Thomas R Zentall

Summary

Affiliation: University of Kentucky
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi Reprint of "Suboptimal choice by pigeons: An analog of human gambling behavior"
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, United States Electronic address
    Behav Processes 104:99-107. 2014
  2. ncbi Suboptimal choice by pigeons: an analog of human gambling behavior
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, United States Electronic address
    Behav Processes 103:156-64. 2014
  3. ncbi Animals represent the past and the future
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    Evol Psychol 11:573-90. 2013
  4. pmc Do pigeons prefer information in the absence of differential reinforcement?
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 40:465-75. 2012
  5. doi Perspectives on observational learning in animals
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Comp Psychol 126:114-28. 2012
  6. ncbi Imitation: definitions, evidence, and mechanisms
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Anim Cogn 9:335-53. 2006
  7. ncbi Mental time travel in animals: a challenging question
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 72:173-83. 2006
  8. ncbi Interval timing with gaps: gap ambiguity as an alternative to temporal decay
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 31:484-6. 2005
  9. ncbi Timing, memory for intervals, and memory for untimed stimuli: the role of instructional ambiguity
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 202B Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 70:209-22. 2005
  10. ncbi Temporal discrimination learning by pigeons
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, United States
    Behav Processes 74:286-92. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. ncbi Reprint of "Suboptimal choice by pigeons: An analog of human gambling behavior"
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, United States Electronic address
    Behav Processes 104:99-107. 2014
    ..We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. ..
  2. ncbi Suboptimal choice by pigeons: an analog of human gambling behavior
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, United States Electronic address
    Behav Processes 103:156-64. 2014
    ..We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. ..
  3. ncbi Animals represent the past and the future
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    Evol Psychol 11:573-90. 2013
    ..That is, they are able to plan for the future. Thus, although humans show an advanced ability to mentally travel backward and forward in time, there is growing evidence that nonhuman animals have some of this capacity as well...
  4. pmc Do pigeons prefer information in the absence of differential reinforcement?
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 40:465-75. 2012
    ..Thus, it appears that in the absence of differential reinforcement, the information provided by a sample that signals which of the two comparison stimuli is correct is insufficient to produce a preference for that alternative...
  5. doi Perspectives on observational learning in animals
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Comp Psychol 126:114-28. 2012
    ..Several of the processes that may be involved in observational learning are reviewed, including social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, several kinds of emulation, and various forms of imitation...
  6. ncbi Imitation: definitions, evidence, and mechanisms
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Anim Cogn 9:335-53. 2006
    ..Although accounts of imitation have been proposed that vary in their level of analysis from neural to cognitive, at present no theory of imitation appears to be adequate to account for the varied results that have been found...
  7. ncbi Mental time travel in animals: a challenging question
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 72:173-83. 2006
    ..Thus, the ability to imagine past and future events may not be uniquely human...
  8. ncbi Interval timing with gaps: gap ambiguity as an alternative to temporal decay
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 31:484-6. 2005
    ..Furthermore, when the intertrial interval is discriminable from the gap, the evidence suggests that timed intervals prior to the gap are not lost but are retained in memory...
  9. ncbi Timing, memory for intervals, and memory for untimed stimuli: the role of instructional ambiguity
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 202B Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 70:209-22. 2005
    ..Furthermore, instructional ambiguity rather than memory loss may account for the results of many animal memory experiments that do not involve memory for time...
  10. ncbi Temporal discrimination learning by pigeons
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, United States
    Behav Processes 74:286-92. 2007
    ..Using this procedure, we have also found that time passes subjectively slower when animals are required to respond to the to-be-timed stimulus...
  11. ncbi Within-trial contrast: when you see it and when you don't
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 36:19-22; discussion 23-8. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi Required pecking alters judgments of the passage of time by pigeons
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 13:1038-42. 2006
    ..This result suggests that like humans, the pigeons underestimated the passage of time when they were active or when attention to time-related cues had to be shared with attention to satisfying the response rate requirement...
  13. pmc Within-trial contrast: when is a failure to replicate not a type I error?
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 87:401-4. 2007
    ..We suggest that when sufficient training is provided, reliable contrast can be found...
  14. pmc Within-trial contrast: pigeons prefer conditioned reinforcers that follow a relatively more rather than a less aversive event
    Thomas R Zentall
    University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, Lexington 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 88:131-49. 2007
    ..A general model of this form of contrast is proposed in which the value of a primary or conditioned reinforcer depends on the change in value from the value of the event that precedes it...
  15. doi Episodic-like memory: pigeons can report location pecked when unexpectedly asked
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 500 South Limestone Avenue, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, United States
    Behav Processes 79:93-8. 2008
    ..Performing on probe trials is analogous to asking the pigeons an unexpected question about their recent behavior and it is similar to the episodic memory question asked of humans, "What did you have for breakfast this morning?"...
  16. pmc Matching-to-sample by pigeons: the dissociation of comparison choice frequency from the probability of reinforcement
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, United States
    Behav Processes 78:185-90. 2008
    ..Together, these experiments suggest that when the sample is not available, there is a partial dissociation between comparison choice and the probability of reinforcement associated with each of the comparison stimuli...
  17. ncbi Selective and divided attention in animals
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 202B Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 69:1-15. 2005
    ..Taken together, the reviewed research indicates that animals are capable of centrally (not just peripherally) attending to selective aspects of a stimulus display...
  18. ncbi Required pecking and refraining from pecking alter judgments of time by pigeons
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 36:55-61. 2008
    ..This result suggests that, similar to humans, pigeons underestimate the passage of time when they are active or when attention to time-related cues has to be shared with attention to satisfying the response requirement...
  19. pmc Maladaptive "gambling" by pigeons
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, United States
    Behav Processes 87:50-6. 2011
    ....
  20. ncbi Evidence for detection of one duration sample and default responding to other duration samples by pigeons may result from an artifact of retention-test ambiguity
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 30:129-34. 2004
    ..The authors tested this hypothesis by showing that divergent retention functions do not appear when the retention interval is discriminably different from the intertrial interval...
  21. ncbi Action imitation in birds
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA
    Learn Behav 32:15-23. 2004
    ..I also examine some of the variables that appear to be involved in the occurrence of imitation. Finally, I speculate about why a number of bird species, but few mammal species, appear to imitate...
  22. ncbi Configural/holistic processing or differential element versus compound similarity
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Anim Cogn 8:141-2. 2005
    ..Not only does this account do a better job of explaining the data but it is simpler and it is testable...
  23. pmc Maladaptive choice behaviour by pigeons: an animal analogue and possible mechanism for gambling (sub-optimal human decision-making behaviour)
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 278:1203-8. 2011
    ..Thus, in experiment 1, the pigeons were responding to obtain the discriminative stimuli signalling reinforcement and the absence of reinforcement, rather than to obtain the variability in reinforcement...
  24. doi Pigeons prefer conditional stimuli over their absence: a comment on Roberts et al. (2009)
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 36:506-9. 2010
    ..Although these results do not present evidence for metacognition, they do show that pigeons are sensitive to the potential for a higher probability of reinforcement when delay to reinforcement is controlled...
  25. ncbi A cognitive behaviorist approach to the study of animal behavior
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA
    J Gen Psychol 129:328-63. 2002
    ..These examples were selected because the evidence suggests that some form of active cognitive organization is needed to account for the behavioral results...
  26. pmc Imitation and emulation by dogs using a bidirectional control procedure
    Holly C Miller
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 80:109-14. 2009
    ..Furthermore, we found that dogs would match the direction of screen-push demonstrated by a human and they were equally likely to match the direction in which the screen moved independently while a human was present...
  27. doi Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons
    Jessica P Stagner
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 17:412-6. 2010
    ....
  28. ncbi Timing in pigeons: effects of the similarity between intertrial interval and gap in a timing signal
    Daren H Kaiser
    Department of Psychology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28:416-22. 2002
    ..Thus, when the gap was unambiguous, pigeons timed accurately...
  29. ncbi Pigeons learn to answer the question "where did you just peck?" and can report peck location when unexpectedly asked
    Rebecca A Singer
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 35:184-9. 2007
    ..These results have implications for the demonstration of episodic-like memory in pigeons because they suggest that pigeons have the capacity to recall, unexpectedly, specific details about their past experiences...
  30. ncbi Pigeons may not use dual coding in the radial maze analog task
    Kelly A DiGian
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:262-72. 2007
    ..The original finding of dual coding by Zentall et al. might have been biased by more impulsive choices early in control trials but not in delay trials and by a more stringent choice criterion late in delay trials...
  31. ncbi Choice based on exclusion in pigeons
    Tricia S Clement
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 10:959-64. 2003
    ..When Sample B then replaced Sample C, the pigeons showed a significant tendency to choose Comparison 4 over Comparison 3. Thus, when given the opportunity, pigeons will choose by exclusion...
  32. doi Object permanence in dogs: invisible displacement in a rotation task
    Holly C Miller
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 16:150-5. 2009
    ..Once the conflict is eliminated, dogs show evidence of object permanence that includes invisibly displaced objects...
  33. doi "Counting" by pigeons: discrimination of the number of biologically relevant sequential events
    Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 38:169-76. 2010
    ..This procedure represents a sensitive and efficient method for studying numerical competence in animals...
  34. pmc Pigeons show near-optimal win-stay/lose-shift performance on a simultaneous-discrimination, midsession reversal task with short intertrial intervals
    Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 92:65-70. 2013
    ..5, 5, and 10 s). We found support for the hypothesis as pigeons with a short 1.5-s ITI showed close to optimal win-stay/lose-shift accuracy...
  35. doi A relational differential outcomes effect: pigeons can classify outcomes as "good" and "better"
    Andrea M Friedrich
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Anim Cogn 13:359-65. 2010
    ..The results indicate that relational attributes of outcomes can serve as effective cues for comparison choice...
  36. doi Preference for 50% reinforcement over 75% reinforcement by pigeons
    Cassandra D Gipson
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 37:289-98. 2009
    ..Such paradoxical choice may account for certain human appetitive risk-taking behavior (e.g., gambling) as well...
  37. doi Self-control without a "self"?: common self-control processes in humans and dogs
    Holly C Miller
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Psychol Sci 21:534-8. 2010
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that self-control relies on the same limited energy resource among humans and nonhumans. Our results have broad implications for the study of self-control processes in human and nonhuman species...
  38. doi A differential-outcomes effect using hedonically nondifferential outcomes with delayed matching to sample by pigeons
    Holly C Miller
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 37:161-6. 2009
    ....
  39. ncbi Functional equivalence in pigeons involving a four-member class
    Andrea M Friedrich
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 67:395-403. 2004
    ..Thus, pigeons can develop a functional class consisting of as many as four members, with the alternative class consisting of a single member...
  40. doi Reversal learning in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (Columba livia): qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility
    Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Comp Psychol 127:202-11. 2013
    ..The difference in cue preference further suggests a qualitative difference in acquisition of the midsession reversal task between pigeons and rats...
  41. doi Pigeons prefer discriminative stimuli independently of the overall probability of reinforcement and of the number of presentations of the conditioned reinforcer
    Jessica P Stagner
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:446-52. 2012
    ..50% reinforcement); rather, the indifference can be attributed to the pigeons' insensitivity to the differential frequency of the two S+ and two S- stimuli. The relevance to human gambling behavior is discussed...
  42. pmc Within-trial contrast: The effect of probability of reinforcement in training
    Cassandra D Gipson
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, United States
    Behav Processes 82:126-32. 2009
    ..Although the hypothesis that the within-trial contrast effect was constrained by a performance ceiling was not confirmed, we did find a reliable within-trial contrast effect with 100% reinforcement...
  43. ncbi Discriminative stimuli that follow the absence of reinforcement are preferred by pigeons over those that follow reinforcement
    Andrea M Friedrich
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 33:337-42. 2005
    ..Results supported the theory...
  44. doi Simultaneous discrimination reversal learning in pigeons and humans: anticipatory and perseverative errors
    Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA
    Learn Behav 39:125-37. 2011
    ..When the reversal location varied between sessions, unlike pigeons, humans adopted a win-stay/lose-shift strategy, making only a single error on the first trial of the reversal...
  45. ncbi Imitation and affordance learning by pigeons (Columba livia)
    Emily D Klein
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 004, USA
    J Comp Psychol 117:414-9. 2003
    ..Further, observers that watched a screen move without a demonstrator present made a significantly higher proportion of matching screen pushes than would be expected by chance. Thus, these pigeons were capable of affordance learning...
  46. ncbi Imitation of a two-action sequence by pigeons
    Nam H Nguyen
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 12:514-8. 2005
    ..right push)...
  47. ncbi Hungry pigeons make suboptimal choices, less hungry pigeons do not
    Jennifer R Laude
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 19:884-91. 2012
    ..Paradoxically, pigeons that needed the food more received less of it. These findings have implications for how level of motivation may also affect human suboptimal choice (e.g., purchase of lottery tickets and playing slot machines)...
  48. ncbi Use of a single-code/default strategy by pigeons to acquire duration sample discriminations
    Rebecca A Singer
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 34:340-7. 2006
    ..In Experiment 2, when pigeons were trained with three nonzero duration samples (2, 8, and 32 sec), clear evidence for the use of a single-code/default strategy was found...
  49. ncbi Imitative learning in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using the bidirectional control procedure
    Chana K Akins
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Anim Learn Behav 30:275-81. 2002
    ..Thus, with the appropriate control, the bidirectional procedure appears to be useful for studying imitation in avian species...
  50. doi A differential-outcome effect in pigeons using spatial hedonically nondifferential outcomes
    Andrea M Friedrich
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 39:68-78. 2011
    ..Furthermore, these differential outcomes appear to augment matching accuracy, but they do not eliminate control by the samples...
  51. ncbi Pigeons shift their preference toward locations of food that take more effort to obtain
    Andrea M Friedrich
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 67:405-15. 2004
    ..The greater the improvement from that prior state the greater the value of the reinforcer...
  52. ncbi Discriminative stimuli that follow a delay have added value for pigeons
    Kelly A DiGian
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 11:889-95. 2004
    ..Anticipation of delay was accomplished by signaling its occurrence. Results indicated that delays can produce preferences similar to those produced by increased effort, but only if the delays are signaled...
  53. doi Animal memory: the contribution of generalization decrement to delayed conditional discrimination retention functions
    Rebecca Rayburn-Reeves
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA
    Learn Behav 37:299-304. 2009
    ..We propose that a measure of animals' working memory can be obtained uninfluenced by a generalization decrement if they have received comparable training with all of the delays that are tested...
  54. pmc Environmental enrichment affects suboptimal, risky, gambling-like choice by pigeons
    Kristina F Pattison
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Anim Cogn 16:429-34. 2013
    ..These results have implications for the mechanisms underlying suboptimal choice by humans (e.g., problem gamblers), and they suggest that a enriched environment may allow for enhanced self-control...
  55. doi Sunk cost: pigeons (Columba livia), too, show bias to complete a task rather than shift to another
    Kristina F Pattison
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    J Comp Psychol 126:1-9. 2012
    ..The deviation from optimal choice suggests that pigeons show a bias similar to the sunk cost effect in humans...
  56. ncbi Imitation of conditional discriminations in pigeons (Columba livia)
    Brigette R Dorrance
    Department of Psychology, Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois 61201, USA
    J Comp Psychol 116:277-85. 2002
    ..The results have implications for proposed mechanisms of imitation in animals...
  57. ncbi Second-order contrast based on the expectation of effort and reinforcement
    Tricia S Clement
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28:64-74. 2002
    ....
  58. pmc What do dogs know about hidden objects?
    Holly C Miller
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Behav Processes 81:439-46. 2009
    ..These results suggest that although a perceptual/conditioning mechanism may be involved for some dogs, it cannot account for the performance of others. It is likely that these other dogs showed true object permanence...
  59. ncbi Matching-to-sample in pigeons: in the absence of sample memory, sample frequency is a better predictor of comparison choice than the probability of reinforcement for comparison choice
    Kelly A DiGan
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA
    Learn Behav 35:242-51. 2007
    ..Thus, it appears that when control of comparison choice by the sample is reduced, pigeons' choice is controlled not merely by the probability of reinforcement but also by overall sample frequency...
  60. ncbi Pigeons group time intervals according to their relative duration
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 11:113-7. 2004
    ..Thus, a relative grouping effect was found. That is, durations that should have produced indifferent choice were influenced by their relative durations (shorter than or longer than the alternative) during training...
  61. ncbi Memory mechanisms in pigeons: evidence of base-rate neglect
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28:111-5. 2002
    ..The results suggest that pigeons may allow their reference memory for the overall sample frequency to influence comparison choice, independent of the comparison stimuli present...
  62. ncbi Post-choice information processing by pigeons
    Tracy I Martin
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Anim Cogn 8:273-8. 2005
    ..This is the first time that such an effect has been reported for a nonhuman species...
  63. pmc Preference for a stimulus that follows a relatively aversive event: contrast or delay reduction?
    Rebecca A Singer
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 87:275-85. 2007
    ..Consistent with the contrast hypothesis, pigeons showed a significant preference for the positive stimulus that in training had followed their less preferred schedule...
  64. pmc Midsession reversal learning: why do pigeons anticipate and perseverate?
    Jessica P Stagner
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Learn Behav 41:54-60. 2013
    ....
  65. ncbi Contrast and the justification of effort
    Emily D Klein
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 12:335-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest the possibility that contrast effects of the sort extensively studied in animals may play a role in cognitive dissonance and other related phenomena in humans...
  66. pmc Categorization, concept learning, and behavior analysis: an introduction
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 78:237-48. 2002
    ..As the special issue demonstrates, a surprising amount and diversity of work is being conducted that either represents a behavior-analytic perspective or can inform or constructively challenge this perspective...
  67. ncbi Symmetry training in pigeons can produce functional equivalences
    Thomas R Zentall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 0044, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 10:387-91. 2003
    ..The results also have implications for the development of an emergent transitive relation, because training on A-B and B-C relations results in the emergence of an untrained A-C relation, if B-A training also is provided...
  68. doi Correction to stagner et Al. (2012)
    Jessica P Stagner
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 39:iii. 2013
    ..The relevance to human gambling behavior is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)...
  69. ncbi Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?
    Jérôme Alessandri
    University of Lille III, Lille, France
    Psychon Bull Rev 15:673-7. 2008
    ..Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind...
  70. ncbi Relative judgments affect assessments of stimulus duration
    Mikaël Molet
    Department of Psychology, University of Lille 3, Lille, France
    Psychon Bull Rev 15:431-6. 2008
    ..Results were similar to those from Zentall, Weaver, and Clement (2004) with pigeons...