Lysette Mutkus
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 105:71-86. 2005
    ..These studies suggest that thimerosal accumulation in the central nervous system might contribute to dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis...
  43. ncbi request reprint Glutathione modulation influences methyl mercury induced neurotoxicity in primary cell cultures of neurons and astrocytes
    Parvinder Kaur
    Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Neurotoxicology 27:492-500. 2006
    ..02) increased after DEM treatment. In summary, depletion of GSH increases MeHg accumulation and enhances MeHg-induced oxidative stress, and conversely, supplementation with GSH precursor protects against MeHg exposure in vitro...
  44. ncbi request reprint The effects of manganese on glutamate, dopamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid regulation
    Vanessa A Fitsanakis
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Neurochem Int 48:426-33. 2006
    ..Finally, we suggest that current research focus on the interdependence of these basal ganglial neurochemicals, with a greater emphasis on the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems...
  45. ncbi request reprint A manganese-enhanced diet alters brain metals and transporters in the developing rat
    Stephanie J Garcia
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Toxicol Sci 92:516-25. 2006
    ....
  46. pmc Mitochondrial-dependent manganese neurotoxicity in rat primary astrocyte cultures
    Zhaoobao Yin
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, TN, USA
    Brain Res 1203:1-11. 2008
    ..These results suggest that activations of astrocytic caspase-3 and ERK are involved in Mn-induced neurotoxicity via mitochondrial-dependent pathways...
  47. ncbi request reprint Role of docosahexaenoic acid in modulating methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity
    Parvinder Kaur
    Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7489, Trondheim, Norway
    Toxicol Sci 100:423-32. 2007
    ..These findings provide experimental evidence that although pretreatment with DHA reduces cell-associated MeHg, it causes an increased ROS (p < 0.001) and GSH depletion (p < 0.05) in C6 cells...
  48. ncbi request reprint Neurotoxic potential of depleted uranium effects in primary cortical neuron cultures and in Caenorhabditis elegans
    George C T Jiang
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1083, USA
    Toxicol Sci 99:553-65. 2007
    ..These findings should alleviate the some of public concerns regarding DU as an etiologic agent of neurodegenerative conditions associated with GWS...
  49. ncbi request reprint Putative proteins involved in manganese transport across the blood-brain barrier
    Vanessa A Fitsanakis
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 2495, USA
    Hum Exp Toxicol 26:295-302. 2007
    ..It is hoped that ideas put forth in this article will stimulate further investigations into the complex nature of Mn transport, and address the importance as well as the limitation of in vitro models in answering these questions...
  50. ncbi request reprint Manganese inhalation by rhesus monkeys is associated with brain regional changes in biomarkers of neurotoxicity
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 6170, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:459-66. 2007
    ..g., GSH was increased in the frontal cortex and decreased in the caudate despite two- to threefold increases in Mn concentrations in these regions)...
  51. pmc Methylmercury induces oxidative injury, alterations in permeability and glutamine transport in cultured astrocytes
    Zhaobao Yin
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, TN, USA
    Brain Res 1131:1-10. 2007
    ..Ultimately, MeHg initiates multiple additive or synergistic disruptive mechanisms that lead to cellular dysfunction and cell death...
  52. ncbi request reprint Role of glutathione in determining the differential sensitivity between the cortical and cerebellar regions towards mercury-induced oxidative stress
    Parvinder Kaur
    Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Toxicology 230:164-77. 2007
    ..Hence, different approaches for the future studies regarding the mechanisms behind selectivity of MeHg have been discussed...
  53. pmc Manganese neurotoxicity: a focus on the neonate
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 113:369-77. 2007
    ..We will briefly review some of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity and conclude with a discussion of ripe areas for research in this underreported area of neurotoxicity...
  54. ncbi request reprint Iron deficient and manganese supplemented diets alter metals and transporters in the developing rat brain
    Stephanie J Garcia
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Toxicol Sci 95:205-14. 2007
    ..The results of this study confirm that there is homeostatic relationship among several essential metals in the brain and not simply between Fe and Mn...
  55. ncbi request reprint Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge
    Stephen J Walker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27156, USA
    Neurotoxicology 27:685-92. 2006
    ..Determining cellular response, at the level of gene expression, has important implications for the understanding and treatment of conditions that result from exposure to neurotoxic compounds...
  56. ncbi request reprint Blood-brain barrier and cell-cell interactions: methods for establishing in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier and transport measurements
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Pediatrics Pharmacology and The Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 341:1-15. 2006
    ..These in vitro methods will complement many of the in vivo techniques, and they may be used as screening for more timely and expensive experiments, and also reducing the need for experimental animals...
  57. doi request reprint Duration of airborne-manganese exposure in rhesus monkeys is associated with brain regional changes in biomarkers of neurotoxicity
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 6170, USA
    Neurotoxicology 29:377-85. 2008
    ..Overall, the nonhuman primate brain responds to airborne Mn in a heterogeneous manner and most alterations in these biomarkers of neurotoxicity are reversible upon cessation of Mn exposure...
  58. ncbi request reprint Effects of methylmercury on primary brain cells in mono- and co-culture
    Tora Sund Morken
    Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Toxicol Sci 87:169-75. 2005
    ..In conclusion, astrocytes appear to increase neuronal resistance, indicating a possible protective role for astrocytes in MeHg neurotoxicity...
  59. ncbi request reprint Oxidative stress is induced in the rat brain following repeated inhalation exposure to manganese sulfate
    Allison W Dobson
    Department of Physiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 93:113-26. 2003
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Use of microarray technologies in toxicology research
    Kent E Vrana
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, 27157 1083, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Neurotoxicology 24:321-32. 2003
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Manganese neurotoxicity and glutamate-GABA interaction
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurochem Int 43:475-80. 2003
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that excitotoxicity may occur due to manganese-induced altered glutamate metabolism, representing a proximate mechanism for manganese-induced neurotoxicity...
  62. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury-induced reactive oxygen species formation in neonatal cerebral astrocytic cultures is attenuated by antioxidants
    Gouri Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 110:85-91. 2003
    ..Combined, these studies invoke ROS as potent mediators of MeHg cytotoxicity and support the hypothesis that excessive ROS generation, at least in part, plays an important role in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity...
  63. ncbi request reprint The consequences of methylmercury exposure on interactive functions between astrocytes and neurons
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:755-9. 2002
    ..These effects likely increase neuronal vulnerability to MeHg-induced oxidative stress, and excess N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation leading to neuronal demise...
  64. ncbi request reprint Chronic ethanol produces increased taurine transport and efflux in cultured astrocytes
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:693-700. 2002
    ..Cell volume measurements suggest that inhibition of the normal RVD response be involved in the increased taurine release...
  65. ncbi request reprint Manganese causes differential regulation of glutamate transporter (GLAST) taurine transporter and metallothionein in cultured rat astrocytes
    Keith Erikson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:595-602. 2002
    ..MT mRNA decreased in these Mn exposed astrocytes possibly due to altered metal metabolism, although this was not examined. These data show that glutamate and taurine transport in Mn exposed astrocytes are temporally different...
  66. ncbi request reprint Glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), taurine transporter and metallothionein mRNA levels are differentially altered in astrocytes exposed to manganese chloride, manganese phosphate or manganese sulfate
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:281-8. 2002
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Effects of manganese (Mn) on the developing rat brain: oxidative-stress related endpoints
    Sarah Weber
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:169-75. 2002
    ..05) total cerebrocortical GSH without accompanying changes in any of the other measured parameters. Therefore, it is unlikely that high dose Mn exposure is associated with oxidative stress in this experimental paradigm...
  68. ncbi request reprint Effects of manganese on oxidative stress in CATH.a cells
    Cynthia G Worley
    Neurotoxicology 23:159-64. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint XANES spectroscopy: a promising tool for toxicology: a tutorial
    Karlene K Gunter
    Neurotoxicology 23:127-46. 2002
    ..Examples are taken from an ongoing study of manganese in brain mitochondria and neuron-like cells...
  70. ncbi request reprint Persistent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative stress resulting from combined in utero and neonatal manganese inhalation
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 6170, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 104:151-63. 2005
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Developmental aspects of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells as in vitro model for studies on chlorpyrifos transport
    Jian Yang
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Neurotoxicology 24:741-5. 2003
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Modulatory effect of glutathione status and antioxidants on methylmercury-induced free radical formation in primary cultures of cerebral astrocytes
    Gouri Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 137:11-22. 2005
    ..Taken together, these studies point to the important protective effect of adequate intracellular GSH content as well as antioxidants against MeHg-triggered oxidative stress in primary astrocyte cultures...
  73. ncbi request reprint Manganese transport by rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cell-based transwell model in the presence of astrocyte conditioned media
    Vanessa A Fitsanakis
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 2495, USA
    J Neurosci Res 81:235-43. 2005
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint The importance of glutamate, glycine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid transport and regulation in manganese, mercury and lead neurotoxicity
    Vanessa A Fitsanakis
    Department of Pediatrics, B 3307 Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2495, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 204:343-54. 2005
    ..Additionally, the review will address the hypothesis that aberrant homeostasis of any of these amino acids, or a combination of the three, plays a role in the neurotoxicity of Mn, Hg, or Pb...
  75. ncbi request reprint Manganese dosimetry: species differences and implications for neurotoxicity
    Michael Aschner
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:1-32. 2005
    ..g., pre-parkinsonian state, aging), may have altered manganese metabolism and could be at greater risk for manganese toxicity...
  76. ncbi request reprint Pharmacology and toxicology of astrocyte-neuron glutamate transport and cycling
    Ursula Sonnewald
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:1-6. 2002
    ..the role of astrocyte-neuron interaction in widely divergent aspects of brain energetics; 4. the role of astrocytes in the process of glutamate recycling within the context of anesthetic treatment with pentobarbital and thiopental...
  77. ncbi request reprint Free radical formation in cerebral cortical astrocytes in culture induced by methylmercury
    Gouri Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 128:48-57. 2004
    ..Taken together, these studies illustrate that MeHg induces the generation of astrocyte-derived ROS and support a role for astrocytic ROS in MeHg-associated neurotoxic damage...
  78. ncbi request reprint Brain barrier systems: a new frontier in metal neurotoxicological research
    Wei Zheng
    School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 192:1-11. 2003
    ..They represent both clear challenges and fruitful research domains not only in neurotoxicology, but also in neurophysiology and pharmacology...
  79. ncbi request reprint Airborne manganese exposure differentially affects end points of oxidative stress in an age- and sex-dependent manner
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 100:49-62. 2004
    ..1-mg/m3 manganese phosphate exposure. These results demonstrate that age and sex are variables that must be considered when assessing the neurotoxicity of manganese...
  80. ncbi request reprint Effect of methylmercury on glutamate metabolism in cerebellar astrocytes in culture
    Hong Qu
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Olav Kyrresgt 3, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Neurochem Int 43:411-6. 2003
    ..However, the percentage used for energy production was decreased in both groups, indicating selective mitochondrial vulnerability due to the inhibitory effect of MeHg...
  81. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury stimulates arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression in primary neuronal cultures
    Gouri Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neurotoxicology 25:399-406. 2004
    ..0 and 10 microM; 16h) potently increases neuronal cPLA2 protein expression. These results suggest that cPLA2-stimulated hydrolysis and release of AA are potential mediators of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity...
  82. ncbi request reprint Methylmercury enhances arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression in primary cultures of neonatal astrocytes
    Gouri Shanker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 106:1-11. 2002
    ..These results invoke cPLA(2) as a putative target for MeHg toxicity, and support the notion that cPLA(2)-stimulated hydrolysis and release of AA play a critical role in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity...
  83. ncbi request reprint Effects of inhaled manganese on biomarkers of oxidative stress in the rat brain
    Michael D Taylor
    Environmental Science, Afton Chemical Corporation, 500 Spring Street, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
    Neurotoxicology 27:788-97. 2006
    ..There are, however, instances of changes in individual endpoints consistent with oxidative stress in certain brain tissues...
  84. ncbi request reprint Manganese induces oxidative impairment in cultured rat astrocytes
    Dejan Milatovic
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    Toxicol Sci 98:198-205. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that induction of oxidative stress, associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and alterations in GLN/glutamate cycling in astrocytes represent key mechanisms by which Mn exerts its neurotoxicity...
  85. ncbi request reprint Neurotoxicology: principles and considerations of in vitro assessment
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Altern Lab Anim 32:323-7. 2004
    ..In addition, in vitro models and their utility in the assessment of neurotoxicological outcome are discussed, with reference to both their advantages and disadvantages...
  86. ncbi request reprint Alterations of oxidative stress biomarkers due to in utero and neonatal exposures of airborne manganese
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina Greensboro, NC, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 111:199-215. 2006
    ..It is important to note that the doses of Mn utilized represent levels that are a hundred- to a thousand-fold higher than the inhalation reference concentration set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency...
  87. ncbi request reprint Manganese exposure and induced oxidative stress in the rat brain
    Keith M Erikson
    Department of Nutrition, The University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 6170, USA
    Sci Total Environ 334:409-16. 2004
    ..g., glutamine synthetase) have been commonly used as biomarkers of oxidative stress, particularly in rat brain tissue. This paper examines the link between manganese neurotoxicity in the rat brain and common pathways to oxidative stress...