Scott C Weaver


Affiliation: University of Texas Medical Branch
Country: USA


  1. Erasmus J, Seymour R, Kaelber J, Kim D, Leal G, Sherman M, et al. Novel Insect-Specific Eilat Virus-Based Chimeric Vaccine Candidates Provide Durable, Mono- and Multivalent, Single-Dose Protection against Lethal Alphavirus Challenge. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, these data demonstrate how host-restricted, insect-specific viruses can be engineered to develop vaccines against related pathogenic arboviruses that cause severe disease in humans and domesticated animals. ..
  2. Weaver S, Charlier C, Vasilakis N, Lecuit M. Zika, Chikungunya, and Other Emerging Vector-Borne Viral Diseases. Annu Rev Med. 2018;69:395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus mainly on the latter two, which are recent arrivals in the Western Hemisphere. We also discuss a few other viruses with the potential to emerge through all of these mechanisms. ..
  3. Simo F, Bigna J, Well E, Kenmoe S, Sado F, Weaver S, et al. Chikungunya virus infection prevalence in Africa: a contemporaneous systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health. 2019;166:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Although considered a NTD, we find high prevalence of CHIKV infection in Africa. As such, chikungunya fever should deserve more attention from healthcare providers, researchers, policymakers and stakeholders from many sectors. ..
  4. Azar S, Rossi S, Haller S, Yun R, Huang J, Plante J, et al. ZIKV Demonstrates Minimal Pathologic Effects and Mosquito Infectivity in Viremic Cynomolgus Macaques. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that cynomolgus macaques may be an effective model for ZIKV infection of humans and highlights the relative refractoriness of Ae. aegypti for ZIKV infection at the levels of viremia observed. ..
  5. Karna A, Azar S, Plante J, Yun R, Vasilakis N, Weaver S, et al. Colonized Sabethes cyaneus, a Sylvatic New World Mosquito Species, Shows a Low Vector Competence for Zika Virus Relative to Aedes aegypti. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti that fed on mice at 2 dpi were infected and 70% had virus in saliva. These data demonstrate that Sa. cyaneus is a competent vector for ZIKV, albeit much less competent than Ae. aegypti. ..
  6. Weaver S. Prediction and prevention of urban arbovirus epidemics: A challenge for the global virology community. Antiviral Res. 2018;156:80-84 pubmed publisher
  7. Forrester N, Coffey L, Weaver S. Arboviral bottlenecks and challenges to maintaining diversity and fitness during mosquito transmission. Viruses. 2014;6:3991-4004 pubmed publisher
  8. Nasar F, Erasmus J, Haddow A, Tesh R, Weaver S. Eilat virus induces both homologous and heterologous interference. Virology. 2015;484:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence of heterologous interference induced by a mosquito-specific alphavirus in vitro and in vivo. ..
  9. Volk S, Chen R, Tsetsarkin K, Adams A, Garcia T, Sall A, et al. Genome-scale phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus reveal independent emergences of recent epidemics and various evolutionary rates. J Virol. 2010;84:6497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly higher rates of nucleotide substitution appear to occur during urban than during enzootic transmission. These results suggest fundamental differences in transmission modes and/or dynamics in these two transmission cycles. ..

More Information


  1. Weaver S, Vasilakis N. Molecular evolution of dengue viruses: contributions of phylogenetics to understanding the history and epidemiology of the preeminent arboviral disease. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:523-40 pubmed publisher
  2. Weaver S, Forrester N. Chikungunya: Evolutionary history and recent epidemic spread. Antiviral Res. 2015;120:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." ..
  3. Hyde J, Chen R, Trobaugh D, Diamond M, Weaver S, Klimstra W, et al. The 5' and 3' ends of alphavirus RNAs--Non-coding is not non-functional. Virus Res. 2015;206:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..g., the repeated sequence elements in the 3' UTR) whose function remains obscure. Thus, key questions remain as to the function of these short yet influential untranslated segments of alphavirus RNAs. ..
  4. Coffey L, Failloux A, Weaver S. Chikungunya virus-vector interactions. Viruses. 2014;6:4628-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. ..
  5. Nasar F, Haddow A, Tesh R, Weaver S. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:595 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, EILV displays a narrow vector range in mosquito species responsible for the maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature. ..
  6. Langsjoen R, Haller S, Roy C, Vinet Oliphant H, Bergren N, Erasmus J, et al. Chikungunya Virus Strains Show Lineage-Specific Variations in Virulence and Cross-Protective Ability in Murine and Nonhuman Primate Models. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide valuable information for predicting the severity of CHIKV-associated morbidity in future outbreaks, as well as vaccine development considerations. ..
  7. Bolling B, Weaver S, Tesh R, Vasilakis N. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community. Viruses. 2015;7:4911-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching. ..
  8. Tsetsarkin K, Chen R, Weaver S. Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus emergence. Curr Opin Virol. 2016;16:143-150 pubmed publisher
  9. Chen R, Puri V, Fedorova N, Lin D, Hari K, Jain R, et al. Comprehensive Genome Scale Phylogenetic Study Provides New Insights on the Global Expansion of Chikungunya Virus. J Virol. 2016;90:10600-10611 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a solid foundation for future evolutionary studies of CHIKV that can elucidate emergence mechanisms and also may help to predict future epidemics. ..
  10. Weaver S. Emergence of Epidemic Zika Virus Transmission and Congenital Zika Syndrome: Are Recently Evolved Traits to Blame?. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, understanding the mechanisms of epidemic ZIKV emergence, and its associated syndromes, is critical to predict future risks as well as to target surveillance and control measures in key locations. ..
  11. Diagne C, Diallo D, Faye O, Ba Y, Gaye A, Dia I, et al. Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:492 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal. ..
  12. Sow A, Loucoubar C, Diallo D, Faye O, Ndiaye Y, Senghor C, et al. Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal. Malar J. 2016;15:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact. ..
  13. Rodas J, Kautz T, Camacho E, Paternina L, Guzman H, Diaz F, et al. Genetic Characterization of Northwestern Colombian Chikungunya Virus Strains from the 2014-2015 Epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95:639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. ..
  14. Auguste A, Kaelber J, Fokam E, Guzman H, Carrington C, Erasmus J, et al. A newly isolated reovirus has the simplest genomic and structural organization of any reovirus. J Virol. 2015;89:676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..FAKV evolved from more complex ancestors by losing a genome segment and several virion proteins. ..
  15. Nasar F, Gorchakov R, Tesh R, Weaver S. Eilat virus host range restriction is present at multiple levels of the virus life cycle. J Virol. 2015;89:1404-18 pubmed publisher
  16. Vasilakis N, Weaver S. Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika. Curr Opin Virol. 2017;22:30-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, the former is one of the most difficult mosquitoes to control owing to its highly anthropophilic behavior. ..
  17. Weaver S, Reisen W. Present and future arboviral threats. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:328-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to understand the potential of these and other arboviruses to emerge in the future, invade new geographic areas, and become important public and veterinary health problems...
  18. Weaver S, Brault A, Kang W, Holland J. Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. J Virol. 1999;73:4316-26 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone...
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    Weaver S. Evolutionary influences in arboviral disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;299:285-314 pubmed
    ..Reverse genetic technologies that are now available for most arbovirus groups should be exploited to test assumptions and hypotheses derived from retrospective phylogenetic approaches. ..
  20. request reprint
    Weaver S, Barrett A. Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:789-801 pubmed
    ..We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses...
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    Weaver S, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro J. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol. 2004;49:141-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast, enzootic VEEV strains are highly specialized and appear to utilize vectors exclusively in the Spissipes section of the Culex (Melanoconion) subgenus...
  22. Arrigo N, Adams A, Watts D, Newman P, Weaver S. Cotton rats and house sparrows as hosts for North and South American strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggested that each species has the potential to serve as amplification hosts for North and South America EEEVs...
  23. request reprint
    Weaver S, Salas R, de Manzione N, Fulhorst C, Travasos da Rosa A, Duno G, et al. Extreme genetic diversity among Pirital virus (Arenaviridae) isolates from western Venezuela. Virology. 2001;285:110-8 pubmed
    ..Possible explanations for the extreme genetic diversity within and among Pirital virus populations in infected rodents are discussed...
  24. Aliota M, Bassit L, Bradrick S, Cox B, Garcia Blanco M, Gavegnano C, et al. Zika in the Americas, year 2: What have we learned? What gaps remain? A report from the Global Virus Network. Antiviral Res. 2017;144:223-246 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent sections focus on vaccine development, antiviral therapeutics and new diagnostic tests. After reviewing current understanding of the mechanisms of emergence of Zika virus, we consider the likely future of the pandemic. ..
  25. Langsjoen R, Auguste A, Rossi S, Roundy C, Penate H, Kastis M, et al. Host oxidative folding pathways offer novel anti-chikungunya virus drug targets with broad spectrum potential. Antiviral Res. 2017;143:246-251 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, auranofin reduced footpad swelling and viremia in the C57BL/6 murine model of CHIKV infection. Our results suggest that targeting oxidative folding pathways represents a potential new anti-alphavirus therapeutic strategy. ..
  26. Weaver S, Costa F, Garcia Blanco M, Ko A, Ribeiro G, Saade G, et al. Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control. Antiviral Res. 2016;130:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. ..
  27. Weaver S. Urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:360-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I review these urban emergences and potential strategies for their prevention and control. ..
  28. Weaver S, Osorio J, Livengood J, Chen R, Stinchcomb D. Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:1087-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the challenges to the development of a safe, effective and affordable chikungunya vaccine and recent progress toward this goal...
  29. Weaver S, WINEGAR R, Manger I, Forrester N. Alphaviruses: population genetics and determinants of emergence. Antiviral Res. 2012;94:242-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is one of a series in Antiviral Research on the genetic diversity of emerging viruses. ..