Mary Jo Grap
Affiliation: Virginia Commonwealth University
- The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patientsCurtis N Sessler
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:1338-44. 2002..Our nurses described RASS as logical, easy to administer, and readily recalled. RASS has high reliability and validity in medical and surgical, ventilated and nonventilated, and sedated and nonsedated adult ICU patients...
- Observation of behavior in sedated, mechanically ventilated childrenMary Jo Grap
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Pediatr Nurs 32:216-20. 2006..Sedation scales in children may be best used in conjunction with behavior observations although further research is needed to determine the predictive capabilities of either scales or behavior on actual ventilation outcomes...
- Care and management of the patient with ascitesLisa Lee
Adult Health Department, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Medsurg Nurs 17:376-81; quiz 382. 2008..Ascites, the most common complication of cirrhosis-induced liver failure, is reviewed, including its pathogenesis, evaluation, diagnosis, and management...
- Mouth care in nursing homes: knowledge, beliefs, and practices of nursing assistantsRita A Jablonski
School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
Geriatr Nurs 30:99-107. 2009..The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of nursing assistants (NAs) providing oral hygiene care to frail elders in nursing homes, with the intent of developing an educational program for NAs...
- Not-so-trivial pursuit: mechanical ventilation risk reductionMary Jo Grap
School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Am J Crit Care 18:299-309. 2009..Our understanding of the risks associated with mechanical ventilation is constantly changing, but care of these patients must be based on the best evidence...
- Use of high frequency ultrasound to detect changes in skin integrity: An image evaluation validation procedureMary Jo Grap
Adult Health and Nursing Systems, Department of the School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States Electronic address
Intensive Crit Care Nurs 31:141-7. 2015..Limited data are available about the criteria to determine an ideal image or measures of tissue changes representative of tissue injury. We developed and evaluated criteria for overall image quality and measures of tissue integrity...
- Responses to noxious stimuli in sedated mechanically ventilated adultsMary Jo Grap
Adult Health and Nursing Systems Department, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980567, Richmond, VA 23298 0567, USA Electronic address
Heart Lung 43:6-12. 2014..To determine the effect of sedation on physiologic responses and comfort before, during and after a noxious stimulus (endotracheal tube suctioning)...
- Sedation in adults receiving mechanical ventilation: physiological and comfort outcomesMary Jo Grap
Adult Health and Nursing Systems Department, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 23298 0567, USA
Am J Crit Care 21:e53-63; quiz e64. 2012..To describe the relationships among sedation, stability in physiological status, and comfort during a 24-hour period in patients receiving mechanical ventilation...
- Protocol-directed weaning: a process of continuous performance improvementVenkat Ramachandran
The Department of Medicine, Medical College of Virginia Campus of the Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
Crit Care 9:138-40. 2005..However, one must avoid selecting criteria that are too restrictive, potentially delaying the discontinuation of ventilation...
- A description of patients' report of endotracheal tube discomfortMary Jo Grap
Intensive Crit Care Nurs 18:244-9. 2002..In addition, interventions that focus on ETT stability will not be sufficient to reduce discomfort but must re-focus nursing attention on reducing ETT movement as well as the movement of all ventilator tubing...
- Actigraphy: analyzing patient movementMary Jo Grap
Adult Health and Nursing Systems Department, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA
Heart Lung 40:e52-9. 2011..Actigraphic data during simulated participant movements were evaluated to differentiate among patient behavior states...
- Early, single chlorhexidine application reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patientsMary Jo Grap
Adult Health and Nursing Systems Department of the School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0567, USA
Heart Lung 40:e115-22. 2011..This randomized, controlled clinical trial tested an early (within 12 hours of intubation) application of CHX by swab versus control (no swab) on oral microbial flora and VAP...
- Quality improvement in backrest elevation: improving outcomes in critical careMary Jo Grap
Department of Adult Health, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0567, USA
AACN Clin Issues 16:133-9. 2005..A quality improvement process to guide evidence-based care related to backrest positioning is also described...
- Nurses' knowledge and attitudes about antibiotic therapy in critical careC L Munro
School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0567, USA
Intensive Crit Care Nurs 17:213-8. 2001..To assess critical care nurses' knowledge about antibiotic use in critical care settings, and attitudes concerning the role of the nurse in monitoring response to and appropriate use of antibiotic therapy...
- Preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: evidence-based careMary Jo Grap
Adult Health Department, Box 980567, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0567, USA
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 16:349-58, viii. 2004....
- Predictors of backrest elevation in critical careMary Jo Grap
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Nursing, P O Box 980567, Richmond, VA 23298 0567, USA
Intensive Crit Care Nurs 19:68-74. 2003..Strategies to meet published recommendations for backrest elevation (30-45 degrees ) must include repeated feedback about nurse's use of backrest elevation and estimates of elevation...
- Oral health and care in the intensive care unit: state of the scienceCindy L Munro
School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Am J Crit Care 13:25-33; discussion 34. 2004..Additional studies are needed to develop and test best practices for oral care in critically ill patients...
- Evaluating and monitoring analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unitCurtis N Sessler
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
Crit Care 12:S2. 2008..Further clarification of the roles of these tools, particularly within the context of patient safety, is needed, as is further technology development to eliminate artifacts and investigation to demonstrate added value...
- Duration of action of a single, early oral application of chlorhexidine on oral microbial flora in mechanically ventilated patients: a pilot studyMary Jo Grap
Adult Health Department of the School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0567, USA
Heart Lung 33:83-91. 2004..The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of an early post-intubation oral application of chlorhexidine gluconate on oral microbial flora and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
- Oral care interventions in critical care: frequency and documentationMary Jo Grap
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Nursing, Richmond, VA, USA
Am J Crit Care 12:113-8; discussion 119. 2003..No data have been collected to describe the products, methods, and frequency of oral care needed to reduce dental plaque, oral colonization, and ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients...
- Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adultsCindy L Munro
Adult Health Department, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0567, USA
Am J Crit Care 18:428-37; quiz 438. 2009..Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
- Oral health status and development of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a descriptive studyCindy L Munro
Adult Health Department, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0567, USA
Am J Crit Care 15:453-60. 2006..Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and may be influenced by oral health...
- Oral health measurement in nursing research: state of the scienceCindy L Munro
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Nursing, Richmond, 23298, USA
Biol Res Nurs 8:35-42. 2006..Standardized measures of components of oral health are available and applicable across populations, and their uses and relationship to nursing research and patient outcomes will be discussed...
- Facial expression and pain in the critically ill non-communicative patient: state of science reviewMamoona Arif-Rahu
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
Intensive Crit Care Nurs 26:343-52. 2010..This paper will provide a comprehensive review of the current state of science in the study of facial expression and its application in pain assessment tools...
- The role of biobehavioral, environmental, and social forces on oral health disparities in frail and functionally dependent nursing home eldersRita A Jablonski
School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298, USA
Biol Res Nurs 7:75-82. 2005..Investigators willing to embrace this cause will have no shortage of opportunities to test methods to improve the delivery of oral care as well as to monitor and reassess these methods...
- Actigraphy in the critically ill: correlation with activity, agitation, and sedationMary Jo Grap
Adult Health Department of the School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA, USA
Am J Crit Care 14:52-60. 2005....
- Subject recruitment in critical care nursing research: a complex task in a complex environmentMary Jo Grap
Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Nursing, Richmond, Virginia, USA
Heart Lung 32:162-8. 2003..This article serves to describe subject recruitment issues in a funded study in a the medical respiratory intensive care unit...
- Frequency and predictors of return to incentive spirometry volume baseline after cardiac surgerySuzanne C Harton
Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
Prog Cardiovasc Nurs 22:7-12. 2007..These data may assist nurses and patients to set realistic goals for postoperative IS volume achievement...
- Collaborative practice: development, implementation, and evaluation of a weaning protocol for patients receiving mechanical ventilationMary Jo Grap
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Am J Crit Care 12:454-60. 2003..Use of protocols to reduce weaning time for patients receiving mechanical ventilation helps reduce cost and length of stay. However, implementation of this type of protocol is not easy and requires a consistent collaborative effort...
- Automatic tube compensation during weaning from mechanical ventilation: evidence and clinical implicationsTakeshi Unoki
School of Nursing at St Luke s College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan
Crit Care Nurse 28:34-42; quiz 43. 2008
- Subglottic secretion viscosity and evacuation efficiencyPAMELA V O'NEAL
College of Nursing, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
Biol Res Nurs 8:202-9. 2007..Further research is needed to identify safe suction pressures for optimal evacuation of SSs in human subjects...
- Development of the American association of critical-care nurses' sedation assessment scale for critically ill patientsMaj Marla J De Jong
Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Tex, USA
Am J Crit Care 14:531-44. 2005..Before the scale is widely used, clinical testing is required to determine its validity and reliability in a variety of critically ill patients and care situations...
- Effect of backrest elevation on the development of ventilator-associated pneumoniaMary Jo Grap
The Adult Health Department of the School of Nursing
Am J Crit Care 14:325-32; quiz 333. 2005..Empirical evidence of the effect of backrest positions on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, especially during mechanical ventilation over time, is limited...
- Nurses' accuracy in estimating backrest elevationAmy Dillon
Winston Salem Cardiology Associates, NC, USA
Am J Crit Care 11:34-7. 2002..However, use of higher backrest positions for critically ill patients is not common nursing practice. Backrest elevation may be affected by the accuracy of nurses' estimates of patients' positions...
- Endotracheal tube narrowing during mechanical ventilationCurtis N Sessler
Crit Care Med 32:1979-80. 2004
- The effects of preparatory sensory information on ICU patientsShu Feng Shi
School of Nursing National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
J Med Syst 27:191-204. 2003..00, p_close = 0.89, and critical N = 109. These findings provide empirical support for Lazarus' theory on stress, appraisal, and coping. The findings also verify the beneficial effects of the nursing intervention of PSI on ICU patients...
- Sedation Effects in Mechanically Ventilated PatientsMary Jo Grap; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..