Tony Yaksh

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Spinal botulinum neurotoxin B: effects on afferent transmitter release and nociceptive processing
    Polly P Huang
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19126. 2011
  2. pmc Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in male mice
    Jennifer A Stokes
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr, MC 0636, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 0636, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 10:148. 2013
  3. pmc Role of meningeal mast cells in intrathecal morphine-evoked granuloma formation
    Tony L Yaksh
    Anesthesiology Research, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 118:664-78. 2013
  4. pmc Pharmacokinetic analysis of ziconotide (SNX-111), an intrathecal N-type calcium channel blocking analgesic, delivered by bolus and infusion in the dog
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuromodulation 15:508-19; discussion 519. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint The acute antihyperalgesic action of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs and release of spinal prostaglandin E2 is mediated by the inhibition of constitutive spinal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) but not COX-1
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci 21:5847-53. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal ketorolac in dogs and rats
    Tony L Yaksh
    University of California, San Diego, Department of Anesthesiology, Research Laboratory 0818, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Toxicol Sci 80:322-34. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Future advances in pain pharmacology: what does the present say about the future?
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc West Pharmacol Soc 45:211-8. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of epidurally delivered sustained-release encapsulated morphine in dogs
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 90:1402-12. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 316:466-75. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Calcium channels as therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Pain 7:S13-30. 2006

Research Grants

  1. Pain Mechanisms and the Development of Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. PAIN-EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINES AND ENKEPHALINS IN CNS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1992
  3. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1993
  4. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. PAIN-EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINES AND ENKEPHALINS IN CNS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1990
  6. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony L Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2005
  8. Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2004
  9. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2002
  10. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Spinal botulinum neurotoxin B: effects on afferent transmitter release and nociceptive processing
    Polly P Huang
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19126. 2011
    ..These observations provide an initial assessment of the ability of IT BoNT-B to regulate spinal nociceptive processing...
  2. pmc Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in male mice
    Jennifer A Stokes
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr, MC 0636, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 0636, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 10:148. 2013
    ..Spinal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and signaling intermediaries have been implicated in persistent pain states. We examined the roles of two major TLR signaling pathways and selected TLRs in a mononeuropathic allodynia...
  3. pmc Role of meningeal mast cells in intrathecal morphine-evoked granuloma formation
    Tony L Yaksh
    Anesthesiology Research, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 118:664-78. 2013
    ..Intrathecal morphine forms granulomas that arise from the adjacent arachnoid membrane. The authors propose that these inflammatory cells exit the meningeal vasculature secondary to meningeal mast cell degranulation...
  4. pmc Pharmacokinetic analysis of ziconotide (SNX-111), an intrathecal N-type calcium channel blocking analgesic, delivered by bolus and infusion in the dog
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuromodulation 15:508-19; discussion 519. 2012
    ..Ziconotide is a peptide that blocks N-type calcium channels and is antihyperalgesic after intrathecal (IT) delivery. We here characterize the spinal kinetics of IT bolus and infused ziconotide in dog...
  5. ncbi request reprint The acute antihyperalgesic action of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs and release of spinal prostaglandin E2 is mediated by the inhibition of constitutive spinal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) but not COX-1
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci 21:5847-53. 2001
    ..Thus, constitutive spinal COX-2, but not COX-1, is an important contributor to the acute antihyperalgesic effects of spinal as well as systemic COX-2 inhibitors...
  6. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal ketorolac in dogs and rats
    Tony L Yaksh
    University of California, San Diego, Department of Anesthesiology, Research Laboratory 0818, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Toxicol Sci 80:322-34. 2004
    ..These data indicate that intrathecal ketorolac in two species at the dose/concentrations employed does not induce evident spinal pathology but diminishes spinal prostaglandin release...
  7. ncbi request reprint Future advances in pain pharmacology: what does the present say about the future?
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc West Pharmacol Soc 45:211-8. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of epidurally delivered sustained-release encapsulated morphine in dogs
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 90:1402-12. 1999
    ..We evaluated the epidural effects of a multivesicular liposome-based sustained-release preparation of morphine (C0401) on behavior and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid and serum kinetics of morphine...
  9. ncbi request reprint Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 316:466-75. 2006
    ..The other agents, although demonstrating enzymatic activity in cell-free assays, appear unable to gain access to the intracellular PLA(2) toward which their action is targeted...
  10. ncbi request reprint Calcium channels as therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Pain 7:S13-30. 2006
    ..Continuing developments in our understanding of these channel functions promises to advance the control of aberrant spinal functions initiated by nerve injury...
  11. ncbi request reprint Toxicology profile of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists delivered by intrathecal infusion in the canine model
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 108:938-49. 2008
    ..Intrathecal N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists have antihyperalgesic efficacy. The authors examined toxicity in a canine model of chronic lumbar intrathecal infusion...
  12. pmc Neonates have a spinal alpha receptor too, as do adults
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, CA, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 151:1139-40. 2007
  13. ncbi request reprint An automated flinch detecting system for use in the formalin nociceptive bioassay
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 90:2386-402. 2001
    ..94; 3) system variables including time of day, sex, age, and body weight; and 4) 50% effective dose values similar to those previously reported for intrathecal morphine and the NMDA antagonist MK-801...
  14. ncbi request reprint Chronically infused intrathecal morphine in dogs
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Anesthesiology 99:174-87. 2003
    ..Despite the extensive use of intrathecal morphine infusion for pain, no systematic safety studies exist on its effects in high concentrations. The authors assessed the effects of morphine and clonidine given 28 days intrathecally in dogs...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of continuous lumbar intrathecal infusion of leptin in rats on weight regulation
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, Univeristy of California, San Diego 92093 0818, USA
    Neuroscience 110:703-10. 2002
    ..The observed correlation of cisternal leptin levels with the behavioral effects is also consistent with a reliable distribution of the infused leptin to target supraspinal sites...
  16. pmc The spinal biology in humans and animals of pain states generated by persistent small afferent input
    T L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7680-6. 1999
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint The use of intrathecal midazolam in humans: a case study of process
    Tony L Yaksh
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Anesth Analg 98:1536-45, table of contents. 2004
    ..Issues that are of continuing relevance to the use of intrathecal midazolam, including issues of formulation and kinetics, are considered...
  18. ncbi request reprint Nonopioid actions of intrathecal dynorphin evoke spinal excitatory amino acid and prostaglandin E2 release mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 and -2
    Lee Koetzner
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci 24:1451-8. 2004
    ....
  19. pmc Dexmedetomidine and ST-91 analgesia in the formalin model is mediated by alpha2A-adrenoceptors: a mechanism of action distinct from morphine
    A Nazarian
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 91766 1854, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 155:1117-26. 2008
    ..t. dexmedetomidine and ST-91 in the formalin behavioural model and their effects on primary afferent substance P (SP) release and spinal Fos activation...
  20. pmc The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds
    Albert Y Leung
    Department of Anesthesiology, The University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA
    BMC Complement Altern Med 8:18. 2008
    ..To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model...
  21. ncbi request reprint Spinal phospholipase A2 in inflammatory hyperalgesia: role of the small, secretory phospholipase A2
    C I Svensson
    Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuroscience 133:543-53. 2005
    ..Taken together, this work points to a role for constitutive sPLA(2)s in spinal nociceptive processing...
  22. pmc Inhibition of spinal cytosolic phospholipase A(2) expression by an antisense oligonucleotide attenuates tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia
    D H Kim
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Neuroscience 154:1077-87. 2008
    ..e. second phase flinching behavior), which reflects spinal sensitization. Thus the present findings suggest that cPLA(2)IVA may specifically participate in spinal nociceptive processing...
  23. pmc Spinal astrocytes produce and secrete dynorphin neuropeptides
    Andrew Wahlert
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0744, USA
    Neuropeptides 47:109-15. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that dynorphins A and B undergo regulated secretion from spinal astrocytes. These findings also suggest that spinal astrocytes may provide secreted dynorphins that participate in spinal pain processing...
  24. pmc Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats
    Paula Park
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neurosci Lett 470:6-9. 2010
    ..A dose-dependent increase of side effects including scratching, biting, and chewing tails was observed, although antinociceptive effects were observed in doses that did not produce any adverse effects...
  25. ncbi request reprint Vincristine-induced allodynia in the rat
    N Nozaki-Taguchi
    Anesthesiology Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology 0818, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0818, USA
    Pain 93:69-76. 2001
    ..Continuous intravenous infusion of vincristine in rats thus provides a reliable model of chemotherapy induced neuropathy which may be used in defining the mechanism and pharmacology of this clinically relevant condition...
  26. pmc The effect of morphine on formalin-evoked behaviour and spinal release of excitatory amino acids and prostaglandin E2 using microdialysis in conscious rats
    A B Malmberg
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 114:1069-75. 1995
    ..The reversal by naloxone of the morphine effect indicates mediation via an opioid receptor...
  27. pmc Spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and nociception-evoked release of primary afferent substance P
    A Nazarian
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuroscience 152:119-27. 2008
    ..Likewise, perfusion of NMDA did not enhance capsaicin-evoked release of the two peptides. These results suggest that presynaptic NMDA receptors in the spinal cord play little if any role on the primary afferent release of SP...
  28. ncbi request reprint Increased hyperalgesia after tissue injury and faster recovery of allodynia after nerve injury in the GalR1 knockout mice
    S Malkmus
    Department of Anesthesiology Research Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Neuropeptides 39:217-21. 2005
    ..These results are consistent with a regulatory effect of galanin at GalR1 receptors on nociceptive processing...
  29. ncbi request reprint Antinociceptive effect of spinally delivered prostaglandin E receptor antagonists in the formalin test on the rat
    A B Malmberg
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0818
    Neurosci Lett 173:193-6. 1994
    ..These data demonstrate that specific nociceptive behaviors are attenuated by spinal prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonists and suggest that prostaglandin E2 is involved in facilitated processing at the spinal level...
  30. ncbi request reprint Pharmacology of the spinal action of ketorolac, morphine, ST-91, U50488H, and L-PIA on the formalin test and an isobolographic analysis of the NSAID interaction
    A B Malmberg
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0818
    Anesthesiology 79:270-81. 1993
    ....
  31. pmc Galmic, a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist, affects behaviors in seizure, pain, and forced-swim tests
    Tamas Bartfai
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:10470-5. 2004
    ..These data further implicate brain and spinal cord galanin receptors as drug targets and provide an example of a systemically active compound based on a scaffold that mimics protein surfaces...
  32. ncbi request reprint The effect of Ting point (tendinomuscular meridians) electroacupuncture on thermal pain: a model for studying the neuronal mechanism of acupuncture analgesia
    Albert Leung
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Altern Complement Med 11:653-61. 2005
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of antinociception of spinal galanin: how does galanin inhibit spinal sensitization?
    X Y Hua
    Anesthesia Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Neuropeptides 39:211-6. 2005
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint A-85380 and epibatidine each interact with disparate spinal nicotinic receptor subtypes to achieve analgesia and nociception
    I M Khan
    Department of Pharmacology 0636, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0636, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 297:230-9. 2001
    ..Our data suggest that A-85380 and EPI act at separate preterminal spinal sites as well as on distinct nicotinic receptor subtypes to elicit an antinociceptive response at the spinal level...
  35. ncbi request reprint Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous lidocaine on the allodynia of complex regional pain syndrome types I and II
    M S Wallace
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0924, USA
    Anesthesiology 92:75-83. 2000
    ..This study sought to characterize the effects of intravenous lidocaine (a sodium channel blocker) on acute sensory thresholds within the painful area and the size of the painful area in patients suffering from CRPS I and II...
  36. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C reduces nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia in neuropathic rats
    X Y Hua
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0818, USA
    Neurosci Lett 276:99-102. 1999
    ..These data emphasize that spinal PKC plays an important role in nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia. Other protein kinases such as PKA may also contribute to this phenomenon...
  37. ncbi request reprint Pain models display differential sensitivity to Ca2+-permeable non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists
    L S Sorkin
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Anesthesiology 95:965-73. 2001
    ..This study characterized the analgesic profile associated with the blockade of these spinal receptors by intrathecally delivered agents known to act at these receptors, the spider venom Joro toxin (JST) and philanthotoxin...
  38. pmc Spinal glial TLR4-mediated nociception and production of prostaglandin E(2) and TNF
    O Saito
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 160:1754-64. 2010
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of spinal protein kinase Calpha expression by an antisense oligonucleotide attenuates morphine infusion-induced tolerance
    X Y Hua
    Anesthesia Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92103 0818, USA
    Neuroscience 113:99-107. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA upregulation in rat sensory neurons after spinal nerve ligation: lack of a role in allodynia development
    Z D Luo
    Department of Anesthesiology 0818, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Neurosci 19:9201-8. 1999
    ..However, upregulation of nNOS is not responsible for the development and/or maintenance of allodynia after nerve injury...
  41. ncbi request reprint Spinal nicotinic receptor activity in a genetic model of hypertension
    I M Khan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego 92093 0636, USA
    Clin Exp Hypertens 23:555-68. 2001
    ..Overall, our findings suggest that hyper-responsiveness in nociception and pressor activity to spinal cytisine in SHR may be pathogenetically associated, but not a consequence, of hypertension...
  42. ncbi request reprint Technique of selective spinal cord cooling in rat: methodology and application
    M Marsala
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 74:97-106. 1997
    ..This technique provides a simple, relatively non-invasive and reliable experimental tool for studying the effect of selective, acute and/or prolonged spinal cord hypothermia...
  43. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of dorsal root ganglion (alpha)2(delta) calcium channel subunit and its correlation with allodynia in spinal nerve-injured rats
    Z D Luo
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci 21:1868-75. 2001
    ..These data suggest that DRG alpha(2)delta regulation may play an unique role in neuroplasticity after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to allodynia development...
  44. ncbi request reprint The electrophysiology of de qi sensations
    Albert Y Leung
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Altern Complement Med 12:743-50. 2006
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Rapid quantification of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 in canine cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by capillary gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection
    Steven Rossi
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 31:243-50. 2003
    ..S.D.) for both fluids. MK-801 and ISTD were stable in the injection solvent at 22 degrees C for at least 48 h. The assay was applied to the toxocologic study of intrathecal MK-801 administration in the dog...
  46. pmc Mutant dynein (Loa) triggers proprioceptive axon loss that extends survival only in the SOD1 ALS model with highest motor neuron death
    Hristelina S Ilieva
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12599-604. 2008
    ..These findings support a noncell autonomous, excitotoxic contribution from proprioceptive sensory neurons that modestly accelerates disease onset in inherited ALS...
  47. ncbi request reprint Development of GABA-sensitive spasticity and rigidity in rats after transient spinal cord ischemia: a qualitative and quantitative electrophysiological and histopathological study
    O Kakinohana
    Anesthesiology Research Laboratory 0818, University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Neuroscience 141:1569-83. 2006
    ..The pharmacology of this effect emphasizes the potent role of GABAergic type B receptors in regulating both the spasticity and rigidity...
  48. pmc Supraspinal characterization of the thermal grill illusion with fMRI
    Albert Leung
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0818, 92093 La Jolla, CA, USA
    Mol Pain 10:18. 2014
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Unexpected pain in a dog: aberration or worthy of a citation? Agree to disagree
    Marilyn Torchia
    Animal Welfare Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Lab Anim (NY) 34:19. 2005
  50. ncbi request reprint Generation and analysis of GluR5(Q636R) kainate receptor mutant mice
    A Sailer
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 19:8757-64. 1999
    ..Our investigations with the GluR5-editing mutant mice have therefore defined a set of physiological processes in which editing of the GluR5 subunit is unlikely to play an important role...
  51. ncbi request reprint Rapid quantification of the delta-opioid receptor selective enkephalin DPDPE in canine cerebrospinal fluid by liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry
    Steven Rossi
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 772:73-9. 2002
    ..DPDPE and the internal standard were stable in the injection solvent at 4 degrees C for at least 48 h. The assay was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of intrathecal DPDPE administration in the dog animal model...
  52. ncbi request reprint Capsaicin-evoked release of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from rat spinal cord in vivo
    Y Zhang
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Regul Pept 69:83-7. 1997
    ..PACAP conceivably plays a modulating role in nociception...
  53. ncbi request reprint The role of spinal and brainstem adenosine receptors in the modulation of the volume-evoked micturition reflex in the unanesthetized rat
    M Sosnowski
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093
    Brain Res 515:207-13. 1990
    ..Based on several indirect lines of evidence, we speculate that these effects are not mediated by an action on primary afferent input or directly on preganglionic neurons, but on an excitatory interneuronal link...
  54. ncbi request reprint Spinal astrocyte glutamate receptor 1 overexpression after ischemic insult facilitates behavioral signs of spasticity and rigidity
    Michael P Hefferan
    Anesthesiology Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0695, USA
    J Neurosci 27:11179-91. 2007
    ..These data suggest that an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist can represent a novel therapy in modulating spasticity/rigidity of spinal origin and that astrocytes may be a potential target for such treatment...
  55. ncbi request reprint Epidural ketamine in healthy children--what's the point?
    James C Eisenach
    Anesth Analg 96:626; author reply 626-7. 2003
  56. ncbi request reprint Determination of current threshold for paw withdrawal with sine-wave electrical stimulation in rats: effect of drugs and alteration in acute inflammation
    Yukinori Nagakura
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Pain 134:293-301. 2008
    ..These data suggest the validity of such stimulation in defining drug action in a nontissue injurious fashion...
  57. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of spinal constitutive NOS-2 by 1400W attenuates tissue injury and inflammation-induced hyperalgesia and spinal p38 activation
    Qingbo Tang
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 25:2964-72. 2007
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Time course and role of morphine dose and concentration in intrathecal granuloma formation in dogs: a combined magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology investigation
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 105:581-9. 2006
    ..Intrathecal morphine infusion leads to intrathecal granulomas. In dogs, the authors examined time course of granuloma formation and the role of concentration in granuloma development...
  59. ncbi request reprint An assessment of the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal and epidural contulakin-G in rats and dogs
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Anesthesiology Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Anesth Analg 104:1505-13, table of contents. 2007
    ..Contulakin-G is a potent antinociceptive drug when delivered intrathecally with no observable negative side effects in rats or dogs and may provide an alternative to opioid spinal analgesics...
  60. pmc Descending serotonergic facilitation of spinal ERK activation and pain behavior
    Camilla I Svensson
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    FEBS Lett 580:6629-34. 2006
    ..These findings reveal that primary afferent-evoked activation of spinal ERK requires the input from an excitatory 5-HT descending pathway...
  61. ncbi request reprint Systemic and spinal analgesic activity of a delta-opioid-selective lanthionine enkephalin analog
    Camilla I Svensson
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304:827-32. 2003
    ..These analgesic actions occurred at doses that had no effect upon general behavior or motor function. These results suggest a potent delta-preferring agent suitable for development as a systemic delta opioid analgesic...
  62. ncbi request reprint Opiate pharmacology of intrathecal granulomas
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 105:590-8. 2006
    ..Chronic intrathecal morphine infusion produces intradural granulomas. The authors examined a variety of opioids infused intrathecal for analgesic activity and toxicity...
  63. ncbi request reprint Effects of chronic intrathecal infusion of a partial differential opioid agonist in dogs
    Kjersti Horais
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92103, USA
    Toxicol Sci 71:263-75. 2003
    ..6 +/- 4.0 micro g/ml for 3 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml infusions respectively. These results indicate that this partial differential opioid agonist DPDPE produces a concentration and time-dependent formation of an intrathecal inflammatory mass...
  64. ncbi request reprint Elimination of rat spinal substance P receptor bearing neurons dissociates cardiovascular and nocifensive responses to nicotinic agonists
    Imran M Khan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0636, USA
    Neuropharmacology 54:269-79. 2008
    ..Further, the exaggerated cardiovascular responses to cytisine following loss of NK1-r bearing cells suggest the presence of a nicotinic receptor-mediated stimulation of inhibitory circuits at the spinal level...
  65. pmc Development of a canine nociceptive thermal escape model
    Kirsten Wegner
    Anesthesiology Research, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 168:88-97. 2008
    ..This model will facilitate quantification of the effects of parenterally and neuraxially administered analgesics in dogs...
  66. ncbi request reprint Localization of N-type Ca2+ channels in the rat spinal cord following chronic constrictive nerve injury
    Dasa Cizkova
    Institute of Neurobiology, Slovak Academy of Science, Soltesovej 4, Kosice, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic
    Exp Brain Res 147:456-63. 2002
    ..These data suggest that upregulation of the spinal alpha(1B)-subunit may play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of pain state after peripheral nerve injury...
  67. ncbi request reprint Anterograde transport of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the intact and injured rat sciatic nerve
    Maria Schäfers
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 22:536-45. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that anterograde transport of TNF plays a major role in the early neuronal response to peripheral nerve injury at sites distal to the cell body...
  68. ncbi request reprint The spinal phospholipase-cyclooxygenase-prostanoid cascade in nociceptive processing
    Camilla I Svensson
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42:553-83. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Concentration-effect relationships for intravenous alfentanil and ketamine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia
    Mark S Wallace
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla 92093 0924, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 42:70-80. 2002
    ..These studies suggest that experimental human pain models may be used to study analgesic pharmacology and may serve as important methods for defining the analgesic efficacy of drugs in phase I clinical trials...
  70. ncbi request reprint Pharmacology of spinal glutamatergic receptors in post-thermal injury-evoked tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia
    Natsuko Nozaki-Taguchi
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Anesthesiology 96:617-26. 2002
    ..The pharmacology of spinal glutamatergic receptors in the initiation and maintenance of secondary tactile allodynia was examined...
  71. ncbi request reprint Spinal and peripheral mu opioids and the development of secondary tactile allodynia after thermal injury
    Natsuko Nozaki-Taguchi
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0818, USA
    Anesth Analg 94:968-74, table of contents. 2002
    ..3-3 microg/min) abolition of 2 degrees TA. Local tissue injury leads to 2 degrees TA by the activation of opiate-sensitive afferents and the initiation of a cascade that persists in the absence of that initiating injury-induced stimulus...
  72. ncbi request reprint Nicotinic receptor gene cluster on rat chromosome 8 in nociceptive and blood pressure hyperresponsiveness
    Imran M Khan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 0636, USA
    Physiol Genomics 11:65-72. 2002
    ....
  73. pmc Acetaminophen prevents hyperalgesia in central pain cascade
    Brianna Crawley
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neurosci Lett 442:50-3. 2008
    ..Jointly, these data argue for an important central antihyperalgesic action of acetaminophen...
  74. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of systemic morphine suggests a fundamental difference in the mechanisms that generate bone cancer vs inflammatory pain
    Nancy M Luger
    Department of Preventive Sciences, Schools of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Pain 99:397-406. 2002
    ..inflammatory pain. These results indicate that this model may be useful in defining drug therapies that are targeted for complex bone cancer pain syndromes...
  75. ncbi request reprint Spinal p38 MAP kinase is necessary for NMDA-induced spinal PGE(2) release and thermal hyperalgesia
    Camilla I Svensson
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0612, USA
    Neuroreport 14:1153-7. 2003
    ..Taken together these data suggest a role for p38 MAPK in NMDA-induced PGE(2) release and hyperalgesia, and that microglia is involved in spinal nociceptive processing...
  76. ncbi request reprint Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal ketorolac
    James C Eisenach
    Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1009, USA
    Pain 99:599-604. 2002
    ..There were no long-term side effects 6 months after study. These data suggest that intrathecal ketorolac does not produce a high incidence of serious adverse events, and they support further investigation for analgesia...
  77. pmc Spinal amino acid release and repeated withdrawal in spinal morphine tolerant rats
    Takae Ibuki
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 138:689-97. 2003
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint Covariance among age, spinal p38 MAP kinase activation and allodynia
    Camilla I Svensson
    Anesthesiology Research Labs, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Pain 7:337-45. 2006
    ..Addition of a transection to the ligation produced restoration of the early peak along with intensification of allodynia. Alterations of spinal P-p38 at early time points thus seem to covary with intensity of tactile allodynia...
  79. ncbi request reprint Cancer-related bone pain is attenuated by a systemically available delta-opioid receptor agonist
    Josue Brainin-Mattos
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Pain 122:174-81. 2006
    ..These studies suggest that a systemically delivered delta-opioid agonist has pronounced analgesic properties on a preclinical cancer pain model...
  80. ncbi request reprint Spinal p38beta isoform mediates tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia and spinal sensitization
    Camilla I Svensson
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Neurochem 92:1508-20. 2005
    ..Thus, spinal p38beta, probably in microglia, plays a significant role in spinal nociceptive processing and represents a potential target for pain therapy...
  81. pmc Spinal phospholipase A2 in inflammatory hyperalgesia: role of group IVA cPLA2
    Karin Killermann Lucas
    Department of Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0601, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 144:940-52. 2005
    ..t. NMDA, while i.t. injection of BEL had no effect. Taken together, this work points to a role for constitutive Group IVA cPLA2 in spinal nociceptive processing...
  82. ncbi request reprint Spinal implantation of hNT neurons and neuronal precursors: graft survival and functional effects in rats with ischemic spastic paraplegia
    Martin Marsala
    Department of Anaesthesiology 0818, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2401-14. 2004
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint A preclinical post laminectomy rat model mimics the human post laminectomy syndrome
    Jennifer B Massie
    Department of Orthopaedics, Veterans Administration San Diego Health Care System and University of California, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 137:283-9. 2004
    ..Both pain facilitation states are active in the model...
  84. ncbi request reprint Galanin acts at GalR1 receptors in spinal antinociception: synergy with morphine and AP-5
    Xiao Ying Hua
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92103 0818, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:574-82. 2004
    ..t. morphine and AP-5-induced antinociception...
  85. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal protease-activated receptor stimulation produces thermal hyperalgesia through spinal cyclooxygenase activity
    Lee Koetzner
    Anesthesiology Research Laboratory 0818, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311:356-63. 2004
    ..These data indicate that activation of spinal PAR 2 and possibly PAR 1 results in the stimulation of the spinal cyclooxygenase cascade and a prostaglandin-dependent thermal hyperalgesia...
  86. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenase inhibition in nerve-injury- and TNF-induced hyperalgesia in the rat
    Maria Schäfers
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Exp Neurol 185:160-8. 2004
    ..Nerve-injury- and TNF-induced pain-related behavior seem to be only partly dependent on peripheral prostaglandins...
  87. ncbi request reprint Preclinical insights into the implementation of intrathecal midazolam: a cautionary tale
    Tony L Yaksh
    Anesth Analg 98:1509-11. 2004
  88. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal but not intravenous opioids release adenosine from the spinal cord
    James C Eisenach
    Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1009, USA
    J Pain 5:64-8. 2004
    ..In contrast, adenosine concentrations were unaffected by intravenous remifentanil. These results suggest that intrathecal but not systemic opioid analgesia in humans is associated with spinal release of adenosine...
  89. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal catheterization and drug delivery in the rat
    Shelle A Malkmus
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Methods Mol Med 99:109-21. 2004
    ..The modified surgical method of intrathecal catheter placement, microinjection drug delivery, and behavioral parameters are described in detail...
  90. ncbi request reprint Tissue injury models of persistent nociception in rats
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Methods Mol Med 99:25-34. 2004
    ..Detailed protocols using both manual and automated counting for the formalin test are included, as are methods concerning data analysis...
  91. ncbi request reprint Assessment of acute thermal nociception in laboratory animals
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Methods Mol Med 99:11-23. 2004
    ..Guidance concerning potential confounding variable are discussed, as are tips for reducing variably among testing sessions...
  92. ncbi request reprint Inhibition by spinal mu- and delta-opioid agonists of afferent-evoked substance P release
    Ichiro Kondo
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Neurosci 25:3651-60. 2005
    ..All effects were reversed by naloxone. These results indicate that lumbar opiates inhibit noxious stimuli-induced neurotransmitter release from primary afferents at doses that are confirmed behaviorally as analgesic...
  93. ncbi request reprint Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor distribution in relation to spinal neurotransmission pathways
    Imran Khan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0636, USA
    J Comp Neurol 467:44-59. 2003
    ..These studies reveal a dense and distinguishable distribution of nAChR subunits in the spinal cord and point toward future therapeutic targeting for specific spinal actions...
  94. ncbi request reprint Safety evaluation of intrathecal substance P-saporin, a targeted neurotoxin, in dogs
    Jeffrey W Allen
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    Toxicol Sci 91:286-98. 2006
    ..These data indicate no adverse toxicity at doses up to 10 times those necessary for producing loss of superficial NK1r-bearing neurons in a large animal model...
  95. ncbi request reprint Neuraxial morphine may trigger transient motor dysfunction after a noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia: a clinical and experimental study
    Manabu Kakinohana
    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
    Anesthesiology 98:862-70. 2003
    ..The authors sought to confirm these observations using a rat spinal ischemia model to define the effects of intrathecal morphine administered at various times after reflow on behavior and spinal histopathology...
  96. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal minocycline attenuates peripheral inflammation-induced hyperalgesia by inhibiting p38 MAPK in spinal microglia
    Xiao Ying Hua
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:2431-40. 2005
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Increased sensitivity of injured and adjacent uninjured rat primary sensory neurons to exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha after spinal nerve ligation
    Maria Schäfers
    Anesthesiology Research Laboratory, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3028-38. 2003
    ..We conclude that injured and adjacent uninjured DRG neurons are sensitized to TNF after SNL. Sensitization to endogenous TNF may be essential for the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
  98. ncbi request reprint Prostaglandin E2 release evoked by intrathecal dynorphin is dependent on spinal p38 mitogen activated protein kinase
    Camilla I Svensson
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    Neuropeptides 39:485-94. 2005
    ..These studies provide an important downstream linkage where by dynorphin may act through a non-neuronal link to induce a facilitation of spinal nociceptive processing...
  99. ncbi request reprint Anti-allodynic efficacy of the chi-conopeptide, Xen2174, in rats with neuropathic pain
    Carsten K Nielsen
    School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Pain 118:112-24. 2005
    ..Xen2174 appears to be a promising candidate for development as a novel therapeutic for i.t. administration to patients with persistent neuropathic pain...
  100. ncbi request reprint A double-lumen intrathecal catheter for studies of modulation of spinal opiate tolerance
    Carol S Hayes
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 126:165-73. 2003
    ..Using the double-lumen catheter model expands the range of possibility for studies of spinal opiate tolerance and spinal drug delivery...

Research Grants55

  1. Pain Mechanisms and the Development of Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An important aspect of these 4 components is the frequent implementation of case based parallels that reflect successes in prediction (e.g. COX2 inhibitors, GABApentin, ziconotide) and failures (NK1 antagonist). ..
  2. PAIN-EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINES AND ENKEPHALINS IN CNS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Given the powerful effects produced by the action of exogenously administered opioids in these same regions, we must conclude that stimuli producing such enkephalin secretion also activate a powerful modulation...
  3. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  4. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In short, these studies seek to illuminate the complex pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms by which modulatory receptors regulate spinal nociceptive outflow. ..
  5. PAIN-EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINES AND ENKEPHALINS IN CNS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Given the powerful effects produced by the action of exogenously administered opioids in these same regions, we must conclude that stimuli producing such enkephalin secretion also activate a powerful modulation...
  6. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony L Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The present studies aim to define the mechanisms of granuloma formation and point to specific methods to prevent granuloma formation, which will increase the utility and reduce the risks of this important pain therapy. ..
  7. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In short, these studies seek to illuminate the complex pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms by which modulatory receptors regulate spinal nociceptive outflow. ..
  8. Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We believe the outcome of these studies will provide direct evidence for the role played by this spinal peptidergic system in pain and point to the development of novel anti-hyperpathic agents. ..
  9. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  10. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  12. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..These studies are, as were our previous observations on the characteristics of spinally administered agents in the animal models, clearly relevant to the long term amelioration of pain in man...
  13. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony L Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Akt may also mediate opioid tolerance. Our work thus targets this link for these two critical issues in pain. ..
  14. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The present studies aim to define the mechanisms of granuloma formation and point to specific methods to prevent granuloma formation, which will increase the utility and reduce the risks of this important pain therapy. ..
  16. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In short, these studies seek to illuminate the complex pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms by which modulatory receptors regulate spinal nociceptive outflow. ..
  17. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  18. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. NEUROBIOLOGY OF PAIN
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The complexity of the problems and the diversity of the training approaches emphasize that the training received by these fellows will provide a broad base of knowledge relevant to wide areas of neurobiology. ..
  20. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  21. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The present studies aim to define the mechanisms of granuloma formation and point to specific methods to prevent granuloma formation, which will increase the utility and reduce the risks of this important pain therapy. ..
  22. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  24. Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We believe the outcome of these studies will provide direct evidence for the role played by this spinal peptidergic system in pain and point to the development of novel anti-hyperpathic agents. ..
  25. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  26. PAIN-EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINES AND ENKEPHALINS IN CNS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Given the powerful effects produced by the action of exogenously administered opioids in these same regions, we must conclude that stimuli producing such enkephalin secretion also activate a powerful modulation...
  27. PAIN-EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINES AND ENKEPHALINS IN CNS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Given the powerful effects produced by the action of exogenously administered opioids in these same regions, we must conclude that stimuli producing such enkephalin secretion also activate a powerful modulation...
  28. Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We believe the outcome of these studies will provide direct evidence for the role played by this spinal peptidergic system in pain and point to the development of novel anti-hyperpathic agents. ..
  29. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We believe the outcome of these studies will provide direct evidence for the role played by this spinal peptidergic system in pain and point to the development of novel anti-hyperpathic agents. ..
  31. The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In short, these studies seek to illuminate the complex pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms by which modulatory receptors regulate spinal nociceptive outflow. ..
  32. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  33. Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Elucidation of these mechanisms has relevance to the evolution of pharmacotherapy for its control in humans. ..
  35. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  36. SPINAL ACTION OF OPIATES
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We believe the outcome of these studies will provide direct evidence for the role played by this spinal peptidergic system in pain and point to the development of novel anti-hyperpathic agents. ..
  38. PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    Tony Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....