Timothy D Girard

Summary

Affiliation: Vanderbilt University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Associations of markers of inflammation and coagulation with delirium during critical illness
    Timothy D Girard
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Intensive Care Med 38:1965-73. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Brain dysfunction in patients with chronic critical illness
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 8300, USA
    Respir Care 57:947-55; discussion 955-7. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Insights into severe sepsis in older patients: from epidemiology to evidence-based management
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:719-27. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Protocol-driven ventilator weaning: reviewing the evidence
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 6 th Floor MCE, 6110, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Clin Chest Med 29:241-52, v. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Bacteremia and sepsis in older adults
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 6th Floor Medical Center East, Suite 6100, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Clin Geriatr Med 23:633-47, viii. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Mechanical ventilation in ARDS: a state-of-the-art review
    Timothy D Girard
    Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Chest 131:921-9. 2007
  7. pmc Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation: a prospective cohort study
    Timothy D Girard
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2650, USA
    Crit Care 11:R28. 2007
  8. pmc Delirium in the intensive care unit
    Timothy D Girard
    Department of Medicine Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine Vanderbilt University School of Medicine 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232 2650, USA
    Crit Care 12:S3. 2008
  9. pmc Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and Department of Medicine, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 38:1513-20. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound guidance during central venous catheterization: a survey of use by house staff physicians
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    J Crit Care 20:224-9. 2005

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc Associations of markers of inflammation and coagulation with delirium during critical illness
    Timothy D Girard
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Intensive Care Med 38:1965-73. 2012
    ..To assess the associations between a priori-selected markers of inflammation and coagulation and delirium during critical illness...
  2. ncbi request reprint Brain dysfunction in patients with chronic critical illness
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 8300, USA
    Respir Care 57:947-55; discussion 955-7. 2012
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Insights into severe sepsis in older patients: from epidemiology to evidence-based management
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:719-27. 2005
    ..Clinicians must be aware of the level of evidence in support of various interventions and must keenly screen older survivors for ongoing deficits that will limit their functional recovery...
  4. ncbi request reprint Protocol-driven ventilator weaning: reviewing the evidence
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 6 th Floor MCE, 6110, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Clin Chest Med 29:241-52, v. 2008
    ..This article reviews the rationale for and against the routine use of weaning protocols and highlights informative details of many clinical trials that have evaluated such protocols...
  5. ncbi request reprint Bacteremia and sepsis in older adults
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 6th Floor Medical Center East, Suite 6100, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Clin Geriatr Med 23:633-47, viii. 2007
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Mechanical ventilation in ARDS: a state-of-the-art review
    Timothy D Girard
    Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Chest 131:921-9. 2007
    ....
  7. pmc Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation: a prospective cohort study
    Timothy D Girard
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2650, USA
    Crit Care 11:R28. 2007
    ..We sought to identify factors associated with PTSD symptoms in patients following critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation...
  8. pmc Delirium in the intensive care unit
    Timothy D Girard
    Department of Medicine Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine Vanderbilt University School of Medicine 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232 2650, USA
    Crit Care 12:S3. 2008
    ..Strategies for the prevention and treatment of ICU delirium are the subjects of multiple ongoing investigations...
  9. pmc Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and Department of Medicine, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 38:1513-20. 2010
    ..To test the hypothesis that duration of delirium in the intensive care unit is an independent predictor of long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation...
  10. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound guidance during central venous catheterization: a survey of use by house staff physicians
    Timothy D Girard
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    J Crit Care 20:224-9. 2005
    ..The objective of this study is to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of house staff physicians regarding the use of ultrasound guidance (UG) during central venous catheter placement (CP)...
  11. pmc Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of antipsychotics for intensive care unit delirium: the MIND randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Timothy D Girard
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 38:428-37. 2010
    ..To demonstrate the feasibility of a placebo-controlled trial of antipsychotics for delirium in the intensive care unit and to test the hypothesis that antipsychotics would improve days alive without delirium or coma...
  12. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial
    Timothy D Girard
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Lancet 371:126-34. 2008
    ..Our aim was to assess a protocol that paired spontaneous awakening trials (SATs)-ie, daily interruption of sedatives-with spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs)...
  13. pmc Long-term cognitive and psychological outcomes in the awakening and breathing controlled trial
    James C Jackson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:183-91. 2010
    ..Little is known, however, of how such strategies affect long-term cognitive, psychological, and functional outcomes...
  14. pmc The relationship between delirium duration, white matter integrity, and cognitive impairment in intensive care unit survivors as determined by diffusion tensor imaging: the VISIONS prospective cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*
    Alessandro Morandi
    Center for Quality of Aging, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 40:2182-9. 2012
    ..Relationships between 1) delirium duration and brain white matter integrity, and 2) white matter integrity and long-term cognitive impairment are poorly understood and could be explored using magnetic resonance imaging...
  15. pmc Effect of dexmedetomidine versus lorazepam on outcome in patients with sepsis: an a priori-designed analysis of the MENDS randomized controlled trial
    Pratik P Pandharipande
    Anesthesiology Service, VA TN Valley Health Care System, Nashville, TN 37212 2637, USA
    Crit Care 14:R38. 2010
    ....
  16. pmc The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors: the VISIONS cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*
    Max L Gunther
    Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Crit Care Med 40:2022-32. 2012
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial
    Pratik P Pandharipande
    Department of Anesthesiology Division of Critical Care, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    JAMA 298:2644-53. 2007
    ..Dexmedetomidine induces sedation via different central nervous system receptors than the benzodiazepine drugs and may lower the risk of acute brain dysfunction...
  18. pmc Delirium in the ICU and subsequent long-term disability among survivors of mechanical ventilation
    Nathan E Brummel
    1Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 2Center for Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 3Center for Quality of Aging, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 4Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 5Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN 6Clinical Research Center of Excellence, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 7Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 8Anesthesia Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 9Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 10Institute for Medicine and Public Heath, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 11Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
    Crit Care Med 42:369-77. 2014
    ..We hypothesized that the duration of delirium in the ICU would be associated with subsequent disability and worse physical health status following a critical illness...
  19. pmc Association between endothelial dysfunction and acute brain dysfunction during critical illness
    Christopher G Hughes
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1211 21st Ave South, 526 MAB, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, USA
    Anesthesiology 118:631-9. 2013
    ..This study sought to determine whether systemic endothelial dysfunction is associated with acute brain dysfunction during critical illness...
  20. pmc A combined early cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for people who are critically ill: the activity and cognitive therapy in the intensive care unit (ACT-ICU) trial
    Nathan E Brummel
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Phys Ther 92:1580-92. 2012
    ..The feasibility of early cognitive therapy in people who are critically ill remains unknown...
  21. pmc Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels at admission as predictors of duration of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients
    Stuart McGrane
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 526 MAB, 1211 21st Ave South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Crit Care 15:R78. 2011
    ..This study sought to investigate the relationship between two inflammatory biomarkers, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP), and duration of acute brain dysfunction in ventilated patients...
  22. pmc Delirium and sedation recognition using validated instruments: reliability of bedside intensive care unit nursing assessments from 2007 to 2010
    Eduard E Vasilevskis
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 59:S249-55. 2011
    ..To describe the reliability and sustainability of delirium and sedation measurements of bedside intensive care unit (ICU) nurses...
  23. ncbi request reprint Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study
    James C Jackson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA Electronic address
    Lancet Respir Med 2:369-79. 2014
    ..We aimed to assess associations of age and duration of delirium with mental health and functional disabilities in this group...
  24. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein E4 polymorphism as a genetic predisposition to delirium in critically ill patients
    E Wesley Ely
    Department of Medicine, Saint Thomas Hospital, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Crit Care Med 35:112-7. 2007
    ..To test for an association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and duration of intensive care unit delirium...
  25. pmc Preventing delirium in the intensive care unit
    Nathan E Brummel
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Crit Care Clin 29:51-65. 2013
    ..The ABCDE approach to critical care is a bundled approach that clinicians can implement for many patients treated in their ICUs to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with delirium and critical illness...
  26. pmc Future directions of delirium research and management
    Christopher G Hughes
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 26:395-405. 2012
    ..Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting...
  27. pmc Immortal time bias in critical care research: application of time-varying Cox regression for observational cohort studies
    Ayumi K Shintani
    Department of Biostatistics, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 37:2939-45. 2009
    ..To examine the bias introduced by using time-fixed methodology to analyze the effects of a time-varying exposure incurred in the intensive care unit...
  28. ncbi request reprint Statins and delirium during critical illness: a multicenter, prospective cohort study*
    Alessandro Morandi
    1Rehabilitation and Aged Care Unit, Hospital Ancelle, Cremona, Italy 2Geriatric Research Group, Brescia, Italy 3Center for Quality Aging, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 4Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 5Anesthesia Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 6Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 7Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 8Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 9Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 10Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 11Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 12Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 13Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, South San Francisco
    Crit Care Med 42:1899-909. 2014
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Daily sedation interruption versus targeted light sedation strategies in ICU patients
    Christopher G Hughes
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 41:S39-45. 2013
    ..We review the evidence supporting both methods and discuss whether one method is preferable or if they should be used concurrently...
  30. pmc Statins and brain dysfunction: a hypothesis to reduce the burden of cognitive impairment in patients who are critically ill
    Alessandro Morandi
    Center for Quality of Aging, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Chest 140:580-5. 2011
    ....
  31. pmc Post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms following critical illness in medical intensive care unit patients: assessing the magnitude of the problem
    James C Jackson
    Clinical Research Center of Excellence, VA Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Crit Care 11:R27. 2007
    ..Recently, investigators have reported that the experience of critical illness can also lead to PTSD, although details of the association between critical illness and PTSD remain unclear...
  32. pmc Markers of inflammation and coagulation may be modulated by enteral feeding strategy
    Julie A Bastarache
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2650, USA
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 36:732-40. 2012
    ..Although enteral nutrition (EN) is provided to most mechanically ventilated patients, the effect of specific feeding strategies on circulating markers of coagulation and inflammation is unknown...
  33. doi request reprint Medical and economic implications of cognitive and psychiatric disability of survivorship
    Ramona O Hopkins
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, UT 84107, USA
    Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:348-56. 2012
    ....
  34. pmc The association of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism with acute brain dysfunction during critical illness*
    Jessica R Adams Wilson
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 40:835-41. 2012
    ....
  35. pmc Delirium and sedation in the intensive care unit: survey of behaviors and attitudes of 1384 healthcare professionals
    Rina P Patel
    School of Medicine RPP, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 37:825-32. 2009
    ..Our objective was to assess beliefs and practices regarding ICU delirium and sedation management...
  36. pmc Structure, process, and annual ICU mortality across 69 centers: United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study
    William Checkley
    1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Intermountain Medical Center and University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 5Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Environmental Medicine, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 7Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 8Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 9Department of Surgical Critical Care, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 10Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Ohio State University, Cleveland, OH 11Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 12Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, USA
    Crit Care Med 42:344-56. 2014
    ..Hospital-level variations in structure and process may affect clinical outcomes in ICUs. We sought to characterize the organizational structure, processes of care, use of protocols, and standardized outcomes in a large sample of U.S. ICUs...
  37. ncbi request reprint Sedation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: linking spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials to improve patient outcomes
    Michael H Hooper
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Crit Care Clin 25:515-25, viii. 2009
    ..Implementation of these strategies in a wake-up-and-breathe protocol has demonstrated benefit over the use of spontaneous breathing trials alone...
  38. pmc Neuroimaging in delirious intensive care unit patients: a preliminary case series report
    Alessandro Morandi
    Center for Health Services Research Center, Vanderbilt Center for Quality of Aging, Nashville, Tennesee, USA
    Psychiatry (Edgmont) 7:28-33. 2010
    ..e. white matter hyperintensities) and short- and long-term neurological outcomes...
  39. pmc A screening, prevention, and restoration model for saving the injured brain in intensive care unit survivors
    Eduard E Vasilevskis
    Center for Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Crit Care Med 38:S683-91. 2010
    ..This practical system applying many evidence-based concepts incorporates personalized medicine, systems-based practice, and continuing research and development toward improving acute and chronic cognitive outcomes...
  40. pmc The complex interplay between delirium, sedation, and early mobility during critical illness: applications in the trauma unit
    Arna Banerjee
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 24:195-201. 2011
    ..This review will focus on the epidemiology of these two disease processes and discuss strategies aimed at reducing these devastating complications of critical illness...
  41. pmc Communication in critical care: family rounds in the intensive care unit
    Natalie L Jacobowski
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 8300, USA
    Am J Crit Care 19:421-30. 2010
    ..Communication with family members of patients in intensive care units is challenging and fraught with dissatisfaction...
  42. pmc Are we sedating more than just the brain?
    Nathan E Brummel
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1215, 21st Avenue South, Medical Center East, 6th Floor, Suite 6000, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Crit Care 15:163. 2011
    ..This hypothesis-generating study warns that sedation may harm organs other than the brain during critical illness, a possibility that warrants careful study in the future...
  43. ncbi request reprint Sedation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: linking spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials to improve patient outcomes
    Michael H Hooper
    Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 6th Floor MCE, 6100, Nashville, TN 37232 8300, USA
    Anesthesiol Clin 29:651-61. 2011
    ..Implementation of these strategies in a wake-up-and-breathe protocol has demonstrated benefit over the use of spontaneous breathing trials alone...
  44. ncbi request reprint Increased levels of serum S100B protein in critically ill patients without brain injury: Shock 26(1):20-24, 2006
    Bryan A Cotton
    Shock 27:338; author reply 339. 2007
  45. ncbi request reprint Clinical sedation scores as indicators of sedative and analgesic drug exposure in intensive care unit patients
    Andrew L Masica
    Baylor Institute for Health Care Research and Improvement, Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 5:218-31. 2007
    ..These issues are of particular concern in elderly patients (aged > or =65 years), who account for at least half of all ICU admissions and nearly two thirds of ICU days...
  46. doi request reprint Re: Increased levels of serum S100B protein in critically ill patients without brain injury
    Bryan A Cotton
    Shock 30:222; author reply 222-3. 2008
  47. ncbi request reprint The immunopathogenesis of sepsis in elderly patients
    Steven M Opal
    Infectious Disease Division, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:S504-12. 2005
    ..This immune dysregulation is accompanied by a more pronounced procoagulant state in older patients. These molecular events function in concert to render elderly patients at excess risk for mortality from severe sepsis and septic shock...
  48. ncbi request reprint Comment on "Validity and reliability of the DDS for severity of delirium in the ICU"
    Timothy D Girard
    Neurocrit Care 4:190-1; author reply 192-3. 2006
  49. ncbi request reprint Biomarkers of cardiac injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome: getting to the heart of the matter
    Timothy D Girard
    Crit Care Med 35:2638-9. 2007
  50. ncbi request reprint Comment on "Incidence, risk factors and consequences of ICU delirium" by Ouimet et al
    Timothy D Girard
    Intensive Care Med 33:1479-80; author reply 1481-2. 2007