L R Watkins

Summary

Affiliation: University of Colorado
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Controlling neuropathic pain by adeno-associated virus driven production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10
    Erin D Milligan
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of CO at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
    Mol Pain 1:9. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Glia: a novel drug discovery target for clinical pain
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:973-85. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Immune regulation of central nervous system functions: from sickness responses to pathological pain
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
    J Intern Med 257:139-55. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint The pain of being sick: implications of immune-to-brain communication for understanding pain
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder 80309 0345, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 51:29-57. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint Dynamic regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta: molecular biology for non-molecular biologists
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    Life Sci 65:449-81. 1999
  6. pmc Implications of immune-to-brain communication for sickness and pain
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7710-3. 1999
  7. ncbi request reprint Neurocircuitry of conditioned inhibition of analgesia: effects of amygdala, dorsal raphe, ventral medullary, and spinal cord lesions on antianalgesia in the rat
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    Behav Neurosci 112:360-78. 1998
  8. ncbi request reprint Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain
    L R Watkins
    Dept of Psychology and the Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at, Boulder, CO, USA
    Trends Neurosci 24:450-5. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Beyond neurons: evidence that immune and glial cells contribute to pathological pain states
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado
    Physiol Rev 82:981-1011. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint An initial investigation of spinal mechanisms underlying pain enhancement induced by fractalkine, a neuronally released chemokine
    E Milligan
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:2775-82. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications144 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Controlling neuropathic pain by adeno-associated virus driven production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10
    Erin D Milligan
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of CO at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
    Mol Pain 1:9. 2005
    ..Taken together, these data provide initial support that intrathecal gene therapy to drive the production of IL-10 may prove to be an efficacious treatment for neuropathic pain...
  2. ncbi request reprint Glia: a novel drug discovery target for clinical pain
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:973-85. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Immune regulation of central nervous system functions: from sickness responses to pathological pain
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
    J Intern Med 257:139-55. 2005
    ..The implications of this model for human chronic pain syndromes and clinical resolution of these chronic pain states are then discussed...
  4. ncbi request reprint The pain of being sick: implications of immune-to-brain communication for understanding pain
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder 80309 0345, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 51:29-57. 2000
    ..Such exaggerated pain states naturally occur in situations involving infection, inflammation, or trauma of the skin, of peripheral nerves, and of the central nervous system itself. Implications for human pain conditions are discussed...
  5. ncbi request reprint Dynamic regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta: molecular biology for non-molecular biologists
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    Life Sci 65:449-81. 1999
    ..Last is the introduction of the idea that IL-1beta regulation is, at times, beyond the direct control of host; that is, when IL-1beta production becomes dysregulated by pathogens...
  6. pmc Implications of immune-to-brain communication for sickness and pain
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7710-3. 1999
    ..Such glial activation is induced by viruses such as HIV-1 that are known to invade the central nervous system. Implications of exaggerated pain states created by peripheral and central immune activation are discussed...
  7. ncbi request reprint Neurocircuitry of conditioned inhibition of analgesia: effects of amygdala, dorsal raphe, ventral medullary, and spinal cord lesions on antianalgesia in the rat
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    Behav Neurosci 112:360-78. 1998
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain
    L R Watkins
    Dept of Psychology and the Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at, Boulder, CO, USA
    Trends Neurosci 24:450-5. 2001
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest a new, dramatically different approach to pain control, as all clinical therapies are focused exclusively on altering neuronal, rather than glial, function...
  9. ncbi request reprint Beyond neurons: evidence that immune and glial cells contribute to pathological pain states
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado
    Physiol Rev 82:981-1011. 2002
    ..Indeed, all nerves and neurons regardless of modality or function are likely affected by immune and glial activation in the ways described for pain...
  10. ncbi request reprint An initial investigation of spinal mechanisms underlying pain enhancement induced by fractalkine, a neuronally released chemokine
    E Milligan
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:2775-82. 2005
    ..Taken together, these data support that neuronally released fractalkine enhances pain via activation of spinal cord glia. Thus, fractalkine may be a neuron-to-glia signal triggering pain facilitation...
  11. ncbi request reprint Medial prefrontal cortex determines how stressor controllability affects behavior and dorsal raphe nucleus
    J Amat
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80903 0345, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:365-71. 2005
    ..This suggests a new function for the mPFCv and implies that the presence of control inhibits stress-induced neural activity in brainstem nuclei, in contrast to the prevalent view that such activity is induced by a lack of control...
  12. ncbi request reprint Effects of vagotomy on lipopolysaccharide-induced brain interleukin-1beta protein in rats
    M K Hansen
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    Auton Neurosci 85:119-26. 2000
    ..Furthermore, these data indicate that, at the doses and times tested, subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are not crucial for LPS-induced brain IL-1beta protein...
  13. pmc Intrathecal interleukin-10 gene therapy attenuates paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and proinflammatory cytokine expression in dorsal root ganglia in rats
    Annemarie Ledeboer
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 21:686-98. 2007
    ..We propose that targeting the production of proinflammatory cytokines by intrathecal IL-10 gene therapy may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the relief of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain...
  14. pmc Opioid activation of toll-like receptor 4 contributes to drug reinforcement
    M R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    J Neurosci 32:11187-200. 2012
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Thermogenic and corticosterone responses to intravenous cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) are attenuated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy
    M Fleshner
    Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0354, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 86:134-41. 1998
    ..v. administered cytokines. This effect was dose dependent. The results add support to the hypothesis that vagal afferents are involved in peripheral cytokine-to-brain communication...
  16. pmc Controllable versus uncontrollable stressors bi-directionally modulate conditioned but not innate fear
    M V Baratta
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, CB345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 146:1495-503. 2007
    ..Finally, we explored if the protective effects of ES extended to an unconditioned fear stimulus, ferret odor. Unlike conditioned fear, prior ES increased the fear response to ferret odor to the same degree as did IS...
  17. ncbi request reprint Evidence for the involvement of spinal cord glia in subcutaneous formalin induced hyperalgesia in the rat
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    Pain 71:225-35. 1997
    ..Taken together, the present series of experiments suggest an important role for spinal glial cells in the cascade of events that are initiated by descending signals following s.c. administration of formalin...
  18. pmc Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal proinflammation and related behavioral consequences
    M R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 167:880-93. 2010
    ..Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of the pro-nociceptive consequences of small molecule xenobiotic activation of spinal TLR4 signaling independent of classical opioid receptor involvement...
  19. ncbi request reprint Effects of vagotomy on serum endotoxin, cytokines, and corticosterone after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide
    M K Hansen
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278:R331-6. 2000
    ..In conclusion, vagotomy itself has no marked effect on circulating endotoxin levels or the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, or corticosterone in blood after an intraperitoneal injection of LPS...
  20. ncbi request reprint Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy does not block intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide-induced fever
    M K Hansen
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    Auton Neurosci 85:83-7. 2000
    ..p. LPS-induced fever. Because several effects of vagotomy have been shown to be dependent on dose, we are currently investigating whether vagal afferents are involved in lower-dose i.p. LPS-induced fever...
  21. ncbi request reprint Spinal cord glia and interleukin-1 do not appear to mediate persistent allodynia induced by intramuscular acidic saline in rats
    Annemarie Ledeboer
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    J Pain 7:757-67. 2006
    ..Taken together, the present data suggest that acidic saline-induced bilateral allodynia is created independently of glial activation...
  22. ncbi request reprint Opioid-dependent effects of inescapable shock on escape behavior and conditioned fear responding are mediated by the dorsal raphe nucleus
    R E Grahn
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309, USA
    Behav Brain Res 99:153-67. 1999
    ..The role of opioids in mediating the behavioral effects of IS is discussed...
  23. pmc Evidence for a role of heat shock protein-90 in toll like receptor 4 mediated pain enhancement in rats
    M R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
    Neuroscience 164:1821-32. 2009
    ..Rather, the data suggest that TLR4-dependent pain phenomena may require contributions by multiple components of the TLR4 receptor complex...
  24. ncbi request reprint Sciatic inflammatory neuritis (SIN): behavioral allodynia is paralleled by peri-sciatic proinflammatory cytokine and superoxide production
    L S Gazda
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309-0345, USA
    J Peripher Nerv Syst 6:111-29. 2001
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that substances released by peri-sciatic immune cells may induce changes in the sciatic nerve, leading to the appearance of bilateral allodynia...
  25. ncbi request reprint The role of IL-1beta in stress-induced sensitization of proinflammatory cytokine and corticosterone responses
    J D Johnson
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Neuroscience 127:569-77. 2004
    ....
  26. pmc Behavioral control over shock blocks behavioral and neurochemical effects of later social defeat
    J Amat
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
    Neuroscience 165:1031-8. 2010
    ..Thus, ES confers a very general protection to the impact of a subsequent stress experience...
  27. pmc Proinflammatory cytokines oppose opioid-induced acute and chronic analgesia
    Mark R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 22:1178-89. 2008
    ..These data implicate multiple opioid-induced spinal proinflammatory cytokines in opposing both acute and chronic opioid analgesia, and provide a novel mechanism for the opposition of acute opioid analgesia...
  28. ncbi request reprint Stress-induced sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is associated with alterations of hypothalamic and pituitary gene expression
    Kevin A O'Connor
    Center for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroendocrinology 80:252-63. 2004
    ..These data suggest that the ultimate source of the IS-induced sensitization is not the anterior pituitary and implicate an increased drive on the anterior pituitary from the pPVN...
  29. ncbi request reprint Reversal of spinal cord non-opiate analgesia by conditioned anti-analgesia in the rat
    L R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    Pain 71:237-47. 1997
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Staphylococcal enterotoxin B induces fever, brain c-Fos expression, and serum corticosterone in rats
    L E Goehler
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280:R1434-9. 2001
    ..These results support the idea that T cell-dependent immune stimuli activate brain pathways mediating host-defense responses such as fever and neuroendocrine changes...
  31. ncbi request reprint Activation of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus in rats exposed to an uncontrollable stressor
    R E Grahn
    Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Brain Res 826:35-43. 1999
    ..Inescapable tailshock led to greater serotonergic neural activity than did escapable tailshock, supporting the hypothesis that uncontrollable stressors preferentially activate serotonergic neurons in the DRN...
  32. ncbi request reprint Impaired escape performance and enhanced conditioned fear in rats following exposure to an uncontrollable stressor are mediated by glutamate and nitric oxide in the dorsal raphe nucleus
    R E Grahn
    Department of Psychology, Connecticut College, Box 5275, 270 Mohegan Avenue, 06320 4196, New London, CT 06320 4196, USA
    Behav Brain Res 112:33-41. 2000
    ..This plasticity in the DRN is discussed as a possible mechanism by which IS leads to changes in escape performance and conditioned fear responding...
  33. ncbi request reprint Bacterial endotoxin induces fos immunoreactivity in primary afferent neurons of the vagus nerve
    R P Gaykema
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo, USA
    Neuroimmunomodulation 5:234-40. 1998
    ..These findings implicate vagal afferents as a potential signaling pathway to brain regions that generate illness responses to pro-inflammatory mediators...
  34. pmc Activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex during an uncontrollable stressor reproduces both the immediate and long-term protective effects of behavioral control
    J Amat
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 154:1178-86. 2008
    ..These results provide strong support for the argument that behavioral control produced stress-resistance by activating the mPFCv...
  35. pmc Expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after uncontrollable or controllable stress
    S T Bland
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 144:1219-28. 2007
    ..No effects of stressor controllability on BDNF were observed in the HF, although both ES and IS decreased BDNF mRNA in the DG. FGF-2 in the mPFC may be involved in emotional regulation ("coping") during stressful experiences...
  36. ncbi request reprint The long term acute phase-like responses that follow acute stressor exposure are blocked by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone
    E D Milligan
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res 810:48-58. 1998
    ..These data provide support for a specific mode of action for i.c.v. alpha-MSH(1-13), namely blockade of APRs with no impact on acute hyperthermia or increased levels of CORT produced during IS...
  37. ncbi request reprint Spinal glia and proinflammatory cytokines mediate mirror-image neuropathic pain in rats
    Erin D Milligan
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    J Neurosci 23:1026-40. 2003
    ..These results provide the first evidence that ipsilateral and mirror-image inflammatory neuropathy pain are created both acutely and chronically through glial and proinflammatory cytokine actions...
  38. pmc Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)
    Mark R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:240-50. 2009
    ..Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, while improving analgesia...
  39. ncbi request reprint A role for proinflammatory cytokines and fractalkine in analgesia, tolerance, and subsequent pain facilitation induced by chronic intrathecal morphine
    Ian N Johnston
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7353-65. 2004
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that IL-1 and fractalkine are endogenous regulators of morphine analgesia and are involved in the increases in pain sensitivity that occur after chronic opiates...
  40. ncbi request reprint Inescapable shock-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia in rats: sites of action
    S E Hammack
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, 80309 0345, USA
    Behav Neurosci 113:795-803. 1999
    ..0 microg) MOR microinjections. These data suggest that IS-induced excitability changes within the DRN synergize with opiates microinjected in other analgesia areas and that this potentiates the responses to opiates 24 hr after IS...
  41. pmc Prostaglandins are necessary and sufficient to induce contextual fear learning impairments after interleukin-1 beta injections into the dorsal hippocampus
    A M Hein
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Neuroscience 150:754-63. 2007
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint The impact of the nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist antalarmin on behavioral and endocrine responses to stress
    T Deak
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309 0345, USA
    Endocrinology 140:79-86. 1999
    ..Despite the marked behavioral effects observed in antalarmin-treated rats, antalarmin had no effect on IS-induced rises in ACTH or corticosterone. However, antalarmin did block the ACTH response produced by exposure to 2 footshocks...
  43. ncbi request reprint Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy blocks interleukin-1beta-induced fever but does not reduce IL-1beta levels in the circulation
    R P Gaykema
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904, USA
    Auton Neurosci 85:72-7. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that the blockade of intraperitoneal interleukin-1beta-induced fever after subdiaphragmatic vagotomy cannot be accounted for by alterations of interleukin-1beta levels in the general circulation...
  44. ncbi request reprint Long-term changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor occupancy following exposure to an acute stressor
    T Deak
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res 847:211-20. 1999
    ..These long-term changes in corticosteroid receptor activation, evident 24 h after IS exposure, may be responsible for some of the long-term neural, behavioral and immune changes observed following this acute stress procedure...
  45. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the effects of nucleus tractus solitarius and ventral medial medulla lesions on illness-induced and subcutaneous formalin-induced hyperalgesias
    E P Wiertelak
    Department of Psychology, Macalester College, St Paul, MN 55105, USA
    Brain Res 748:143-50. 1997
    ..This capacity for opposed action may prove to be characteristic of structures involved in pain modulation...
  46. ncbi request reprint The role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the dorsal raphe nucleus in mediating the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress
    Sayamwong E Hammack
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    J Neurosci 22:1020-6. 2002
    ..The potential role of the caudal DRN in states of anxiety is discussed...
  47. pmc Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia
    Mark R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology, The Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 22:1248-56. 2008
    ....
  48. pmc Interleukin-6 mediates low-threshold mechanical allodynia induced by intrathecal HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120
    Diana K Schoeniger-Skinner
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 30809 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 21:660-7. 2007
    ..These results would suggest that IL-6 induces pain facilitation, and may do so in part by stimulating the production and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines...
  49. ncbi request reprint Peri-sciatic proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and complement induce mirror-image neuropathic pain in rats
    Carin M Twining
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345 Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Pain 110:299-309. 2004
    ..Thus these immune-derived substances can markedly alter sensory nerve function at mid-axon...
  50. ncbi request reprint Circulating cytokines and endotoxin are not necessary for the activation of the sickness or corticosterone response produced by peripheral E. coli challenge
    J Campisi
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0354, USA
    J Appl Physiol 95:1873-82. 2003
    ..Therefore, fever, activity reduction, and corticosterone elevation induced by E. coli infection may have been evoked by a neural, rather than a humoral, pathway from the periphery to the brain...
  51. pmc Evidence that tricyclic small molecules may possess toll-like receptor and myeloid differentiation protein 2 activity
    M R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
    Neuroscience 168:551-63. 2010
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by intrathecal administration of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp120
    E D Milligan
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res 861:105-16. 2000
    ..Lastly, both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia to i.t. gp120 were blocked by spinal pretreatment with drugs (fluorocitrate and CNI-1493) thought to preferentially disrupt glial function...
  53. ncbi request reprint Evidence that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine can induce spinal nociceptive facilitation in rats
    E D Milligan
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2294-302. 2004
    ..Taken together, these initial investigations of spinal fractalkine effects suggest that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine are involved in spinal sensitization, including that induced by peripheral neuropathy...
  54. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces enhanced pain states mediated by spinal cord proinflammatory cytokines
    E D Milligan
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2808-19. 2001
    ..These results support the concept that activated glia in dorsal spinal cord can create exaggerated pain states via the release of proinflammatory cytokines...
  55. ncbi request reprint Inescapable shock induces resistance to the effects of dexamethasone
    K A O'Connor
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 28:481-500. 2003
    ..The induction of DEX resistance was independent of the degree of behavioral control that the animal had over the stressor. Thus, a single session of IS induces DEX resistance of both HPA axis and cytokine responses measured in vivo...
  56. pmc Evidence that opioids may have toll-like receptor 4 and MD-2 effects
    Mark R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 24:83-95. 2010
    ..These data provide evidence that select opioids may non-stereoselectively influence TLR4 signaling and have behavioral consequences resulting, in part, via TLR4 signaling...
  57. ncbi request reprint Glial proinflammatory cytokines mediate exaggerated pain states: implications for clinical pain
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology, Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 521:1-21. 2003
    ..The take-home message is that drugs that target glia and the chemical substances that these glia release are predicted to be powerful remedies for pain problems in people...
  58. pmc Enduring consequences of early-life infection on glial and neural cell genesis within cognitive regions of the brain
    Sondra T Bland
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80204, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 24:329-38. 2010
    ..These changes include marked alterations in glia, as well as influences on neurogenesis in brain regions important for cognition...
  59. pmc Immunological priming potentiates non-viral anti-inflammatory gene therapy treatment of neuropathic pain
    E Sloane
    University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
    Gene Ther 16:1210-22. 2009
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Stressed rats fail to expand the CD45RC+CD4+ (Th1-like) T cell subset in response to KLH: possible involvement of IFN-gamma
    M Fleshner
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Boulder 80309, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 9:101-12. 1995
    ..Implications of these findings as a mechanism for the decrease in the in vivo antibody response previously reported is discussed...
  61. pmc Spinal upregulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone: therapeutic efficacy in a range of experimental nervous system disorders
    K M Ramos
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 169:1888-900. 2010
    ..GLT-1 therefore may be a therapeutic target that could improve available treatment options for patients with chronic pain...
  62. ncbi request reprint Microinjection of urocortin 2 into the dorsal raphe nucleus activates serotonergic neurons and increases extracellular serotonin in the basolateral amygdala
    J Amat
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 129:509-19. 2004
    ..These data suggest that CRF1 and CRF2 activation within the DRN affect 5-HT neurons in opponent fashion. Implications of these results for understanding the behavioral effects of CRF and other CRF-like ligands are discussed...
  63. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-1 induces c-Fos immunoreactivity in primary afferent neurons of the vagus nerve
    L E Goehler
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res 804:306-10. 1998
    ..IL-1beta, but not vehicle, induced c-Fos expression, demonstrating that IL-1beta is likely an important signal from the immune system to the vagus nerve, and thus the brain...
  64. ncbi request reprint Endogenous glucocorticoids play a positive regulatory role in the anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin in vivo antibody response
    M Fleshner
    Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    J Immunol 166:3813-9. 2001
    ..Given that IFN-gamma is an important regulator of the IgM to IgG2a switch, it is possible that the small rise in GC found 4-7 days after KLH facilitates IgG2a isotype switching...
  65. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus-1 coat protein gp120 impairs contextual fear conditioning: a potential role in AIDS related learning and memory impairments
    C R Pugh
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Brain Res 861:8-15. 2000
    ..Finally, heat denaturation of the tertiary structure of gp120 abolished its effects on fear conditioning, suggesting that gp120 impairs contextual fear conditioning by binding to its receptors on glia...
  66. ncbi request reprint Acute stress may facilitate recovery from a subcutaneous bacterial challenge
    T Deak
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroimmunomodulation 6:344-54. 1999
    ..Furthermore, IS does not appear to alter the rat's ability to sequester bacteria in the subcutaneous space since no swelling of lymph nodes or chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was observed...
  67. pmc Release of plasmid DNA-encoding IL-10 from PLGA microparticles facilitates long-term reversal of neuropathic pain following a single intrathecal administration
    Ryan Gene Soderquist
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 424 UCB, Boulder, Colorado, 80309, USA
    Pharm Res 27:841-54. 2010
    ..In this work, the potential of plasmid DNA-encoding IL-10 (pDNA-IL-10) slowly released from biodegradable microparticles to provide long-term pain relief in an animal model of neuropathic pain was investigated...
  68. ncbi request reprint The role of the vagus nerve in cytokine-to-brain communication
    S F Maier
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 840:289-300. 1998
    ..Data extending this analysis to TNF-alpha and intravenous routes will be described...
  69. pmc Evidence that intrathecal morphine-3-glucuronide may cause pain enhancement via toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 and interleukin-1beta
    S S Lewis
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
    Neuroscience 165:569-83. 2010
    ..These data provide the first evidence for a TLR4 and IL-1 mediated component to M3G-induced effects, likely of at least microglial origin...
  70. ncbi request reprint Stress potentiation of morphine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell is dependent upon stressor uncontrollability and is mediated by the dorsal raphe nucleus
    S T Bland
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 126:705-15. 2004
    ..No effect of IS was found on morphine-induced 5-HT or DA efflux in the ventral tegmental area. These results suggest a neural substrate for stress potentiation of morphine reward involving 5-HT neurotransmission in the DRN...
  71. ncbi request reprint A method for increasing the viability of the external portion of lumbar catheters placed in the spinal subarachnoid space of rats
    E D Milligan
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 90:81-6. 1999
    ..Approximately 5.5% of animals implanted showed very mild and transient neurological impairment...
  72. ncbi request reprint Blockade of alpha1 adrenoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus prevents enhanced conditioned fear and impaired escape performance following uncontrollable stressor exposure in rats
    Ruth E Grahn
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Behav Brain Res 134:387-92. 2002
    ..These results support the view that noradrenergic input to the DRN is necessary to produce the behavioral effects of inescapable tail shock...
  73. pmc Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene therapy decreases sensory and motor dysfunction in experimental Multiple Sclerosis: MOG-EAE behavioral and anatomical symptom treatment with cytokine gene therapy
    Evan Sloane
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, CU Boulder 345, CO 80305, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:92-100. 2009
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA downregulation produced by social isolation is blocked by intrahippocampal interleukin-1 receptor antagonist
    R M Barrientos
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Neuroscience 121:847-53. 2003
    ..These data suggest that hippocampal-dependent memory impairments induced by elevated levels of brain IL-1beta may occur via an IL-1beta-induced downregulation in hippocampal BDNF...
  75. ncbi request reprint Vagal immune-to-brain communication: a visceral chemosensory pathway
    L E Goehler
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904, USA
    Auton Neurosci 85:49-59. 2000
    ..In this way, immunosensory systems represent highly organized and coherent pathways for activating host defense against infection...
  76. ncbi request reprint Evidence that brief stress may induce the acute phase response in rats
    T Deak
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder 80309, USA
    Am J Physiol 273:R1998-2004. 1997
    ....
  77. pmc Non-stereoselective reversal of neuropathic pain by naloxone and naltrexone: involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)
    Mark R Hutchinson
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 28:20-9. 2008
    ..Thus, these data suggest that (+)-opioid antagonists such as (+)-naloxone may be useful clinically to suppress glial activation, yet (-)-opioid agonists suppress pain...
  78. ncbi request reprint Activation of the spinal cord complement cascade might contribute to mechanical allodynia induced by three animal models of spinal sensitization
    Carin M Twining
    Department of Psychology and the Center of Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    J Pain 6:174-83. 2005
    ..These data suggest that complement activation within the spinal cord might contribute to enhanced pain states and provide additional evidence for immune regulation of pain transmission...
  79. pmc Selective activation of dorsal raphe nucleus-projecting neurons in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex by controllable stress
    Michael V Baratta
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 30:1111-6. 2009
    ..These results suggest that the PL selectively responds to behavioral control and utilizes such information to regulate the brainstem response to ongoing and subsequent stressors...
  80. pmc Long-term control of neuropathic pain in a non-viral gene therapy paradigm
    E M Sloane
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
    Gene Ther 16:470-5. 2009
    ..Timing and dose requirements leading to long-term pain control are discussed in this review, as is recent work using microparticle-encapsulated DNA to achieve long-term therapeutic efficacy with a single injection...
  81. ncbi request reprint The immune system and memory consolidation: a role for the cytokine IL-1beta
    C Rachal Pugh
    University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80310, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25:29-41. 2001
    ....
  82. pmc The cortical innate immune response increases local neuronal excitability leading to seizures
    Krista M Rodgers
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, UCB 345, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Brain 132:2478-86. 2009
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Elevated IL-1beta contributes to antibody suppression produced by stress
    Albert Moraska
    Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA
    J Appl Physiol 93:207-15. 2002
    ..These data support the hypothesis that stress-induced increases in innate immunity (i.e., IL-1beta) may contribute to stress-induced suppression in acquired immunity (i.e., anti-KLH Ig)...
  84. ncbi request reprint Minocycline attenuates mechanical allodynia and proinflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of pain facilitation
    Annemarie Ledeboer
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Pain 115:71-83. 2005
    ..Taken together these data highlight the importance of microglial activation in the development of exaggerated pain states...
  85. ncbi request reprint Spinal gap junctions: potential involvement in pain facilitation
    Leah E Spataro
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 90309 0345, USA
    J Pain 5:392-405. 2004
    ..In addition, it decreased gp120-induced proinflammatory cytokines. This suggests gap junction activation might lead to proinflammatory cytokine release by distantly activated glia...
  86. ncbi request reprint Stressor exposure produces long-term reductions in antigen-specific T and B cell responses
    Lawrence S Gazda
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309 0354, USA
    Stress 6:259-67. 2003
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint The contribution of the vagus nerve in interleukin-1beta-induced fever is dependent on dose
    M K Hansen
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280:R929-34. 2001
    ..These results suggest that low doses of intraperitoneal IL-1beta induce fever via a vagal route and that dose may account for some of the discrepancies in the literature...
  88. doi request reprint PEGylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for preserved biological activity and enhanced spinal cord distribution
    Ryan G Soderquist
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 424 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    J Biomed Mater Res A 91:719-29. 2009
    ..Furthermore, PEGylation may be a promising approach for enhancing intrathecal delivery of therapeutic proteins with potential for treating disease and injury in the spinal cord...
  89. pmc Behavioral control, the medial prefrontal cortex, and resilience
    Steven F Maier
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 8:397-406. 2006
    ..The general implications of these results for understanding resilience in the face of adversity are discussed...
  90. pmc The glial activation inhibitor AV411 reduces morphine-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine release
    Sondra T Bland
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:492-7. 2009
    ..These results indicate that glial activation contributes to the effects of morphine on NAc DA, which is associated with somatic signs of precipitated withdrawal...
  91. pmc Activation of the infralimbic cortex in a fear context enhances extinction learning
    Brittany M Thompson
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    Learn Mem 17:591-9. 2010
    ..The results indicate a novel persisting control of fear induced by activation of the IL and suggest that IL activation induces changes in extinction-related circuitry that prime extinction learning...
  92. pmc Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in coping and resilience
    Steven F Maier
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res 1355:52-60. 2010
    ..e., stressor resistance. This controllability-induced proactive stressor resistance generalizes across very different stressors and may be involved in determining individual difference in reactions to traumatic events...
  93. pmc "Listening" and "talking" to neurons: implications of immune activation for pain control and increasing the efficacy of opioids
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res Rev 56:148-69. 2007
    ..Such changes in neuronal function would be expected to occur wherever immune-derived substances come in close contact with neurons...
  94. pmc Enduring reversal of neuropathic pain by a single intrathecal injection of adenosine 2A receptor agonists: a novel therapy for neuropathic pain
    Lisa C Loram
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    J Neurosci 29:14015-25. 2009
    ..Activation of A(2A)Rs after intrathecal administration may be a novel, therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain by increasing IL-10 in the immunocompetent cells of the CNS...
  95. pmc Time course of hippocampal IL-1 beta and memory consolidation impairments in aging rats following peripheral infection
    Ruth M Barrientos
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:46-54. 2009
    ..These data suggest that the exaggerated and prolonged elevation of IL-1 beta, specifically in the hippocampus, may be responsible for hippocampal-dependent memory impairments observed in aging rats following a bacterial infection...
  96. pmc A novel method for modeling facial allodynia associated with migraine in awake and freely moving rats
    Julie Wieseler
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 185:236-45. 2010
    ..This model allows time- and dose-dependent assessment of the relationship between changes in meningeal inflammation and corresponding exaggerated pain behaviors...
  97. pmc The role of prior stressor controllability and the dorsal raphé nucleus in sucrose preference and social exploration
    John P Christianson
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Behav Brain Res 193:87-93. 2008
    ..We argue that DRN-5-HT activation mediates a state of generalized anxiety produced by uncontrollable stress and that juvenile social exploration is a useful behavioral endpoint in stressor controllability studies...
  98. pmc Immunogenicity of intrathecal plasmid gene delivery: cytokine release and effects on transgene expression
    Travis S Hughes
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of CO, Boulder, CO, USA
    J Gene Med 11:782-90. 2009
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint Memory for context is impaired by a post context exposure injection of interleukin-1 beta into dorsal hippocampus
    Ruth M Barrientos
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, CB345, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Behav Brain Res 134:291-8. 2002
    ..At this time the mechanisms responsible for this impairment are not understood, but may involve late-phase protein synthesis processes associated with LTP, because later consolidation processes are being disrupted...
  100. ncbi request reprint Further characterization of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a proinflammatory cytokine: central nervous system effects
    Kevin A O'Connor
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Cytokine 24:254-65. 2003
    ..Nonetheless, these data suggest that HMGB1 may play a role as an endogenous pyrogen and support the concept that HMGB1 has proinflammatory characteristics within the central nervous system...
  101. pmc The sensory insular cortex mediates the stress-buffering effects of safety signals but not behavioral control
    John P Christianson
    Department of Psychology, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    J Neurosci 28:13703-11. 2008
    ..These results indicate that stressor-modulators can recruit distinct neural circuitry and imply a critical role of the sensory insula in safety learning...