G Westheimer

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The ON-OFF dichotomy in visual processing: from receptors to perception
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 26:636-48. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Gerald Westheimer: a paradigm for excellence in vision science research. Interview by Kenneth A. Polse
    Kenneth A Polse
    School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 84:829-38. 2007
  3. doi request reprint Grouping of contextual elements that affect vernier thresholds
    Maka Malania
    Laboratory of Vision Physiology, I Beritashvili Institute of Physiology, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia
    J Vis 7:1.1-7. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint The law of equal innervation of both eyes: Thomas Reid preceded Hering by a century. An historical note
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, United States Electronic address
    Vision Res 101:32-3. 2014
  5. ncbi request reprint Can perceptual learning compensate for optical image blur?
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA Electronic address
    Vision Res 94:58-61. 2014
  6. doi request reprint Clinical evaluation of stereopsis
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 90:38-42. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Perceptual learning of orientation judgments in oblique meridians
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Atten Percept Psychophys 75:1252-9. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Optical superresolution and visual hyperacuity
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 144 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 31:467-80. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Spatial and spatial-frequency analysis in visual optics
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 32:271-81. 2012
  10. pmc The third dimension in the primary visual cortex
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    J Physiol 587:2807-16. 2009

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. ncbi request reprint The ON-OFF dichotomy in visual processing: from receptors to perception
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 26:636-48. 2007
    ..It is an opponency, akin to the ones in the color domain, derived from the original ON and OFF signals and subsequently bound with the other attributes to yield a feature's unitary percept...
  2. ncbi request reprint Gerald Westheimer: a paradigm for excellence in vision science research. Interview by Kenneth A. Polse
    Kenneth A Polse
    School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 84:829-38. 2007
    ..This biography and interview span 83 years of Dr. Westheimer's professional and personal life, from his childhood in Germany to his accomplishments at the University of California...
  3. doi request reprint Grouping of contextual elements that affect vernier thresholds
    Maka Malania
    Laboratory of Vision Physiology, I Beritashvili Institute of Physiology, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia
    J Vis 7:1.1-7. 2007
    ..We conclude that clustering of contextual patterns influences their capacity to mask. Discrimination of a target deteriorates when the target is grouped within an array of surrounding elements...
  4. ncbi request reprint The law of equal innervation of both eyes: Thomas Reid preceded Hering by a century. An historical note
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, United States Electronic address
    Vision Res 101:32-3. 2014
    ..Reid also considered whether the eyes' parallelism might have its origin in "custom" or "habit" rather than "nature" and reached the now accepted conclusion that it is innate. ..
  5. ncbi request reprint Can perceptual learning compensate for optical image blur?
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA Electronic address
    Vision Res 94:58-61. 2014
    ..Previous claims for blur adaptation must therefore rest on more complex factors that are not fully excluded in clinical settings. ..
  6. doi request reprint Clinical evaluation of stereopsis
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 90:38-42. 2013
    ..Random-dot stereograms are problematic because not all observers can disentangle the coherent global disparity on a first view...
  7. ncbi request reprint Perceptual learning of orientation judgments in oblique meridians
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Atten Percept Psychophys 75:1252-9. 2013
    ..The judgment of obliques depends much more than the judgment of cardinals on whether the comparison and test stimuli are shown simultaneously or in succession, but this effect is not changed by perceptual training. ..
  8. doi request reprint Optical superresolution and visual hyperacuity
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 144 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 31:467-80. 2012
    ..The study of the neural substrate of visual hyperacuity does, however, overlap that of "geometrical superresolution," in which techniques are used for transcending limits imposed by the receptor lattice in analyzing fine image structure...
  9. doi request reprint Spatial and spatial-frequency analysis in visual optics
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 32:271-81. 2012
    ..The power spectrum, in which phase has been discarded, is an insufficient descriptor; it does not enable the original object to be reconstituted...
  10. pmc The third dimension in the primary visual cortex
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    J Physiol 587:2807-16. 2009
    ..When the neural circuits in the primary visual cortex that are involved in processing depth are eventually traced in detail they will also need to have properties that allow for the plasticity in learning and experience...
  11. doi request reprint Visual acuity: information theory, retinal image structure and resolution thresholds
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 144 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 28:178-86. 2009
    ..The discussion is extended to the case of laser-illuminated targets where the difference between image formation in coherent and incoherent light becomes relevant...
  12. pmc Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 144 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 275:2777-86. 2008
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Was Helmholtz a Bayesian?
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Perception 37:642-50. 2008
    ..But juxtaposing Bayes's original writings, the modern formulation of Bayesian inference, and Helmholtz's views of perception reveals only a tenuous relationship...
  14. ncbi request reprint Irradiation, border location, and the shifted-chessboard pattern
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 144 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Perception 36:483-94. 2007
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Dimensional analysis of visual signals
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 144 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 27:303-7. 2010
    ....
  16. doi request reprint Testing visual function in the clinical setting
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Clin Exp Optom 93:209-12. 2010
    ....
  17. doi request reprint Vision research 1961-2011: retrospects and prospects on the 50th anniversary of vision research
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, United States
    Vision Res 51:603-12. 2011
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Reversed tilt effect for dichoptic stimulation in vertical meridian
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, United States
    Vision Res 51:101-4. 2011
    ..The phenomenon might be related to stereoscopy which involves the processing of dichoptic orientation differences around the vertical...
  19. doi request reprint Path dissociation of visual signals entering the cortex: disparity, contour orientation and position
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 144 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 51:1058-63. 2011
    ....
  20. pmc Three-dimensional displays and stereo vision
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 278:2241-8. 2011
    ....
  21. doi request reprint Depth rendition of three-dimensional displays
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 144 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 28:1185-90. 2011
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Lack of spatial remapping of the visual field surrounding a monocular scotoma
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Clin Exp Optom 95:109-12. 2012
    ..Changes in cortical receptive fields following deafferentation raise the question of whether interruption of optic nerve fibres engenders spatial distortion in the region bordering the resulting scotoma...
  23. pmc First description of aniseikonia
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:6. 2007
  24. ncbi request reprint Specifying and controlling the optical image on the human retina
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 144 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 25:19-42. 2006
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Illusions in the spatial sense of the eye: geometrical-optical illusions and the neural representation of space
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 48:2128-42. 2008
    ..Hence the geometrical-optical illusions show promise as analytical tools in unraveling neural processing in vision...
  26. ncbi request reprint Configuration specificity in bisection acuity
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 41:1133-8. 2001
    ..The dependence of bisection discrimination on similarity between the elements of the stimulus demonstrates that the encoding of spatial location and spatial extent are coupled to the coding of other stimulus properties...
  27. ncbi request reprint The Fourier theory of vision
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Perception 30:531-41. 2001
    ..Allowing nonlinearities or even substituting other types of basis functions does not eliminate the difficulties faced by any theory of visual perception that is built on the notion of fixed spatial filters...
  28. ncbi request reprint Contrast dependency of foveal spatial functions: orientation, vernier, separation, blur and displacement discrimination and the tilt and Poggendorff illusions
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 39:1631-9. 1999
    ..The magnitude of the Poggendorff and tilt illusions changes very little until the inducing contours are barely detectable...
  29. ncbi request reprint Lines and Gabor functions compared as spatial visual stimuli
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 38:487-91. 1998
    ..Thresholds for displacement detection are also the same. Vernier, stereo and bisection acuities, however, are considerable better with line than with Gabor stimuli...
  30. ncbi request reprint Orientation dependency for foveal line stimuli: detection and intensity discrimination, resolution, orientation discrimination and vernier acuity
    G Westheimer
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    Vision Res 38:1097-103. 1998
    ..Meridional anisotropies exist in detection, increment discrimination thresholds, and vernier acuity but the classical oblique effect is consistently found only in orientation discrimination...
  31. ncbi request reprint Time course of masking in spatial resolution tasks
    Jason Ng
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 79:98-102. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Is peripheral visual acuity susceptible to perceptual learning in the adult?
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 565 LSA, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 41:47-52. 2001
    ..Sustained and lasting neural modifications in peripheral vision can take place in stereoscopic, orientation, vernier, bisection and time discriminations, but not in resolution and Landolt C acuities...
  33. ncbi request reprint Visual signals used in time-interval discrimination
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology University of California Berkeley, 94720 3200, USA
    Vis Neurosci 17:551-6. 2000
    ..Performance at a variety of intensity levels suggests that sustained neural firing in an early stage of visual processing provides a background activity, which prevents good temporal precision of signals...
  34. ncbi request reprint Gestalt theory reconfigured: Max Wertheimer's anticipation of recent developments in visual neuroscience
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Perception 28:5-15. 1999
    ..But it would be perilous not to take heed of some of the lessons that the history of the Gestalt movement teaches...
  35. ncbi request reprint Visual acuity with reversed-contrast charts: I. Theoretical and psychophysical investigations
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 80:745-8. 2003
    ..In a careful psychophysical study of Landolt C resolution, the minimum angle of resolution was found to be significantly smaller for white letters on a dark background than for the traditional dark on bright situation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Visual acuity with reversed-contrast charts: II. Clinical investigation
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 80:749-52. 2003
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Center-surround antagonism in spatial vision: retinal or cortical locus?
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 44:2457-65. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Meridional anisotropy in visual processing: implications for the neural site of the oblique effect
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 565 Life Sciences Addition, erkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 43:2281-9. 2003
    ..The findings imply that the neural locus for the oblique effect is more central than the primary visual cortex...
  39. ncbi request reprint Anisotropies in peripheral vernier acuity
    Gerald Westheimer
    Life Sciences Addition, Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Spat Vis 18:159-67. 2005
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Opposing views on orthogonal adaptation: a response to Clifford, Arnold, Smith, and Pianta (2003)
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 565 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 43:721-2. 2003
  41. ncbi request reprint The distribution of preferred orientations in the peripheral visual field
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 565 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 43:53-7. 2003
    ..The results suggest that the advantage of horizontal and vertical contours, as well as possibly of radial ones, is a manifestation of a characteristic structural property of the organization of the visual pathway...
  42. ncbi request reprint Orthogonal adaptation and orientation discrimination
    Gerald Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, 565 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Vision Res 42:2339-43. 2002
    ..027+/-0.13, which does not differ significantly from unity and hence constitutes evidence that orthogonal adaptation does not improve orientation discrimination...
  43. ncbi request reprint Real and virtual borders in the Poggendorff illusion
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Perception 26:1495-501. 1997
    ..These results are discussed in relation to earlier data for contrast dependence of Vernier acuity and for the orientation discrimination and tilt illusion with real and virtual borders...
  44. ncbi request reprint Discrimination of short time intervals by the human observer
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    Exp Brain Res 129:121-6. 1999
    ..Counting of spikes or internal time modules would seem to be too simplistic a concept; there is still a need for a process in which the duration of a just concluded presentation and an internally stored interval duration can be compared...
  45. pmc Relative localization in the human fovea: radial-tangential anisotropy
    G Westheimer
    Division of Neurobiology, 565 Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 268:995-9. 2001
    ..Neural processing along these two intrinsic directions differs. There is a strong 'oblique effect' for tangential thresholds and virtually none for radial thresholds. Flank interaction impairs tangential but not radial thresholds...
  46. ncbi request reprint The resolving power of the eye
    Gerald Westheimer
    Vision Res 45:945-7. 2005
    ..That, in essence, is the concept of resolution...