Richard Zimmerman

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Addressing immunization barriers, benefits, and risks
    Sanford R Kimmel
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S61-9. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Ethical analyses of institutional measures to increase health care worker influenza vaccination rates
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States Electronic address
    Vaccine 31:6172-6. 2013
  3. pmc Standing orders for influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination: correlates identified in a national survey of U.S. Primary care physicians
    Steven M Albert
    Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    BMC Fam Pract 13:22. 2012
  4. pmc Determinants of adult vaccination at inner-city health centers: a descriptive study
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    BMC Fam Pract 7:2. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule, United States, January to June, 2004 and update on childhood immunizations
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am Fam Physician 69:206-11. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint The 2004 Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh 15261, USA
    Am Fam Physician 68:2453-6. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Physician and practice factors related to influenza vaccination among the elderly
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Prev Med 26:1-10. 2004
  8. pmc Racial differences in beliefs about genetic screening among patients at inner-city neighborhood health centers
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15261, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 98:370-7. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USA
    Vaccine 24:4812-20. 2006
  10. pmc Tailored interventions to increase influenza vaccination in neighborhood health centers serving the disadvantaged
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Public Health 93:1699-705. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications96

  1. ncbi request reprint Addressing immunization barriers, benefits, and risks
    Sanford R Kimmel
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S61-9. 2007
    ..They must also clearly communicate vaccine benefits and risks while understanding those factors that affect an individual's acceptance and perception of those benefits and risks...
  2. ncbi request reprint Ethical analyses of institutional measures to increase health care worker influenza vaccination rates
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States Electronic address
    Vaccine 31:6172-6. 2013
    ..For those who opt out of vaccination due to conscience concerns, such mandates provide a means to remain employed but not put patient safety at risk...
  3. pmc Standing orders for influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination: correlates identified in a national survey of U.S. Primary care physicians
    Steven M Albert
    Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    BMC Fam Pract 13:22. 2012
    ..Standing orders programs (SOPs) allow non-physician medical staff to assess eligibility and administer vaccines without a specific physician's order. SOPs increase vaccination rates but are underutilized...
  4. pmc Determinants of adult vaccination at inner-city health centers: a descriptive study
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    BMC Fam Pract 7:2. 2006
    ..This study was designed to: 1) assess self-reported pneumococcal vaccination rates following health center level interventions to increase adult vaccination rates; and 2) determine factors associated with vaccination...
  5. ncbi request reprint Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule, United States, January to June, 2004 and update on childhood immunizations
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am Fam Physician 69:206-11. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint The 2004 Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh 15261, USA
    Am Fam Physician 68:2453-6. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Physician and practice factors related to influenza vaccination among the elderly
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Prev Med 26:1-10. 2004
    ..This study investigated in diverse settings, facilitators of and barriers to patient influenza vaccination from the physician's perspective...
  8. pmc Racial differences in beliefs about genetic screening among patients at inner-city neighborhood health centers
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15261, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 98:370-7. 2006
    ..Given the history of racial disparities in screening, early detection and accessing treatment, understanding racial differences in beliefs about genetics is essential to preventing disparities in some conditions...
  9. ncbi request reprint Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USA
    Vaccine 24:4812-20. 2006
    ..However, given concerns for autonomy, justice, as not all persons are at risk, and non-maleficence, HPV vaccine should not be mandated for school entry. Economic justice indicates a need to provide vaccination for the disadvantaged...
  10. pmc Tailored interventions to increase influenza vaccination in neighborhood health centers serving the disadvantaged
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Public Health 93:1699-705. 2003
    ..We designed and evaluated interventions to increase adult immunizations within inner-city health centers...
  11. pmc Impact of vaccine economic programs on physician referral of children to public vaccine clinics: a pre-post comparison
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    BMC Public Health 6:7. 2006
    ..The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effect of VFC on physician reported referral of children to public health clinics and on doses administered in the public sector...
  12. ncbi request reprint Effect of the Vaccines for Children program on physician referral of children to public vaccine clinics: a pre-post comparison
    R K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Pediatrics 108:297-304. 2001
    ..This project studied the effect of the VFC on the physician likelihood of referring children to public vaccine clinics for immunizations...
  13. ncbi request reprint Interventions over 2 years to increase influenza vaccination of children aged 6-23 months in inner-city family health centers
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Vaccine 24:1523-9. 2006
    ..5-28.0) for the second intervention year. Children vaccinated against influenza were more likely to have received DTaP 3 and MMR within 2 months of the recommended age than children not vaccinated against influenza (P < 0.001)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Ethical analyses of vaccines grown in human cell strains derived from abortion: arguments and Internet search
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Vaccine 22:4238-44. 2004
    ..Altruism, the burden of rubella disease, and protection by herd immunity argue for widespread vaccination although autonomous decisions and personal conscience should be respected...
  15. ncbi request reprint Feasibility of influenza immunization for inner-city children aged 6 to 23 months
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am J Prev Med 27:397-403. 2004
    ..This study tested the feasibility of vaccinating 6- to 23-month-old children against influenza and assessed the effect on timely receipt of other vaccines...
  16. ncbi request reprint Predictors of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination among patients at three inner-city neighborhood health centers
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 3:149-59. 2005
    ..Despite the availability of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), vaccination rates are modest, and racial disparity in these rates is known to occur...
  17. pmc Vaccine criticism on the World Wide Web
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Med Internet Res 7:e17. 2005
    ..The Internet can influence perceptions about vaccines because it is the fastest growing source of consumer health information. However, few studies have analyzed vaccine criticism on the Web...
  18. ncbi request reprint The 2002 United States varicella vaccine shortage and physician recommendations for vaccination
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Prev Med 41:575-82. 2005
    ..The US experienced a shortage of varicella vaccine in 2002, leading to the concerns about its impact...
  19. pmc Predictors of lower endoscopy use among patients at three inner-city neighborhood health centers
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA
    J Urban Health 83:221-30. 2006
    ..Advances in colon preparation procedures and better educational campaigns might lessen this perceived barrier and may be particularly important in disadvantaged and African American communities...
  20. pmc Predictors of colorectal cancer screening in diverse primary care practices
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 6:116. 2006
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Shortage of influenza vaccine in 2000-2001: did it change patient beliefs?
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Prev Med 24:349-53. 2003
    ..To determine which patient beliefs associated with influenza vaccination changed during a vaccine shortage year (2000-2001) from a nonshortage year (1999-2000)...
  22. ncbi request reprint The vaccines for children program. Policies, satisfaction, and vaccine delivery
    R K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am J Prev Med 21:243-9. 2001
    ..Characterize the Vaccines for Children (VFC) programs in Minnesota and Pennsylvania, assess providers' satisfaction with each state's program, and examine changes in doses administered in the public sector since implementation of the VFC...
  23. ncbi request reprint The 2002 recommended childhood immunization schedule and progress toward elimination of thimerosal
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am Fam Physician 65:127-8. 2002
  24. ncbi request reprint Understanding physician agreement with varicella immunization guidelines
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Prev Med 35:135-42. 2002
    ..Although varicella vaccine was licensed in 1995, immunization rates are only moderate. This study identifies factors associated with physician self-reported likelihood of recommending varicella vaccination to patients...
  25. doi request reprint Randomized trial of an alternate human papillomavirus vaccine administration schedule in college-aged women
    Richard K Zimmerman
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 19:1441-7. 2010
    ..The three-dose vaccination schedule at 0, 2, and 6 months may be inconvenient for college-aged women. This study assessed noninferiority of the immune response to an alternate vaccination schedule at 0, 2, and 12 months...
  26. doi request reprint An overview of the National Network for Immunization Information's website
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Dept of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States
    Vaccine 27:965. 2009
    ..Overall, NNii's website is balanced and informative, providing reviews for parents, patients, and clinicians. Having a website from a non-profit without financial conflicts of interest is key in the ongoing debates about vaccine safety...
  27. ncbi request reprint Recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule, United States, 2003 and update on childhood immunizations
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am Fam Physician 67:188, 190, 195-6. 2003
  28. ncbi request reprint What affects influenza vaccination rates among older patients? An analysis from inner-city, suburban, rural, and Veterans Affairs practices
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Am J Med 114:31-8. 2003
    ..Our objective was to identify facilitators of, and barriers to, vaccination in diverse groups of older patients...
  29. ncbi request reprint Routine vaccines across the life span, 2003
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15621, USA
    J Fam Pract 52:S1-21. 2003
    ..The risks and benefits of vaccination are discussed, including disease burden, rationale for vaccination, efficacy, adverse reactions, and recommendations. Pictures of vaccine-preventable diseases are included...
  30. ncbi request reprint Barriers and facilitators of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, PA 15261, USA
    Vaccine 21:1510-7. 2003
    ..0001). In regression analysis, predictors of vaccination included: belief that doctor recommends vaccine, feeling that vaccination is wise, recommendation by someone in the physician's office, and receipt of influenza vaccine...
  31. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity and specificity of patient self-report of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccinations among elderly outpatients in diverse patient care strata
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, PA 15261, USA
    Vaccine 21:1486-91. 2003
    ..High negative predictive values indicate that clinicians can confidently vaccinate based on negative patient self-report...
  32. ncbi request reprint If pneumonia is the "old man's friend", should it be prevented by vaccination? An ethical analysis
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Vaccine 23:3843-9. 2005
    ..Recommended criteria for limiting vaccination include autonomous patient refusal, imminent death, and lack of medical benefit, as would be seen in hospice cases...
  33. ncbi request reprint Rationing of influenza vaccine during a pandemic: ethical analyses
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 35l8 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States
    Vaccine 25:2019-26. 2007
    ..Egalitarian principles of medical neediness and random chance avoid justice concerns and are proposed. A framework that uses multiple principles to address influenza vaccine rationing in light of a shortage is recommended...
  34. ncbi request reprint Vaccines for persons at high risk due to medical conditions, occupation, environment, or lifestyle, 2003
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15621, USA
    J Fam Pract 52:S22-35. 2003
    ..Health-care workers are at risk for acquiring and transmitting hepatitis B, measles, and influenza; hence, vaccination against these diseases is recommended...
  35. pmc Parental perspectives on influenza vaccination of children with chronic medical conditions
    Chyongchiou J Lin
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 98:148-53. 2006
    ..Minorities and those living in the inner city have a higher respiratory disease burden than other groups. Yet, influenza vaccination rates among all children with chronic medical conditions remain low...
  36. pmc Impact of the 2004 influenza vaccine shortage on patients from inner city health centers
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Urban Health 84:389-99. 2007
    ..Vaccination during the influenza vaccine shortage appears to have followed preferential vaccination of the CDC-established priority group (> or =65 years) and did not result in racial disparities in inner-city health centers...
  37. pmc Understanding adult vaccination in urban, lower-socioeconomic settings: influence of physician and prevention systems
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Ann Fam Med 7:534-41. 2009
    ..This study was designed to assess which physician and practice characteristics might explain differences in rates across physicians...
  38. pmc Assessing disparities in adult vaccination using multimodal approaches in primary care offices: methodology
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Urban Health 85:217-27. 2008
    ..Multimodal data collection from these practices should provide a rich data source for examining the complex interplay of factors affecting immunization disparities among older adults...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effects of the year 2000 influenza vaccine delay on elderly patients' attitudes and behaviors
    Tammy A Santibanez
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Prev Med 37:417-23. 2003
    ..Our objective was to quantify the impact of this delay on immunization rates, location of receipt of immunization, and patient attitudes and beliefs about the influenza vaccine...
  40. pmc Improving influenza vaccination rates of high-risk inner-city children over 2 intervention years
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Ann Fam Med 4:534-40. 2006
    ..We wanted to determine whether interventions tailored to individual practice sites improve influenza immunization rates among high-risk children in inner-city health centers over 2 years...
  41. doi request reprint Economic evaluation of standing order programs for pneumococcal vaccination of hospitalized elderly patients
    Donald B Middleton
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:385-94. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of SOPs for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) vaccination for patients 65 years of age or older in 2 types of hospital...
  42. ncbi request reprint Barriers and facilitators of colon cancer screening among patients at faith-based neighborhood health centers
    Melissa Tabbarah
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Community Health 30:55-74. 2005
    ..Unlike other studies, the faith-based environment in which these patients are treated may explain the lack of racial disparity specific to our measures of CRC screening...
  43. ncbi request reprint Barriers to pneumococcal and influenza vaccination in older community-dwelling adults (2000-2001)
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 52:25-30. 2004
    ..To identify facilitators of and barriers to vaccination in patients from a range of socioeconomic levels...
  44. pmc Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among healthcare workers during an influenza pandemic
    Kenneth J Smith
    Section of Decision Sciences and Clinical Systems Modeling, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Am J Manag Care 16:200-6. 2010
    ..To assess the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) among healthcare workers compared with nonuse of PPV during an influenza pandemic...
  45. doi request reprint Improving influenza vaccination rates in the workplace: a randomized trial
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15261, USA
    Am J Prev Med 38:237-46. 2010
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Establish the habit: influenza vaccination for health care personnel
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Healthc Qual 32:35-42. 2010
    ..Establishing the influenza vaccination habit using age-based targeted messages may be the most effective way to increase rates for HCP without mandates...
  47. pmc A computer simulation of vaccine prioritization, allocation, and rationing during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic
    Bruce Y Lee
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Vaccine 28:4875-9. 2010
    ....
  48. pmc Simulating school closure strategies to mitigate an influenza epidemic
    Bruce Y Lee
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Public Health Manag Pract 16:252-61. 2010
    ..The ongoing 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has provided an unparalleled opportunity to test interventions with the most up-to-date simulations...
  49. pmc Do beliefs of inner-city parents about disease and vaccine risks affect immunization?
    Jeanette M Trauth
    Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 94:820-32. 2002
    ..The objective of this study was to understand how low income, inner-city parents of preschool children think about childhood diseases and prevention and the impact that this has on late receipt of vaccines...
  50. ncbi request reprint Using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand racial disparities in adult vaccination
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 5th Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 101:1052-60. 2009
    ..This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess physician and practice factors contributing to disparities in a sample of inner-city, urban, and suburban practices in low to moderate income neighborhoods...
  51. pmc Changes in parents' perceptions of infant influenza vaccination over two years
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 99:636-41. 2007
    ..Inner-city health centers serving large proportions of low-income and minority children participated in a study to introduce influenza vaccination among healthy infants in 2002-2003 and 2003-2004...
  52. ncbi request reprint An evaluation of immunization education resources by family medicine residency directors
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Fam Med 39:715-9. 2007
    ..Immunization is a rapidly evolving field, and teachers of family medicine are responsible for ensuring that they and their students are knowledgeable about the latest vaccine recommendations...
  53. ncbi request reprint Office manager and nurse perspectives on facilitators of adult immunization
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Manag Care 15:755-60. 2009
    ..To assess which characteristics of primary care practices serving low- to middle-income white and minority patients relate to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and influenza vaccination rates...
  54. doi request reprint Alternative strategies for adult pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Kenneth J Smith
    Section of Decision Sciences and Clinical Systems Modeling, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
    Vaccine 26:1420-31. 2008
    ..PPV at ages 50/65 may be clinically and, depending on cost-effectiveness criterion used, economically favored over present vaccination recommendations...
  55. doi request reprint Age, revaccination, and tolerance effects on pneumococcal vaccination strategies in the elderly: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Kenneth J Smith
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Vaccine 27:3159-64. 2009
    ..Revaccination strategies for the elderly are less cost-effective, particularly when prior vaccination and vaccine tolerance are considered...
  56. doi request reprint Raising adult vaccination rates over 4 years among racially diverse patients at inner-city health centers
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 56:1177-82. 2008
    ..To increase adult immunizations at inner-city health centers serving primarily minority patients...
  57. pmc A computer simulation of employee vaccination to mitigate an influenza epidemic
    Bruce Y Lee
    University of Pittsburgh, 200 Meyran Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Am J Prev Med 38:247-57. 2010
    ....
  58. doi request reprint Self-reported influenza vaccination rates among health care workers in a large health system
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Infect Control 36:574-81. 2008
    ..The national health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccination rate is only 42% despite recommendations that HCWs receive influenza vaccine to prevent influenza among patients...
  59. ncbi request reprint Missed opportunities for adult immunization in diverse primary care office settings
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Vaccine 22:3457-63. 2004
    ..A health maintenance flow sheet can prompt providers to discuss vaccination and record vaccines as they are administered...
  60. ncbi request reprint Parental perspectives on influenza immunization of children aged 6 to 23 months
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Prev Med 29:210-4. 2005
    ..Participating inner-city health centers designed interventions to introduce influenza vaccination among this group of children. The study was designed to assess parents' attitudes toward the vaccine...
  61. pmc Economics of employer-sponsored workplace vaccination to prevent pandemic and seasonal influenza
    Bruce Y Lee
    Applied Modeling, Public Health Computational and Operations Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Vaccine 28:5952-9. 2010
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Tailoring interventions: understanding medical practice culture
    Myrna Silverman
    Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Cross Cult Gerontol 19:47-76. 2004
    ..The article also discusses strategies for applying knowledge about the culture of each practice to introduce appropriate and feasible interventions aimed at increasing immunization rates...
  63. pmc Vaccination deep into a pandemic wave potential mechanisms for a "third wave" and the impact of vaccination
    Bruce Y Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Am J Prev Med 39:e21-9. 2010
    ..In December 2009, when the H1N1 influenza pandemic appeared to be subsiding, public health officials and unvaccinated individuals faced the question of whether continued H1N1 immunization was still worthwhile...
  64. ncbi request reprint Re-engineering the primary care practice to eliminate adult immunization disparities
    George Rust
    National Center for Primary Care, Department of Family Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Drive SW, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
    Ethn Dis 15:S3-21-S3-6. 2005
    ..Quality-focused, constantly-learning practices that cultivate a culture of excellence will be most effective in adopting such changes...
  65. pmc To test or to treat? An analysis of influenza testing and antiviral treatment strategies using economic computer modeling
    Bruce Y Lee
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11284. 2010
    ..Due to the unpredictable burden of pandemic influenza, the best strategy to manage testing, such as rapid or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and antiviral medications for patients who present with influenza-like illness (ILI) is unknown...
  66. ncbi request reprint Immunization education among family practice residency programs
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, PA15216, USA
    Fam Med 35:711-6. 2003
    ..The dynamic nature of immunization schedules, shortages, and administration techniques makes keeping up to date with current national recommendations difficult and necessitates periodic evaluation of immunization teaching resources...
  67. ncbi request reprint Economic model for emergency use authorization of intravenous peramivir
    Bruce Y Lee
    University of Pittsburgh, 200 Meyran Ave, Ste 200, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 E mail
    Am J Manag Care 17:e1-9. 2011
    ..To develop 3 computer simulation models to determine the potential economic effect of using intravenous (IV) antiviral agents to treat hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness, as well as different testing and treatment strategies...
  68. pmc Cost-effectiveness of dual influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in 50-year-olds
    Kenneth J Smith
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
    Vaccine 28:7620-5. 2010
    ..Results were sensitive to shorter time horizons, favoring CDC recommendations. We found dual vaccination of all 50-year-olds economically reasonable. Shorter duration models may not fully account for PPV effectiveness...
  69. pmc Beliefs and attitudes about influenza immunization among parents of children with chronic medical conditions over a two-year period
    Chyongchiou J Lin
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Urban Health 83:874-83. 2006
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Knowledge and beliefs about influenza, pneumococcal disease, and immunizations among older people
    Tammy A Santibanez
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 50:1711-6. 2002
    ..This study's objective was to identify patient knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that serve as facilitators of and barriers to influenza and pneumococcal vaccination...
  71. ncbi request reprint Overcoming barriers to establishing an inpatient vaccination program for pneumococcus using standing orders
    Donald B Middleton
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15215, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:874-81. 2005
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Addressing immunization barriers, benefits, and risks
    Sanford R Kimmel
    Department of Family Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
    J Fam Pract 52:S47-55. 2003
    ..It describes the appropriate use of materials such as the Vaccine Information Statements. Physicians should also be prepared to answer patients' questions about alleged or controversial vaccine adverse events...
  73. ncbi request reprint Increasing pneumococcal vaccination rates among hospitalized patients
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15261, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:526-31. 2003
    ..To increase the proportion of inpatients vaccinated against pneumococcal infection...
  74. ncbi request reprint Designing a hospital-based pneumococcal vaccination program
    Susan J Skledar
    Drug Use and Disease State Management Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center UPMC, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, UP, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 60:1471-6. 2003
  75. pmc Prevalence of high-risk indications for influenza vaccine varies by age, race, and income
    Richard K Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, United States
    Vaccine 28:6470-7. 2010
    ..Modifications to current national data collection systems would enhance the value of these data for public health programs and influenza modeling...
  76. ncbi request reprint What predicts influenza vaccination status in older Americans over several years?
    Melissa Tabbarah
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 53:1354-9. 2005
    ..To examine the correlates of repeat influenza vaccination and determine whether there are age-group (50-64, > or =65) differences in decision-making behavior...
  77. ncbi request reprint The role of qualitative methods for investigating barriers to adult immunization
    Myrna Silverman
    Department of Health Services Administration, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    Qual Health Res 12:1058-75. 2002
    ..They address previously held concerns about qualitative research and provide a system that can be replicated or modified for use for projects designed to assess complex attitudes and behaviors that affect health outcomes...
  78. ncbi request reprint Immunizations in adulthood
    Tammy A Santibanez
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Prim Care 29:649-65. 2002
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Routine vaccines across the life span, 2005
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Fam Pract 54:S9-26. 2005
    ..The disease burden, rationale for vaccination, efficacy, adverse reactions, and recommendations are discussed in relation to each vaccine. Pictures of vaccine-preventable diseases are included...
  80. ncbi request reprint Missed opportunities to vaccinate older adults in primary care
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Am Board Fam Pract 18:20-7. 2005
    ..The purposes of this study were to characterize missed opportunities for adult vaccinations and assess the impact of the vaccine delay on missed opportunities for influenza vaccination as recorded in medical records...
  81. ncbi request reprint Vaccine schedules and procedures
    Donald B Middleton
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 43614, USA
    J Fam Pract 54:S37-50. 2005
    ..Minimal intervals between vaccines and vaccine precautions, contraindications, administration, and storage are reviewed. Sources of vaccine information are presented and discussed...
  82. ncbi request reprint Vaccines for persons at high risk due to medical conditions, occupation, environment, or lifestyle, 2005
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Fam Pract 54:S27-36. 2005
    ..Health care workers are at high risk for acquiring and transmitting hepatitis B, measles, varicella, and influenza; hence, vaccination against these diseases is recommended...
  83. ncbi request reprint Recent changes in influenza epidemiology and vaccination recommendations
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA
    J Fam Pract 54:S1-8. 2005
    ..A live, attenuated influenza vaccine was licensed in 2003 for healthy persons age 5-49 years...
  84. ncbi request reprint Tailored interventions to introduce influenza vaccination among 6- to 23-month-old children at inner-city health centers
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3518 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Manag Care 11:717-24. 2005
    ....
  85. pmc Physician attitudes and beliefs associated with patient pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination status
    Tammy A Santibanez
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Ann Fam Med 2:41-8. 2004
    ..This study investigated potential barriers to patients receiving the PPV, including predisposing, enabling, environmental and reinforcing factors among physicians from a variety of practice and geographic settings...
  86. ncbi request reprint The physician's office: can it influence adult immunization rates?
    Mary Patricia Nowalk
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Manag Care 10:13-9. 2004
    ..To determine which office and patient factors affect adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates...
  87. ncbi request reprint Immunization barriers and solutions
    Ilene Timko Burns
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3518 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Fam Pract 54:S58-62. 2005
    ..Patients, parents, and providers face a variety of barriers that cause us to fall short of our immunization goals. This article discusses ways in which providers can surmount those barriers and improve immunization rates...
  88. ncbi request reprint Vaccine schedules and procedures, 2003
    Donald B Middleton
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15621, USA
    J Fam Pract 52:S36-46. 2003
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of chart prompt about immunizations in an urban health center
    Ilene Timko Burns
    Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Fam Pract 51:1018. 2002
    ..To determine whether a nurse-initiated chart review and prompt to physicians is an effective method to increase immunization rates...
  90. ncbi request reprint Vaccine schedules and procedures, 2007
    Donald B Middleton
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and UPMC St Margaret, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S47-60, C4-8. 2007
    ..Minimal intervals between vaccines and vaccine precautions, contraindications, administration, and storage are reviewed. Sources of up-to-date vaccine information are presented...
  91. ncbi request reprint Vaccines for persons at high risk, 2007
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S38-46, C4-5. 2007
    ..A signed declination is recommended for health care workers who refuse influenza vaccination...
  92. ncbi request reprint Routine vaccines across the life span, 2007
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S18-37, C1-3. 2007
    ..Some new vaccines are discussed here (Tdap and zoster), whereas others (rotavirus and human papillomavirus) are discussed elsewhere in the supplement...
  93. ncbi request reprint Recent changes in influenza vaccination recommendations, 2007
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S12-7, C1. 2007
    ..Other recent developments include routine vaccination of pregnant women with inactivated vaccine and an emphasis on the vaccination of health care workers...
  94. ncbi request reprint HPV vaccine and its recommendations, 2007
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Fam Pract 56:S1-5, C1. 2007
    ..Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females age 13 to 26 years who have not yet been vaccinated, and vaccination of girls 9 and 10 years of age is permitted at the discretion of the physician...
  95. ncbi request reprint Time of hope for the eventual elimination of meningococcal strains A, C, Y, and W-135 in the United States
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    Am Fam Physician 72:1978, 1980. 2005
  96. pmc Size of the needle for infant vaccination
    Richard Kent Zimmerman
    BMJ 333:563-4. 2006

Research Grants7

  1. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  2. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  3. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  4. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  5. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  6. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  7. Predictors of Cancer Screening in Diverse Practices
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Without understanding the barriers to prevention from multiple vantage points, the rates of preventive services are unlikely to reach 2010 goals and needless cancer deaths will occur. ..