Sunil Kripalani

Summary

Affiliation: Vanderbilt University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Reducing hospital readmission rates: current strategies and future directions
    Sunil Kripalani
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 email
    Annu Rev Med 65:471-85. 2014
  2. pmc Determinants of health after hospital discharge: rationale and design of the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS)
    Abby G Meyers
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1215 21st Ave S, Suite 6000 Medical Center East, Nashville 37232, TN, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 14:10. 2014
  3. pmc Improving Medication Adherence through Graphically Enhanced Interventions in Coronary Heart Disease (IMAGE-CHD): a randomized controlled trial
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 27:1609-17. 2012
  4. pmc Effect of a pharmacist intervention on clinically important medication errors after hospital discharge: a randomized trial
    Sunil Kripalani
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1215 21st Avenue South, Suite 6000 Medical Center East, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Ann Intern Med 157:1-10. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Medication use among inner-city patients after hospital discharge: patient-reported barriers and solutions
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, 1215 21st Ave S, Ste 6000 Medical Center East, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 83:529-35. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Development and evaluation of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) among low-literacy patients with chronic disease
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Value Health 12:118-23. 2009
  7. pmc Health literacy and the quality of physician-patient communication during hospitalization
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Hosp Med 5:269-75. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Association of age, health literacy, and medication management strategies with cardiovascular medication adherence
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Patient Educ Couns 81:177-81. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Frequency and predictors of prescription-related issues after hospital discharge
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Hosp Med 3:12-9. 2008
  10. pmc Association of health literacy with elevated blood pressure: a cohort study of hospitalized patients
    Candace D McNaughton
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Department of Medicine and the Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University Department of Medicine and Veterans Health Administration Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center GRECC, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Nashville VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN
    Med Care 52:346-53. 2014

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc Reducing hospital readmission rates: current strategies and future directions
    Sunil Kripalani
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 email
    Annu Rev Med 65:471-85. 2014
    ..Future work should better define the roles of home-based services, information technology, mental health care, caregiver support, community partnerships, and new transitional care personnel. ..
  2. pmc Determinants of health after hospital discharge: rationale and design of the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS)
    Abby G Meyers
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1215 21st Ave S, Suite 6000 Medical Center East, Nashville 37232, TN, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 14:10. 2014
    ..Little research has examined the role of health literacy and other social determinants of health in predicting post-discharge outcomes...
  3. pmc Improving Medication Adherence through Graphically Enhanced Interventions in Coronary Heart Disease (IMAGE-CHD): a randomized controlled trial
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 27:1609-17. 2012
    ..Up to 50 % of patients do not take medications as prescribed. Interventions to improve adherence are needed, with an understanding of which patients benefit most...
  4. pmc Effect of a pharmacist intervention on clinically important medication errors after hospital discharge: a randomized trial
    Sunil Kripalani
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1215 21st Avenue South, Suite 6000 Medical Center East, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Ann Intern Med 157:1-10. 2012
    ..They include preventable or ameliorable adverse drug events (ADEs), as well as medication discrepancies or nonadherence with high potential for future harm (potential ADEs)...
  5. doi request reprint Medication use among inner-city patients after hospital discharge: patient-reported barriers and solutions
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, 1215 21st Ave S, Ste 6000 Medical Center East, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 83:529-35. 2008
    ..To better characterize medication-related problems among inner-city patients after hospital discharge and to suggest potential interventions...
  6. doi request reprint Development and evaluation of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) among low-literacy patients with chronic disease
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Value Health 12:118-23. 2009
    ..Patient literacy affects many aspects of medication use and may influence the measurement of adherence. The aim of the study is to design and evaluate a medication adherence scale suitable for use across levels of patient literacy...
  7. pmc Health literacy and the quality of physician-patient communication during hospitalization
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Hosp Med 5:269-75. 2010
    ..We analyzed patients' ratings of the quality of physician-patient communication during hospitalization and how this varies by health literacy...
  8. doi request reprint Association of age, health literacy, and medication management strategies with cardiovascular medication adherence
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Patient Educ Couns 81:177-81. 2010
    ..To examine patients' use of medication management strategies (e.g., reminders, pill boxes), and to determine how their use influences the relationship between patient characteristics and medication adherence...
  9. doi request reprint Frequency and predictors of prescription-related issues after hospital discharge
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Hosp Med 3:12-9. 2008
    ..In the period immediately following hospital discharge, patients often experience difficulty with medication management. The problems related to patients' handling of discharge prescriptions are not well characterized...
  10. pmc Association of health literacy with elevated blood pressure: a cohort study of hospitalized patients
    Candace D McNaughton
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Department of Medicine and the Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University Department of Medicine and Veterans Health Administration Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center GRECC, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Nashville VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN
    Med Care 52:346-53. 2014
    ..The clinical consequences of low health literacy are not fully understood...
  11. pmc Effect of patient- and medication-related factors on inpatient medication reconciliation errors
    Amanda H Salanitro
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 27:924-32. 2012
    ..Little research has examined the incidence, clinical relevance, and predictors of medication reconciliation errors at hospital admission and discharge...
  12. pmc Association of brief health literacy screening and blood pressure in primary care
    David E Willens
    a Henry Ford Health System, Department of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Health Commun 18:129-42. 2013
    ..Future research is needed to explore this unexpected finding...
  13. pmc Health literacy explains racial disparities in diabetes medication adherence
    Chandra Y Osborn
    Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 8300, USA
    J Health Commun 16:268-78. 2011
    ..09, p = .14). Diabetes medication adherence promotion interventions should address patient health literacy limitations...
  14. pmc Rationale and design of the Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS)
    Amanda H Salanitro
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 13:230. 2013
    ....
  15. pmc Improving care transitions: the patient perspective
    Courtney Cawthon
    Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, Institute for Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Health Commun 17:312-24. 2012
    ..In conclusion, patients--particularly those with limited health literacy--found a hospital pharmacist-based intervention to be very helpful and empowering...
  16. pmc Health literacy and medication understanding among hospitalized adults
    Marketa Marvanova
    School of Pharmacy, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Hosp Med 6:488-93. 2011
    ..Little is known about predictors of preadmission medication understanding...
  17. pmc The effect of cognitive impairment on the accuracy of the presenting complaint and discharge instruction comprehension in older emergency department patients
    Jin H Han
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 4700, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 57:662-671.e2. 2011
    ..We seek to determine how delirium and dementia affect the accuracy of the presenting illness and discharge instruction comprehension in older emergency department (ED) patients...
  18. pmc Psychometric properties of the brief health literacy screen in clinical practice
    Kenneth A Wallston
    School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 29:119-26. 2014
    ..The three-item Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) has been validated in research settings, but not in routine practice, administered by clinical personnel...
  19. doi request reprint Health literacy, numeracy, and other characteristics associated with hospitalized patients' preferences for involvement in decision making
    Kathryn M Goggins
    a Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Health Commun 19:29-43. 2014
    ..These findings underscore the role that patient characteristics, especially health literacy and numeracy, play in decisional preferences among hospitalized patients...
  20. doi request reprint The Hospital Medicine Reengineering Network (HOMERuN): a learning organization focused on improving hospital care
    Andrew D Auerbach
    Dr Auerbach is professor of medicine, University of California, San Francisco Division of Hospital Medicine, San Francisco, California Dr Patel is resident physician, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Section of Hospital Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Dr Metlay is professor of medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Section of Hospital Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Dr Schnipper is associate professor of medicine, Division of General Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Dr Williams is professor of medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine, Chicago, Illinois Dr Robinson is physician in chief and associate chief medical officer, Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware Dr Kripalani is associate professor, Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee Dr Lindenauer is associate professor of medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, and Director, Center for Quality of Care Research, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
    Acad Med 89:415-20. 2014
    ..Next steps and sustainability of the organization are discussed, including benchmarking, collaboration, and effective dissemination of best practices to stakeholders. ..
  21. doi request reprint Doctor talk: physicians' use of clear verbal communication
    Tera Howard
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Health Commun 18:991-1001. 2013
    ..In conclusion, the study found that medical residents used clear communication techniques infrequently and tended to overestimate the clarity with which they communicate. ..
  22. pmc Development and validation of the General Health Numeracy Test (GHNT)
    Chandra Y Osborn
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Patient Educ Couns 91:350-6. 2013
    ..Because existing numeracy measures may not optimally assess 'health numeracy', we developed and validated the General Health Numeracy Test (GHNT)...
  23. pmc Pharmacists' recommendations to improve care transitions
    Katherine Taylor Haynes
    Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations, Peabody College of Education and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 46:1152-9. 2012
    ..Increasingly, hospitals are implementing multifaceted programs to improve medication reconciliation and transitions of care, often involving pharmacists...
  24. doi request reprint Care transitions: a leverage point for safe and effective medication use in older adults--a mini-review
    Amanda S Mixon
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, Nashville, Tenn, USA
    Gerontology 61:32-40. 2015
    ..Taking steps at care transitions to assess medications and foster adherence to the medication regimen can increase the safety of older adults following hospitalization...
  25. pmc Development and validation of a Spanish diabetes-specific numeracy measure: DNT-15 Latino
    Richard O White
    Department of Internal Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA
    Diabetes Technol Ther 13:893-8. 2011
    ....
  26. pmc The ARMS-D out performs the SDSCA, but both are reliable, valid, and predict glycemic control
    Lindsay S Mayberry
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37204, United States
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 102:96-104. 2013
    ..We also examined measurement differences by age (<65 vs. ≥65 years) and insulin status...
  27. pmc Low numeracy is associated with increased odds of 30-day emergency department or hospital recidivism for patients with acute heart failure
    Candace D McNaughton
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 6:40-6. 2013
    ..More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known...
  28. pmc Low-literacy interventions to promote discussion of prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
    Am J Prev Med 33:83-90. 2007
    ..However, few studies have tested strategies to encourage such discussions, particularly among high-risk populations. We examined the effects of two low-literacy interventions on the frequency of prostate cancer discussion and screening...
  29. doi request reprint Predictors of health care system and physician distrust in hospitalized cardiac patients
    Charu Gupta
    a Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Health Commun 19:44-60. 2014
    ..In conclusion, distrust is common among acutely ill cardiac patients. Those with low social support and low coping skills are more distrusting of physicians and the health care system...
  30. doi request reprint Electronic surveillance and pharmacist intervention for vulnerable older inpatients on high-risk medication regimens
    Josh F Peterson
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
    J Am Geriatr Soc 62:2148-52. 2014
    ..To develop and evaluate an electronic tool to assist clinical pharmacists with reviewing potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized elderly adults...
  31. pmc Characteristics associated with postdischarge medication errors
    Amanda S Mixon
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Nashville, Tennessee Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee Electronic address
    Mayo Clin Proc 89:1042-51. 2014
    ..To examine the association of patient- and medication-related factors with postdischarge medication errors...
  32. pmc The effect of reducing maximum shift lengths to 16 hours on internal medicine interns' educational opportunities
    Cecelia N Theobald
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, USA
    Acad Med 88:512-8. 2013
    ..To evaluate educational experiences of internal medicine interns before and after maximum shift lengths were decreased from 30 hours to 16 hours...
  33. pmc Medication use in the transition from hospital to home
    Yvette M Cua
    Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Ann Acad Med Singapore 37:136-6. 2008
    ....
  34. pmc Bridging the digital divide in diabetes: family support and implications for health literacy
    Lindsay S Mayberry
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Diabetes Technol Ther 13:1005-12. 2011
    ..In diabetes, PWP use has been associated with patient satisfaction, patient-provider communication, and glycemic control...
  35. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in low-literacy populations: using teach-back to assess comprehension of informed consent and privacy information
    Sunil Kripalani
    Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    IRB 30:13-9. 2008
  36. doi request reprint The nature and necessity of operational flexibility in the emergency department
    Michael J Ward
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN Electronic address
    Ann Emerg Med 65:156-61. 2015
    ..Applying concepts of flexibility from other disciplines may help clinicians and administrators think differently about their workflow and provide new insights into managing issues of cost, flow, and quality in the ED. ..
  37. pmc Regardless of age: Incorporating principles from geriatric medicine to improve care transitions for patients with complex needs
    Alicia I Arbaje
    Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Mason F Lord Building, Center Tower, 5200 Eastern Avenue, 7th Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 29:932-9. 2014
    ..The article concludes with a discussion of practical aspects of designing, implementing, and evaluating care transitions programs for those with complex care needs, as well as implications for public policy...
  38. pmc Hospitalist handoffs: a systematic review and task force recommendations
    Vineet M Arora
    Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Hosp Med 4:433-40. 2009
    ..Handoffs are ubiquitous to Hospital Medicine and are considered a vulnerable time for patient safety...
  39. ncbi request reprint Promoting effective transitions of care at hospital discharge: a review of key issues for hospitalists
    Sunil Kripalani
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Hosp Med 2:314-23. 2007
    ..By understanding the key challenges and adopting strategies to improve patient care in the transition from hospital to home, hospitalists could significantly reduce medical errors in the postdischarge period...
  40. ncbi request reprint Development of an illustrated medication schedule as a low-literacy patient education tool
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Patient Educ Couns 66:368-77. 2007
    ..This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of an illustrated medication schedule (a "pill card") that depicts a patient's daily medication regimen using pill images and icons...
  41. ncbi request reprint Interventions to enhance medication adherence in chronic medical conditions: a systematic review
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:540-50. 2007
    ..Approximately 20% to 50% of patients are not adherent to medical therapy. This review was performed to summarize, categorize, and estimate the effect size (ES) of interventions to improve medication adherence in chronic medical conditions...
  42. ncbi request reprint Use of pictorial aids in medication instructions: a review of the literature
    Marra G Katz
    New York Univeristy, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 63:2391-7. 2006
    ..The effects of pictorial aids in medication instructions on medication recall, comprehension, and adherence are reviewed...
  43. pmc Factors associated with medication refill adherence in cardiovascular-related diseases: a focus on health literacy
    Julie A Gazmararian
    Emory Center on Health Outcomes and Quality, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 21:1215-21. 2006
    ..The factors influencing medication adherence have not been fully elucidated. Inadequate health literacy skills may impair comprehension of medical care instructions, and thereby reduce medication adherence...
  44. ncbi request reprint Deficits in communication and information transfer between hospital-based and primary care physicians: implications for patient safety and continuity of care
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    JAMA 297:831-41. 2007
    ..Delayed or inaccurate communication between hospital-based and primary care physicians at hospital discharge may negatively affect continuity of care and contribute to adverse events...
  45. ncbi request reprint Development and psychometric evaluation of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (SEAMS) in low-literacy patients with chronic disease
    Jessica Risser
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30317, USA
    J Nurs Meas 15:203-19. 2007
    ..The SEAMS is a reliable and valid instrument that may provide a valuable assessment of medication self-efficacy in chronic disease management, and appears appropriate for use in patients with low literacy skills...
  46. pmc Predictors of medication self-management skill in a low-literacy population
    Sunil Kripalani
    Division of General Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 21:852-6. 2006
    ..Patients' ability to manage medications is critical to chronic disease control. Also known as medication management capacity (MMC), it includes the ability to correctly identify medications and describe how they should be taken...
  47. ncbi request reprint Prostate cancer screening in a low-literacy population: does informed decision making occur?
    Sunil Kripalani
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Cancer Control 12:116-7. 2005
  48. pmc Brief report: Resident recognition of low literacy as a risk factor in hospital readmission
    Caroline K Powell
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 20:1042-4. 2005
    ..Low literacy is associated with poor self-management of disease and increased hospitalization, yet few studies have explored the extent to which physicians consider literacy in their patient care...
  49. ncbi request reprint Identifying and assisting low-literacy patients with medication use: a survey of community pharmacies
    Jessica L Praska
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Pharmacy Service, Denver, CO 80220 3808, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 39:1441-5. 2005
    ..Low patient literacy is associated with poor medication adherence and health outcomes. However, little is known about how pharmacies address literacy-related needs among patrons...

Research Grants2

  1. Training in Medication Compliance and Health Literacy
    Sunil Kripalani; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If successful, the proposed research could serve as a model for other interventions to improve compliance and cardiovascular care, particularly among low-literate and underserved populations. ..
  2. Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD)
    Sunil Kripalani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Program costs will also be assessed. If successful, this intervention could offer an important means of reducing medication errors in the post-hospitalization period. ..