Raymond M Welsh


Affiliation: University of Massachusetts Medical School
Country: USA


  1. Welsh R. Assessing CD8 T cell number and dysfunction in the presence of antigen. J Exp Med. 2001;193:F19-22 pubmed
  2. Hatfield S, Daniels K, O Donnell C, Waggoner S, Welsh R. Weak vaccinia virus-induced NK cell regulation of CD4 T cells is associated with reduced NK cell differentiation and cytolytic activity. Virology. 2018;519:131-144 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that NK cell regulation of adaptive immunity, while universal, may be limited with viruses that poorly activate NK cells. ..
  3. Che J, Selin L, Welsh R. Evaluation of non-reciprocal heterologous immunity between unrelated viruses. Virology. 2015;482:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, one cause for lack of reciprocity is differences in the frequencies of cross-reactive T cells in immune hosts. ..
  4. Che J, Kraft A, Selin L, Welsh R. Regulatory T cells resist virus infection-induced apoptosis. J Virol. 2015;89:2112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we found that Treg resisted this cell death, perhaps reducing the tendency of viral infections to cause immune dysfunction and induce autoimmunity. ..
  5. Welsh R, Che J, Brehm M, Selin L. Heterologous immunity between viruses. Immunol Rev. 2010;235:244-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. ..
  6. Welsh R, Bahl K, Marshall H, Urban S. Type 1 interferons and antiviral CD8 T-cell responses. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002352 pubmed publisher
  7. Kapoor V, Shin H, Cho O, Berg L, Kang J, Welsh R. Regulation of tissue-dependent differences in CD8+ T cell apoptosis during viral infection. J Virol. 2014;88:9490-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are relevant for the generation of long-lasting vaccines providing protection at peripheral infection sites. ..
  8. Che J, Daniels K, Selin L, Welsh R. Heterologous Immunity and Persistent Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..These results further illustrate how a history of infection can substantially influence the immune responses and immune pathology associated with infections with an unrelated virus. ..
  9. Welsh R. Blimp hovers over T cell immunity. Immunity. 2009;31:178-80 pubmed publisher
    ..2009; Rutishauser et al., 2009; Shin et al., 2009) indicate that the transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 promotes the development of short-lived effector cells and regulates clonal exhaustion. ..

More Information


  1. Welsh R, Waggoner S. NK cells controlling virus-specific T cells: Rheostats for acute vs. persistent infections. Virology. 2013;435:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This subsequent change in T cell dynamics can alter patterns of immunopathology and persistence and implicates NK cells as rheostat-like regulators of persistent infections. ..
  2. Urban S, Berg L, Welsh R. Type 1 interferon licenses naïve CD8 T cells to mediate anti-viral cytotoxicity. Virology. 2016;493:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this rapid and sensitive effector function of IFN-conditioned naïve CD8 T cells may play a role in pathogen control and help ward off superinfections. ..