K M Crofton

Summary

Affiliation: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Low-frequency hearing loss following perinatal exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in rats
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 21:299-301. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Mode of action: neurotoxicity induced by thyroid hormone disruption during development--hearing loss resulting from exposure to PHAHs
    Kevin M Crofton
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:757-69. 2005
  3. pmc Evidence for dose-additive effects of pyrethroids on motor activity in rats
    Marcelo J Wolansky
    Departamento de Química Biológica Area Toxicología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1563-70. 2009
  4. doi request reprint Developmental neurotoxicity testing: a path forward
    Kevin M Crofton
    Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 52:140-6. 2012
  5. pmc Transcriptional response of rat frontal cortex following acute in vivo exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and deltamethrin
    Joshua A Harrill
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    BMC Genomics 9:546. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Bromate: concern for developmental neurotoxicity?
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD B105 04, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Toxicology 221:212-6. 2006
  7. pmc Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism
    Kevin M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1549-54. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Developmental disruption of thyroid hormone: correlations with hearing dysfunction in rats
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Risk Anal 24:1665-71. 2004
  9. doi request reprint Thyroid disrupting chemicals: mechanisms and mixtures
    Kevin M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Int J Androl 31:209-23. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint PCBs, thyroid hormones, and ototoxicity in rats: cross-fostering experiments demonstrate the impact of postnatal lactation exposure
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD 74B, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 57:131-40. 2000

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint Low-frequency hearing loss following perinatal exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in rats
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 21:299-301. 1999
    ..These results are important in that the data implicate, at least partially, the coplanar PCBs in the developmental ototoxicity induced by Aroclor 1254...
  2. ncbi request reprint Mode of action: neurotoxicity induced by thyroid hormone disruption during development--hearing loss resulting from exposure to PHAHs
    Kevin M Crofton
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:757-69. 2005
    ..Research on these areas of uncertainty will increase confidence that this MOA for PCBs is not likely to not occur in humans, assuming normal conditions of limited ambient exposure...
  3. pmc Evidence for dose-additive effects of pyrethroids on motor activity in rats
    Marcelo J Wolansky
    Departamento de Química Biológica Area Toxicología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1563-70. 2009
    ..Previous research characterized the acute dose-effect functions for 11 pyrethroids administered orally in corn oil (1 mL/kg) based on assessment of motor activity...
  4. doi request reprint Developmental neurotoxicity testing: a path forward
    Kevin M Crofton
    Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 52:140-6. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Transcriptional response of rat frontal cortex following acute in vivo exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and deltamethrin
    Joshua A Harrill
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    BMC Genomics 9:546. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to characterize and explore changes in gene expression that occur in the rat frontal cortex, an area of CNS affected by pyrethroids, following an acute low-dose exposure...
  6. ncbi request reprint Bromate: concern for developmental neurotoxicity?
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD B105 04, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Toxicology 221:212-6. 2006
    ..These studies would provide invaluable data for the weight-of-evidence approach used to determine the necessity of a developmental neurotoxicity study of bromate...
  7. pmc Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism
    Kevin M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1549-54. 2005
    ..The results imply that cumulative risk approaches be considered when assessing the risk of exposure to chemical mixtures that contain TDCs...
  8. ncbi request reprint Developmental disruption of thyroid hormone: correlations with hearing dysfunction in rats
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Risk Anal 24:1665-71. 2004
    ..This correlation suggests that T4 serum concentrations at 14 or 21 days of postnatal age may be a good predictive biomarker in rodents of the adverse consequence of developmental exposure to TDCs...
  9. doi request reprint Thyroid disrupting chemicals: mechanisms and mixtures
    Kevin M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Int J Androl 31:209-23. 2008
    ..Assessing the health risks of thyroid disruption by environmental xenobiotics will need to include an improved understanding of how divergent mechanisms alter THs and consequent adverse impacts on nervous system development...
  10. ncbi request reprint PCBs, thyroid hormones, and ototoxicity in rats: cross-fostering experiments demonstrate the impact of postnatal lactation exposure
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD 74B, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 57:131-40. 2000
    ..This effect is consistent with the greater degree of postnatal hypothyroxinemia resulting from the greater magnitude of exposure that occurs postnatally via lactation...
  11. ncbi request reprint A qualitative retrospective analysis of positive control data in developmental neurotoxicity studies
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, MD B105 04, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 26:345-52. 2004
    ..Adequate positive control data are very useful in a weight-of-evidence approach to help determine the biological significance of results, and also to increase the confidence in negative results from DNT studies...
  12. ncbi request reprint Undertaking positive control studies as part of developmental neurotoxicity testing: a report from the ILSI Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute expert working group on neurodevelopmental endpoints
    Kevin M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 30:266-87. 2008
    ..Positive control studies should be conducted as an integral component of the incorporation and use of developmental neurotoxicity testing methods in laboratories that generate data used in risk decisions...
  13. ncbi request reprint Hearing loss following exposure during development to polychlorinated biphenyls: a cochlear site of action
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD 74B, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Hear Res 144:196-204. 2000
    ..The mechanism that underlies this developmental ototoxicity remains to be determined. These data provide the first evidence of a structural deficit in the nervous system of adult animals exposed to PCBs during development...
  14. doi request reprint In vivo acute exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: effects on free and total thyroxine in rats
    J M Hedge
    Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Int J Toxicol 28:382-91. 2009
    ..These data demonstrate that neither PCB 153 nor PCB169 increased FT4, which supports the conclusion that these PCBs do not displace thyroxine from serum TTR, or if it does occur, there is no subsequent increase in serum FT4 in vivo...
  15. doi request reprint Marginal iodide deficiency and thyroid function: dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling
    M E Gilbert
    Toxicity Assessment Division MD B105 05, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Toxicology 283:41-8. 2011
    ..These results challenge existing models and provide essential information for development of quantitative BBDR models for ID during pregnancy and lactation...
  16. ncbi request reprint Developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) produces a persistent impairment in long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo
    M E Gilbert
    Neurotoxicology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Brain Res 850:87-95. 1999
    ..Disruption of early brain ontogeny due to developmental PCB exposure may underlie perturbations in the neurological substrates that support synaptic plasticity and contribute to deficits in LTP and learning that persist into adulthood...
  17. ncbi request reprint Influence of dosing volume on the neurotoxicity of bifenthrin
    M J Wolansky
    U S National Research Council, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 29:377-84. 2007
    ..Further, these data suggest that inconsistent estimates of pyrethroid potency between laboratories are at least partially due to differences in dosing volume...
  18. ncbi request reprint Effects of short-term in vivo exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on thyroid hormones and hepatic enzyme activities in weanling rats
    T Zhou
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Toxicol Sci 61:76-82. 2001
    ..DE-83R was not effective in altering any of the measured parameters. The present study suggests that short-term exposure to some commercial PBDE mixtures interferes with the thyroid hormone system via upregulation of UDPGTS:..
  19. ncbi request reprint Solvent-induced ototoxicity in rats: an atypical selective mid-frequency hearing deficit
    K M Crofton
    Neurotoxicology Division, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Hear Res 80:25-30. 1994
    ..Toluene and xylene also increased thresholds at 24 kHz. These data indicate that for those solvents reported thus far to cause hearing loss, the deficit is restricted to mid-frequencies in rats...
  20. pmc Setting exposure standards: a decision process
    H A Tilson
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 104:401-5. 1996
    ..An analysis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency integrated risk information system (IRIS) indicates that about 20% of the chemicals having standards or health advisories are based on neurotoxicity...
  21. ncbi request reprint Flash-, somatosensory-, and peripheral nerve-evoked potentials in rats perinatally exposed to Aroclor 1254
    D W Herr
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD 74B, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 23:591-601. 2001
    ..However, subtle changes in the function of the visual or somatosensory systems cannot be disproved...
  22. ncbi request reprint Characterization of disulfoton-induced behavioral and neurochemical effects following repeated exposure
    J Llorens
    Neurotoxicology Division, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
    Fundam Appl Toxicol 20:163-9. 1993
    ..These data indicate that, in spite of muscarinic receptor down-regulation that followed repeated exposure to disulfoton, animals become tolerant to only some of the functional effects produced by this chemical...
  23. ncbi request reprint Relative potencies for acute effects of pyrethroids on motor function in rats
    M J Wolansky
    National Research Council, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 89:271-7. 2006
    ..Relative potency ratios ranged from 0.009 (resmethrin) to 2.092 (esfenvalerate). Additional work with environmentally-based mixtures is needed to test the hypothesis of dose-additivity of pyrethroids...
  24. ncbi request reprint Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals
    Kevin M Crofton
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    ALTEX 28:9-15. 2011
    ..The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science...
  25. doi request reprint In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats
    Bryce C Ryan
    Reproductive Toxicology Branch, TA Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U S Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 114:133-48. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant dosage levels of EE2 can permanently disrupt the reproductive morphology and function of the female rat...
  26. pmc A retrospective performance assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity study in support of OECD test guideline 426
    Susan L Makris
    Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 0001, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:17-25. 2009
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Inhalational exposure to carbonyl sulfide produces altered brainstem auditory and somatosensory-evoked potentials in Fischer 344N rats
    David W Herr
    Neurotoxicology Division, MD B105 05, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 95:118-35. 2007
    ..This series of experiments demonstrates that COS produces changes in brainstem auditory and cortical somatosensory neurophysiological responses that correlate with previously described histopathological damage...
  28. doi request reprint Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the neurobehavioral teratology society, June, 2009
    Philip J Bushnell
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:313-28. 2010
    ..Initial advances will likely provide better prioritization tools so that animal resources are used more efficiently and effectively...
  29. doi request reprint Splice variant specific increase in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1-gamma mRNA expression in response to acute pyrethroid exposure
    Joshua A Harrill
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7270, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 24:174-86. 2010
    ..There was no increase in CAMK1G1 protein as measured with Western blots. The present data demonstrate that pyrethroid-induced changes in Camk1g are driven mainly by increased expression of the Camk1g1 splice variant...
  30. pmc Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides: critical review and future research needs
    Timothy J Shafer
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:123-36. 2005
    ..These studies should employ state-of-the-science methods to promote a greater understanding of the mode of action of pyrethroids in the developing nervous system...
  31. ncbi request reprint Assessment of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture, in the EDSP male and female pubertal protocols
    Tammy E Stoker
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 78:144-55. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Accumulation of PBDE-47 in primary cultures of rat neocortical cells
    William R Mundy
    Neurotoxicology and Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 82:164-9. 2004
    ..Thus, accurate information on the tissue concentration for in vitro experiments should be determined empirically...
  33. ncbi request reprint Spatial learning and long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in animals developmentally exposed to Aroclor 1254
    M E Gilbert
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 57:102-11. 2000
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Time and concentration dependent accumulation of [3H]-deltamethrin in Xenopus laevis oocytes
    Joshua A Harrill
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Toxicol Lett 157:79-88. 2005
    ..5-fold at 0.0005 ppm to 4.1-fold at 5.0 ppm. These data suggest that media concentration does not accurately predict tissue dose at all times for a broad range of deltamethrin concentrations in X. laevis oocytes...
  35. ncbi request reprint Schedule-controlled behavior in rats exposed perinatally to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254
    M M Taylor
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 24:511-8. 2002
    ..These data are inconsistent with previous findings and suggest that perinatal A1254 exposure in the rat does not disrupt temporally organized behavior...
  36. ncbi request reprint The ototoxicity of trichloroethylene: extrapolation and relevance of high-concentration, short-duration animal exposure data
    K M Crofton
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711, USA
    Fundam Appl Toxicol 38:101-6. 1997
    ..Furthermore, these data suggest that, relative to ambient or occupational exposures, the ototoxicity of TCE in the rat is a high-concentration effect...
  37. doi request reprint Comparison of PC12 and cerebellar granule cell cultures for evaluating neurite outgrowth using high content analysis
    Nicholas M Radio
    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:25-35. 2010
    ..These findings demonstrate that the effects of chemicals on neurite outgrowth may be cell type specific...
  38. pmc Neurotoxic and pharmacokinetic responses to trichloroethylene as a function of exposure scenario
    W K Boyes
    Neurotoxicology Division, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:317-22. 2000
    ..We conclude that models incorporating dosimetry can account for differing exposure scenarios and will therefore improve risk assessments over models considering only parameters of external exposure...
  39. ncbi request reprint Overview: Using mode of action and life stage information to evaluate the human relevance of animal toxicity data
    Jennifer Seed
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:664-72. 2005
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Behavioral test methods workshop
    William Slikker
    National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, Division of Neurotoxicology, 3900 NCTR Rd Jefferson 72079, United States
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 27:417-27. 2005
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers results in thyroid hormone disruption
    Tong Zhou
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Toxicol Sci 66:105-16. 2002
    ..8-fold; UDPGT = 0.5-fold). These data support the conclusion that DE-71 is an endocrine disrupter in rats during development...
  42. ncbi request reprint Comments on: Effect of prenatal exposure of deltamethrin on the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s in the brain and liver of offsprings [Johri et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 214:279-289, 2006]
    Kevin M Crofton
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 218:96-7; author reply 98. 2007
  43. ncbi request reprint Comparative responsiveness of hypothyroxinemia and hepatic enzyme induction in Long-Evans rats versus C57BL/6J mice exposed to TCDD-like and phenobarbital-like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners
    Elena S Craft
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:372-80. 2002
    ..These data suggest that species differences in response to chemicals that induce hypothyroxinemia are due to differential induction of hepatic UGT enzymes...
  44. ncbi request reprint Perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 impairs distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in rats
    Robert E Lasky
    Center for Clinical Research and Evidence Based Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin, MSB 2 104, Houston, Texas 77030 1503, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:458-64. 2002
    ..In contrast, ABR latencies and amplitudes were not altered by A1254 exposure. These findings provide the first functional evidence supporting a cochlear site of damage in PCB-induced hearing loss...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effect of PCB 126 on hepatic metabolism of thyroxine and perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in the rat
    Jeffrey W Fisher
    University of Georgia, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Toxicol Sci 90:87-95. 2006
    ..However, the dose-response characteristics of the HPT axis are nonlinear and complex, requiring sophisticated tools, such as PBPK models, to characterize dose response...
  46. ncbi request reprint Low-dose effects of ammonium perchlorate on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of adult male rats pretreated with PCB126
    Eva D McLanahan
    Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:308-17. 2007
    ..At relatively low doses, at or near the no-observed-effect-level for PCB126 and ClO(4)(-), no interactions between the chemicals occur...
  47. ncbi request reprint Concentration-dependent accumulation of [3H]-deltamethrin in sodium channel Nav1.2/beta1 expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes
    Jennifer A Watkins
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    Toxicol In Vitro 21:1672-7. 2007
    ..51+/-0.07 ppm DLT. There was a significant difference in DLT accumulation between VSSC-transfected oocytes and non-transfected controls, where the transfected oocytes consistently had less accumulation...
  48. ncbi request reprint Mode of action: developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency--neurological abnormalities resulting from exposure to propylthiouracil
    R Thomas Zoeller
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Biology, Morrill Science Center, 01003, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:771-81. 2005
    ....