K S Kendler

Summary

Affiliation: Virginia Commonwealth University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic-functional/hardware-software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:377-88. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Kraepelin's concept of psychiatric illness
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, and Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 41:1119-26. 2011
  3. pmc Nature and nurture in neuropsychiatric genetics: where do we stand?
    Danielle M Dick
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond 23298, USA
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 12:7-23. 2010
  4. pmc Cognitive trio: relationship with major depression and clinical predictors in Han Chinese women
    L Wang
    Shandong Mental Health Center, Jinan, Shandong, P R China P R C
    Psychol Med 43:2265-75. 2013
  5. pmc Patterns of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders in Chinese women with recurrent major depression
    Y Li
    Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 42:1239-48. 2012
  6. pmc The structure of the symptoms of major depression: exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in depressed Han Chinese women
    Y Li
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 44:1391-401. 2014
  7. pmc Molecular validation of the schizophrenia spectrum
    T Bernard Bigdeli
    To whom correspondence should be addressed Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics of VCU, Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, US tel 804 828 8590, fax 804 828 1471, E mail
    Schizophr Bull 40:60-5. 2014
  8. pmc A latent class analysis of drug abuse in a national Swedish sample
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 43:2169-78. 2013
  9. doi request reprint Genetic and environmental risk factors in males for self-report externalizing traits in mid-adolescence and criminal behavior through young adulthood
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 012, USA
    Psychol Med 43:2161-8. 2013
  10. doi request reprint A history of the DSM-5 Scientific Review Committee
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 43:1793-800. 2013

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications196 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic-functional/hardware-software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:377-88. 2012
    ..Critically, it is based not on how we wish the world to be but how the difference-makers for psychiatric illness are in fact distributed...
  2. ncbi request reprint Kraepelin's concept of psychiatric illness
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, and Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 41:1119-26. 2011
    ..His goal of developing a consistent ‘ natural ’ classification of the major mental disorders has yet to be attained, but his ‘ research agenda' remains central to psychiatry to the present day...
  3. pmc Nature and nurture in neuropsychiatric genetics: where do we stand?
    Danielle M Dick
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond 23298, USA
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 12:7-23. 2010
    ..We will review the fields of genetic epidemiology and molecular genetics, providing examples from the literature to illustrate the key concepts emerging from this work...
  4. pmc Cognitive trio: relationship with major depression and clinical predictors in Han Chinese women
    L Wang
    Shandong Mental Health Center, Jinan, Shandong, P R China P R C
    Psychol Med 43:2265-75. 2013
    ..However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied...
  5. pmc Patterns of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders in Chinese women with recurrent major depression
    Y Li
    Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 42:1239-48. 2012
    ..Here, using a large cohort of Chinese women with recurrent MDD, we examine the prevalence and associated clinical features of co-morbid anxiety disorders...
  6. pmc The structure of the symptoms of major depression: exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in depressed Han Chinese women
    Y Li
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 44:1391-401. 2014
    ..The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?..
  7. pmc Molecular validation of the schizophrenia spectrum
    T Bernard Bigdeli
    To whom correspondence should be addressed Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics of VCU, Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, US tel 804 828 8590, fax 804 828 1471, E mail
    Schizophr Bull 40:60-5. 2014
    ..Can we validate, using molecular polygene scores from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), this schizophrenia spectrum?..
  8. pmc A latent class analysis of drug abuse in a national Swedish sample
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 43:2169-78. 2013
    ..Drug abuse (DA) is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome. Using medical, legal, death and pharmacy records covering the entire population of Sweden, could we uncover meaningful subtypes of DA?..
  9. doi request reprint Genetic and environmental risk factors in males for self-report externalizing traits in mid-adolescence and criminal behavior through young adulthood
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 012, USA
    Psychol Med 43:2161-8. 2013
    ..Externalizing traits or behaviors are typically assessed by self-report scales or criminal records. Few genetically informative studies have used both methods to determine whether they assess the same genetic or environmental risk factors...
  10. doi request reprint A history of the DSM-5 Scientific Review Committee
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 43:1793-800. 2013
    ..The article concludes with recommendations, based on lessons learned, for similar efforts that might be included in future iterations of our psychiatric nosology. ..
  11. pmc The road not taken: life experiences in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for major depression
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 18:975-84. 2013
    ..These results speak both to the importance of environmental influences on human well-being and psychopathology, and the complexity of the causal paths underlying their effects. ..
  12. pmc Multi-species data integration and gene ranking enrich significant results in an alcoholism genome-wide association study
    Zhongming Zhao
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:S16. 2012
    ..Integration of these heterogeneous data can be used to produce a ranked target gene list for additional investigation...
  13. pmc Evidence for multiple genetic factors underlying DSM-IV criteria for major depression
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298, USA
    JAMA Psychiatry 70:599-607. 2013
    ..We do not know whether the clinical criteria for major depression (MD) reflect a single or multiple dimensions of genetic risk...
  14. pmc Decision making in the pathway from genes to psychiatric and substance use disorders
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 18:640-5. 2013
    ..Our actions and our genes are often weaved together, integrated into the fabric of our lives...
  15. pmc Early smoking onset and risk for subsequent nicotine dependence: a monozygotic co-twin control study
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 170:408-13. 2013
    ..Early onset of regular smoking is associated with an elevated risk for later nicotine dependence. Whether or not this association is causal is unknown and has substantial public policy implications...
  16. pmc Within-family environmental transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish national study
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA
    JAMA Psychiatry 70:235-42. 2013
    ..A complete understanding of the familial transmission of DA will require knowledge of how genetic and familial environmental risk factors act and interact over development...
  17. pmc Familial influences on conduct disorder reflect 2 genetic factors and 1 shared environmental factor
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    JAMA Psychiatry 70:78-86. 2013
    ..However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM...
  18. pmc Clinical indices of familial alcohol use disorder
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:2126-31. 2012
    ..Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are clinically heterogeneous and strongly influenced by familial/genetic factors. Can we identify specific clinical features of AUDs that index familial liability to illness?..
  19. pmc Evidence for multiple genetic factors underlying the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:1306-15. 2012
    ..While tentative and in need of replication, these results, consistent with the rodent literature, were validated by examining predictions of the genetic factor scores and have implications for gene-finding efforts in AD...
  20. pmc Recent advances in the genetic epidemiology and molecular genetics of substance use disorders
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia and Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Nat Neurosci 15:181-9. 2012
    ..Identifying these risk genes and understanding their action will require large clinical samples, and interaction between these studies and work in model organisms...
  21. pmc The removal of Pluto from the class of planets and homosexuality from the class of psychiatric disorders: a comparison
    Peter Zachar
    Department of Psychology, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36117, USA
    Philos Ethics Humanit Med 7:4. 2012
    ..In both cases, a complicated relationship between abstract constructs and evidence made the classification problem thorny...
  22. pmc A multivariate twin study of the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 71:247-53. 2012
    ..However, no prior study has examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)...
  23. pmc Levels of explanation in psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for the development of an etiologically based nosology
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:11-21. 2012
    ....
  24. pmc A developmental twin study of church attendance and alcohol and nicotine consumption: a model for analyzing the changing impact of genes and environment
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry and the Virginia Institute for Psychiatricand Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 166:1150-5. 2009
    ....
  25. doi request reprint The development of the Feighner criteria: a historical perspective
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, Box 980126, 800 E Leigh St, Rm 1 123, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 167:134-42. 2010
    ....
  26. pmc Genomewide association analysis of symptoms of alcohol dependence in the molecular genetics of schizophrenia (MGS2) control sample
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, 23298, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:963-75. 2011
    ..While genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) are substantial, progress in the identification of individual genetic variants that impact on risk has been difficult...
  27. ncbi request reprint The heritability of cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 37:655-65. 2007
    ..We wish to know whether the same set of PD vulnerability factors are assessed by these two methods...
  28. pmc The relationship between genetic influences on alcohol dependence and on patterns of alcohol consumption
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:1058-65. 2010
    ..Genetic factors impact substantially both on alcohol consumption (AC) and on the risk for alcohol dependence (AD). However, we know little about the degree to which measures of AC index the genetic risk for AD...
  29. ncbi request reprint Genetic and environmental pathways to suicidal behavior: reflections of a genetic epidemiologist
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, Box 980126, 800 E Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Eur Psychiatry 25:300-3. 2010
    ....
  30. pmc The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for syndromal and subsyndromal common DSM-IV axis I and all axis II disorders
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, The Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 168:29-39. 2011
    ..The authors sought to clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for 22 DSM-IV disorders: 12 common axis I disorders and all 10 axis II disorders...
  31. pmc Dependent stressful life events and prior depressive episodes in the prediction of major depression: the problem of causal inference in psychiatric epidemiology
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, PO Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:1120-7. 2010
    ..Can we address this question by using together 2 major methods for causal inference: natural experiments and specialized statistical methods?..
  32. pmc Toward a comprehensive developmental model for alcohol use disorders in men
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, United States of America
    Twin Res Hum Genet 14:1-15. 2011
    ..We conclude that AU and AUDs in men are complex traits influenced by genetic, family, temperamental, and social factors, acting and interacting over developmental time...
  33. pmc Major depression and coronary artery disease in the Swedish twin registry: phenotypic, genetic, and environmental sources of comorbidity
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:857-63. 2009
    ..Major depresssion (MD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) frequently co-occur. The mechanisms of comorbidity are uncertain...
  34. ncbi request reprint The genetic and environmental relationship between major depression and the five-factor model of personality
    K S Kendler
    Departments of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 40:801-6. 2010
    ....
  35. pmc Delineation of two genetic pathways to major depression
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:808-11. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders: a multivariate twin study
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1438-46. 2008
    ....
  37. pmc Does bereavement-related major depression differ from major depression associated with other stressful life events?
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Departments of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:1449-55. 2008
    ..A depressive episode that is bereavement-related and has clinical features and course characteristic of normal grief is not diagnosed as major depression. This study evaluates the empirical validity of this exclusion criterion...
  38. ncbi request reprint The similiarity of facial expressions in response to emotion-inducing films in reared-apart twins
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 38:1475-83. 2008
    ..While the role of genetic factors in self-report measures of emotion has been frequently studied, we know little about the degree to which genetic factors influence emotional facial expressions...
  39. pmc A developmental twin study of symptoms of anxiety and depression: evidence for genetic innovation and attenuation
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 38:1567-75. 2008
    ..Analysis conducted using the Mx program included SxAnxDep by parental and self-report...
  40. pmc Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine use from early adolescence to middle adulthood
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical School of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:674-82. 2008
    ..While both environmental and genetic factors are important in the etiology of psychoactive substance use (PSU), we know little of how these influences differ through development...
  41. ncbi request reprint Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1313-20. 2007
    ..Although genetic risk factors have been found to contribute to dependence on both licit and illicit psychoactive substances, we know little of how these risk factors interrelate...
  42. pmc Explanatory models for psychiatric illness
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:695-702. 2008
    ..The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes...
  43. doi request reprint A web-based study of personality, psychopathology and substance use in twin, other relative and relationship pairs
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Richmond, VA 23298 012, USA
    Twin Res Hum Genet 12:137-41. 2009
    ..The sample is diverse and pair resemblance is generally similar to that obtained using interviews or mailed questionnaires...
  44. ncbi request reprint Clinical indices of familial depression in the Swedish Twin Registry
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 115:214-20. 2007
    ..Although familial factors certainly contribute to the etiology of major depression (MD), further information is needed about which clinical features of depressive illness index the familial vulnerability in MD...
  45. pmc An historical framework for psychiatric nosology
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 39:1935-41. 2009
    ..Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured...
  46. ncbi request reprint Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster A personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: a multivariate study
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 36:1583-91. 2006
    ..We have examined the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of these three personality disorders...
  47. ncbi request reprint Caffeine intake, toxicity and dependence and lifetime risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders: an epidemiologic and co-twin control analysis
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 36:1717-25. 2006
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint The nature of genetic influences on behavior: lessons from "simpler" organisms
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, P O Box 980126, Richmond, 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:1683-94. 2006
    ..For some behaviors, the pathway from genes to behavior differs meaningfully in males and females. With respect to the broad patterns of genetic influences on behavior, Homo sapiens appears to be typical of other animal species...
  49. ncbi request reprint A genetically informative developmental study of the relationship between conduct disorder and peer deviance in males
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 38:1001-11. 2008
    ..Although levels of CD and PD are strongly correlated, the causal relationship between them has remained controversial and has not been examined by a genetically informative study...
  50. ncbi request reprint Personality and major depression: a Swedish longitudinal, population-based twin study
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:1113-20. 2006
    ..Prior studies suggest that the personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion may be related to the liability to major depression (MD)...
  51. pmc Should the diagnosis of major depression be made independent of or dependent upon the psychosocial context?
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 40:771-80. 2010
    ..For other syndromes (e.g. schizophrenia), the context is generally irrelevant. Should the diagnosis of major depression (MD) be made dependent upon or independent of the psychosocial context in which it occurs?..
  52. ncbi request reprint The sources of co-morbidity between major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in a Swedish national twin sample
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 37:453-62. 2007
    ..The personality trait of neuroticism (N) is substantially correlated with risk for MD and GAD...
  53. ncbi request reprint Genetic influences on measures of the environment: a systematic review
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 37:615-26. 2007
    ..Accumulating evidence from developmental and genetic studies has made this perspective increasingly untenable...
  54. pmc A longitudinal twin study of fears from middle childhood to early adulthood: evidence for a developmentally dynamic genome
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, Box 980126, 800 E Leigh St, Room 1 123, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:421-9. 2008
    ..While the nature of common fears changes over development, we do not know whether genetic effects on fear-proneness are developmentally stable or developmentally dynamic...
  55. pmc A longitudinal etiologic model for symptoms of anxiety and depression in women
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 41:2035-45. 2011
    ..No comprehensive etiologic model for SxAnxDep has illuminated the inter-relationship between their state- and trait-like characteristics, while including key predictor variables...
  56. pmc Do reasons for major depression act as causes?
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 16:626-33. 2011
    ....
  57. doi request reprint The development of fears from early adolesence to young adulthood: a multivariate study
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 38:1759-69. 2008
    ..Genetic and environmental risk factors for fears are partly shared across fears and partly fear-specific. The nature of the changes in common and fear-specific genetic and environmental risk factors over time is unknown...
  58. pmc Endophenotype: a conceptual analysis
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:789-97. 2010
    ....
  59. pmc The impact of environmental experiences on symptoms of anxiety and depression across the life span
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Psychol Sci 22:1343-52. 2011
    ..By middle adulthood, environmental experiences contributed substantially to stable and predictable interindividual differences in levels of anxiety and depression...
  60. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility genes for nicotine dependence: a genome scan and followup in an independent sample suggest that regions on chromosomes 2, 4, 10, 16, 17 and 18 merit further study
    R E Straub
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 1534, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 4:129-44. 1999
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Genome-wide scans of three independent sets of 90 Irish multiplex schizophrenia families and follow-up of selected regions in all families provides evidence for multiple susceptibility genes
    R E Straub
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 7:542-59. 2002
    ..However, our internal replications, when considered along with the positive results obtained in multiple other samples, suggests that most of these six regions are likely to contain genes that influence liability to schizophrenia...
  62. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal population-based twin study of retrospectively reported premenstrual symptoms and lifetime major depression
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:1234-40. 1998
    ..In addition, we know little about the relationship of the familial risk factors for premenstrual symptoms and major depression...
  63. ncbi request reprint A population-based twin study of generalized anxiety disorder in men and women
    J M Hettema
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298-0126, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 189:413-20. 2001
    ..The familial aggregation of GAD in this sample was only modest. In the best-fitting models, the heritability of GAD was the same in men and women, estimated at about 15% to 20%, with no effects of gender-specific genes detected...
  64. ncbi request reprint The effects of anxiety, substance use and conduct disorders on risk of major depressive disorder
    J M Hettema
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 33:1423-32. 2003
    ..Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly co-morbid with other Axis I disorders, which commonly precede its onset. We sought to determine the level and periods of risk for MDD posed by prior or co-occurring psychiatric disorders...
  65. ncbi request reprint Alcohol dependence is associated with the ZNF699 gene, a human locus related to Drosophila hangover, in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) sample
    B P Riley
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0424, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 11:1025-31. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Tobacco consumption in Swedish twins reared apart and reared together
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298 0126
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:886-92. 2000
    ..Prior studies of twins reared together suggest that regular tobacco use (RTU) is substantially heritable. However, strong social influences on RTU might have biased these results...
  67. ncbi request reprint An association study of DRD5 with smoking initiation and progression to nicotine dependence
    P F Sullivan
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    Am J Med Genet 105:259-65. 2001
    ..These data are not consistent with a strong etiological role for DRD5 in the etiology of these complex smoking behaviors...
  68. ncbi request reprint Neuroticism, major depression and gender: a population-based twin study
    A Fanous
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, USA
    Psychol Med 32:719-28. 2002
    ..Females have both higher levels of N and higher rates of MD than males, suggesting that these traits may be more genetically correlated in females...
  69. pmc Replication of association between schizophrenia and ZNF804A in the Irish Case-Control Study of Schizophrenia sample
    B Riley
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0424, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:29-37. 2010
    ..This study replicates the original reported association of ZNF804A with schizophrenia and suggests that there is a consistent link between the A allele of rs1344706, increased expression of ZNF804A and risk for schizophrenia...
  70. ncbi request reprint Gambling, disordered gambling and their association with major depression and substance use: a web-based cohort and twin-sibling study
    C Blanco
    Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute Columbia University, NY, USA
    Psychol Med 42:497-508. 2012
    ..Relatively little is known about the environmental and genetic contributions to gambling frequency and disordered gambling (DG), the full continuum of gambling-related problems that includes pathological gambling (PG)...
  71. ncbi request reprint The diagnostic validity of melancholic major depression in a population-based sample of female twins
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 54:299-304. 1997
    ..If melancholia is a valid subtype of depression, is it quantitatively more severe than or qualitatively distinct from nonmelancholic depression?..
  72. ncbi request reprint Clinical features of schizophrenia and linkage to chromosomes 5q, 6p, 8p, and 10p in the Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0710, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:402-8. 2000
    ..Recent linkage studies suggest that multiple genes are important in the etiology of schizophrenia. The authors examined the hypothesis of whether the clinical variability in schizophrenia is due to genetic heterogeneity...
  73. pmc Association study of CSF2RB with schizophrenia in Irish family and case - control samples
    Q Chen
    Department of Psychiatry and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0424, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 13:930-8. 2008
    ..Since CSF2RB is essential for IL3 signaling, the findings that both IL3 and CSF2RB showed sex-specific and FH-dependent associations suggest that the IL3 pathway is involved in schizophrenia...
  74. pmc The trimmed-haplotype test for linkage disequilibrium
    C J MacLean
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 66:1062-75. 2000
    ..We present a method for summarizing the LD evidence, in any pedigree, that can be employed in trimmed-haplotype analysis as well as in other methods...
  75. ncbi request reprint Evaluating the spectrum concept of schizophrenia in the Roscommon Family Study
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond 23298 0710, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 152:749-54. 1995
    ..The authors sought to evaluate whether the pattern of schizophrenia and related disorders in probands and their relatives can be explained by a single underlying continuum of liability to the "schizophrenia spectrum."..
  76. ncbi request reprint The Roscommon Family Study. III. Schizophrenia-related personality disorders in relatives
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:781-8. 1993
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint The joint analysis of personal interview and family history diagnoses: evidence for validity of diagnosis and increased heritability estimates
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 32:829-42. 2002
    ..Reports by family members provide additional information but may be biased. It is unclear how best to combine these two sources of diagnostic data...
  78. ncbi request reprint Catechol-O-methyltransferase and the clinical features of psychosis
    J L McClay
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141:935-8. 2006
    ..4). These results suggest a modest affective vulnerability conferred by this allele in psychosis, but will require replication...
  79. ncbi request reprint Identification of a high-risk haplotype for the dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene in the Irish study of high-density schizophrenia families
    E J C G van den Oord
    Department of Psychiatry and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 8:499-510. 2003
    ..Implications of these findings for follow-up and replication studies are discussed...
  80. ncbi request reprint Marker-to-marker linkage disequilibrium on chromosomes 5q, 6p, and 8p in Irish high-density schizophrenia pedigrees
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Med Genet 88:29-33. 1999
    ..Thus, in Irish families selected for a high density of schizophrenia, M-M LD may be very common within 0.5 cM and frequent up to distances of 2 cM...
  81. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy and perinatal complications associated with risks for common psychiatric disorders in a population-based sample of female twins
    D L Foley
    Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0003, USA
    Am J Med Genet 105:426-31. 2001
    ..Pregnancy and perinatal complications may be associated with an increased risk for eating disorders in women...
  82. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 158:587-93. 2001
    ..The results suggest that the greater prevalence of major depression in women versus men is due neither to differences in the rates of reported stressful life events nor to differential sensitivity to their pathogenic effect...
  83. pmc Association study between the serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A) gene and neuroticism, major depression, and anxiety disorders
    J M Hettema
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147:661-6. 2008
    ..Our data suggests that the HTR1A gene may not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility underlying depressive and anxiety-related phenotypes...
  84. pmc A psychometric evaluation of the DSM-IV borderline personality disorder criteria: age and sex moderation of criterion functioning
    S H Aggen
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Psychol Med 39:1967-78. 2009
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Association between glutamic acid decarboxylase genes and anxiety disorders, major depression, and neuroticism
    J M Hettema
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 11:752-62. 2006
    ..Subject to confirmation in an independent sample, our study suggests that variations in the GAD1 gene may contribute to individual differences in N and impact susceptibility across a range of anxiety disorders and major depression...
  86. ncbi request reprint Variants in the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are associated with schizophrenia in Irish high-density families
    X Chen
    Department of Psychiatry and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 800 E Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:962-7. 2004
    ..We concluded that COMT gene is associated with schizophrenia and carries a small but significant risk to the susceptibility in the Irish subjects...
  87. pmc Is the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) gene a candidate for schizophrenia?
    Qi Chen
    Department of Psychiatry and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 800 E Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23298, United States
    Schizophr Res 106:200-7. 2008
    ..It was also found to be associated with the dysregulation of postsynaptic dopamine transmission, thus suggesting a potential role in several neuropsychiatric diseases...
  88. ncbi request reprint The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatry and Behavioral Genetics and the Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:929-37. 2003
    ..We do not know how genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to this pattern of comorbidity or whether the etiologic structure of these groups differ in men and women...
  89. ncbi request reprint Association of different adverse life events with distinct patterns of depressive symptoms
    Matthew C Keller
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1521-9; quiz 1622. 2007
    ..The authors sought to determine whether, in a general population sample, different categories of adverse life events were associated with different patterns of depressive symptoms...
  90. pmc Polymorphisms in SLC6A4, PAH, GABRB3, and MAOB and modification of psychotic disorder features
    Sarah E Bergen
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA
    Schizophr Res 109:94-7. 2009
    ..031) and QPDTPHASE (chi-square=12.54, p=.028). Also, a significant association between the GABRB3 191 bp allele and the hallucinations factor was detected using QPDTPHASE (chi-square=15.51, p=.030), but not QTDT (chi-square=2.07, p=.560)...
  91. pmc Association study between GABA receptor genes and anxiety spectrum disorders
    Xuan Pham
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0126, USA
    Depress Anxiety 26:998-1003. 2009
    ..In this investigation, we explored four GABA receptor genes for their possible associations with genetic risk for anxiety disorders and depression...
  92. pmc Multicenter linkage study of schizophrenia candidate regions on chromosomes 5q, 6q, 10p, and 13q: schizophrenia linkage collaborative group III
    D F Levinson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 67:652-63. 2000
    ..0038). More-modest support for linkage was observed for chromosome 10p, with logistic-regression analysis of linkage producing an empirical P=. 045 and with significant evidence for intersample heterogeneity (empirical P=.0096)...
  93. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for irrational fears and phobias
    K S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, USA
    Psychol Med 32:209-17. 2002
    ..How does sex impact on the familial transmission of liability to fears and phobias?..
  94. ncbi request reprint Twin studies of psychiatric illness: an update
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals at Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:1005-14. 2001
    ..Twin studies remain a vibrant part of the field of psychiatric genetics and an important complement to and context for current efforts to localize individual susceptibility genes...
  95. ncbi request reprint Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatry and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:789-96. 2003
    ..Although substantial evidence suggests that stressful life events predispose to the onset of episodes of depression and anxiety, the essential features of these events that are depressogenic and anxiogenic remain uncertain...
  96. pmc No association of dysbindin with symptom factors of schizophrenia in an Irish case-control sample
    Sarah E Bergen
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 153:700-5. 2010
    ..Several possibilities, such as differing risk haplotypes, may explain this finding...
  97. ncbi request reprint Creating a social world: a developmental twin study of peer-group deviance
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:958-65. 2007
    ..Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance...
  98. pmc Genetic variation in the serotonin 2A receptor and suicidal ideation in a sample of 270 Irish high-density schizophrenia families
    Ayman H Fanous
    Washington VA Medical Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:411-7. 2009
    ..Because of multiple testing, these results do not provide support for HTR2A as a susceptibility gene for psychotic illness, or for suicidal ideation within psychotic illness...
  99. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in the relationship between social support and risk for major depression: a longitudinal study of opposite-sex twin pairs
    Kenneth S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:250-6. 2005
    ..Prior studies have suggested that women are more sensitive to the depressogenic effects of low social support, but most of these studies had substantial methodologic limitations...
  100. ncbi request reprint Monozygotic twins discordant for major depression: a preliminary exploration of the role of environmental experiences in the aetiology and course of illness
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, USA
    Psychol Med 31:411-23. 2001
    ..Genetic effects upon behaviour are pervasive. To what extent are the many correlates of major depression (MD) due to individual-specific environmental experiences versus genetic factors correlated with risk for MD?..
  101. ncbi request reprint Does the level of family dysfunction moderate the impact of genetic factors on the personality trait of neuroticism?
    K S Kendler
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University and Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, VA, USA
    Psychol Med 33:817-25. 2003
    ..Can a similar pattern be seen for the personality trait of Neuroticism (N)-which is a risk factor for many psychiatric conditions?..