ERIC M VERDIN

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation by reversible enzyme deacetylation
    Matthew D Hirschey
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 464:121-5. 2010
  2. pmc The human silent information regulator (Sir)2 homologue hSIRT3 is a mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase
    Bjorn Schwer
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, 365 Vermont Street, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
    J Cell Biol 158:647-57. 2002
  3. pmc miRNAs regulate SIRT1 expression during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation and in adult mouse tissues
    Laura R Saunders
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, 94158, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 2:415-31. 2010
  4. pmc SIRT1 and SIRT3 deacetylate homologous substrates: AceCS1,2 and HMGCS1,2
    Matthew D Hirschey
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 3:635-42. 2011
  5. pmc Interphase nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and localization of SIRT2 during mitosis
    Brian J North
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e784. 2007
  6. pmc Repressive LTR nucleosome positioning by the BAF complex is required for HIV latency
    Haleh Rafati
    Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001206. 2011
  7. pmc The sirtuins, oxidative stress and aging: an emerging link
    Philip I Merksamer
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 5:144-50. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Acetylphosphate: a novel link between lysine acetylation and intermediary metabolism in bacteria
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, 1650 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Cell 51:132-4. 2013
  9. pmc Sirtuins: Sir2-related NAD-dependent protein deacetylases
    Brian J North
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
    Genome Biol 5:224. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Ornithine decarboxylase activity in tumor cell lines correlates with sensitivity to cell death induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors
    Laura R Saunders
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, 1650 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:2777-85. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications42

  1. pmc SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation by reversible enzyme deacetylation
    Matthew D Hirschey
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 464:121-5. 2010
    ..These findings identify acetylation as a novel regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation and demonstrate that SIRT3 modulates mitochondrial intermediary metabolism and fatty-acid use during fasting...
  2. pmc The human silent information regulator (Sir)2 homologue hSIRT3 is a mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase
    Bjorn Schwer
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, 365 Vermont Street, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
    J Cell Biol 158:647-57. 2002
    ..These observations demonstrate the existence of a latent class III deacetylase that becomes catalytically activated upon import into the human mitochondria...
  3. pmc miRNAs regulate SIRT1 expression during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation and in adult mouse tissues
    Laura R Saunders
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, 94158, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 2:415-31. 2010
    ..The regulation of SIRT1 protein levels by miRNAs might provide new opportunities for therapeutic tissue-specific modulation of SIRT1 expression and for reprogramming of somatic cells into iPS cells...
  4. pmc SIRT1 and SIRT3 deacetylate homologous substrates: AceCS1,2 and HMGCS1,2
    Matthew D Hirschey
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 3:635-42. 2011
    ..In this perspective, we take a first step by characterizing the evolutionary history of the sirtuins and these substrate families...
  5. pmc Interphase nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and localization of SIRT2 during mitosis
    Brian J North
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e784. 2007
    ..The findings suggest a novel mechanism of regulating SIRT2 function by nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, as well as a role for SIRT2 in the nucleus during interphase and throughout mitosis...
  6. pmc Repressive LTR nucleosome positioning by the BAF complex is required for HIV latency
    Haleh Rafati
    Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001206. 2011
    ..Our data point to the ATP-dependent BRG1 component of BAF as a putative therapeutic target to deplete the latent reservoir in patients...
  7. pmc The sirtuins, oxidative stress and aging: an emerging link
    Philip I Merksamer
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 5:144-50. 2013
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Acetylphosphate: a novel link between lysine acetylation and intermediary metabolism in bacteria
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, 1650 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Cell 51:132-4. 2013
    ..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Weinert et al. (2013) demonstrate that the intermediary metabolite acetyl-phosphate is an important acetyl donor that contributes to global protein acetylation in growth-arrested E. coli...
  9. pmc Sirtuins: Sir2-related NAD-dependent protein deacetylases
    Brian J North
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
    Genome Biol 5:224. 2004
    ..In addition to the catalytic domain, eukaryotic sirtuins contain variable amino- and carboxy-terminal extensions that regulate their subcellular localizations and catalytic activity...
  10. ncbi request reprint Ornithine decarboxylase activity in tumor cell lines correlates with sensitivity to cell death induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors
    Laura R Saunders
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, 1650 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:2777-85. 2006
    ..These findings warrant clinical evaluation of tumor samples to determine if high ODC activity levels predict sensitivity to HDAC inhibitors...
  11. ncbi request reprint AROuSing SIRT1: identification of a novel endogenous SIRT1 activator
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Cell 28:354-6. 2007
    ..In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Kim et al. (2007) report the identification of a cellular protein, AROS, that activates the SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of p53...
  12. pmc Sirtuin regulation of mitochondria: energy production, apoptosis, and signaling
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 35:669-75. 2010
    ..Recent findings have shed light on how the mitochondrial sirtuins function in the control of basic mitochondrial biology, including energy production, metabolism, apoptosis and intracellular signaling...
  13. ncbi request reprint Class II histone deacetylases: versatile regulators
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, PO Box 419100, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
    Trends Genet 19:286-93. 2003
    ..We discuss their emerging biological functions and the molecular mechanisms by which they are regulated...
  14. pmc NF-kappaB p50 promotes HIV latency through HDAC recruitment and repression of transcriptional initiation
    Samuel A Williams
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    EMBO J 25:139-49. 2006
    ..The combination of HDAC inhibitors and Tat merits consideration as a new strategy for purging latent HIV proviruses from their cellular reservoirs...
  15. ncbi request reprint Enzymatic activity associated with class II HDACs is dependent on a multiprotein complex containing HDAC3 and SMRT/N-CoR
    Wolfgang Fischle
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
    Mol Cell 9:45-57. 2002
    ..These observations indicate that class II HDACs regulate transcription by bridging the enzymatically active SMRT/N-CoR-HDAC3 complex and select transcription factors independently of any intrinsic HDAC activity...
  16. pmc In vivo, in vitro, and in silico analysis of methylation of the HIV-1 provirus
    Leonard Chavez
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, 1650 Owens Street, CA 94158 2261, USA
    Methods 53:47-53. 2011
    ..Here, we discuss the identification of CpGIs within the HIV-1 provirus and the study of their differential methylation patterns in several HIV-1 latency models using bisulfite-mediated methylcytosine mapping...
  17. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 proviral latency
    Dwayne Bisgrove
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 3:805-14. 2005
    ..Finally, experimental therapies designed to eliminate the latent population will be highlighted...
  18. ncbi request reprint Protein kinase D1 phosphorylates HDAC7 and induces its nuclear export after T-cell receptor activation
    Maribel Parra
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:13762-70. 2005
    ..In a mouse model of negative selection, PKD1 was activated during thymocyte activation. These observations indicate that PKD1 regulates the expression of Nur77 during thymocyte activation at least in part by phosphorylating HDAC7...
  19. doi request reprint Acetate metabolism and aging: An emerging connection
    Tadahiro Shimazu
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mech Ageing Dev 131:511-6. 2010
    ..Here, we review the regulation of acetate metabolism by sirtuins, the remarkable conservation of this metabolic regulatory pathway and its emerging role in the regulation of aging and longevity...
  20. ncbi request reprint HDAC7, a thymus-specific class II histone deacetylase, regulates Nur77 transcription and TCR-mediated apoptosis
    Franck Dequiedt
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94141, USA
    Immunity 18:687-98. 2003
    ..Inhibition of HDAC7 expression by RNA interference causes increased apoptosis in response to TCR activation. These observations define HDAC7 as a regulator of Nur77 and apoptosis in developing thymocytes...
  21. pmc Reversible lysine acetylation controls the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase 2
    Bjoern Schwer
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10224-9. 2006
    ..Because the activity of a bacterial ortholog of AceCS2, called ACS, is controlled via deacetylation by a bacterial sirtuin protein, our observation highlights the conservation of a metabolic regulatory pathway from bacteria to humans...
  22. ncbi request reprint HDAC7 regulates apoptosis in developing thymocytes
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, PO Box 419100, San Francisco, CA 94141 9100, USA
    Novartis Found Symp 259:115-29; discussion 129-31, 163-9. 2004
    ..These observations define HDAC7 as a regulator of Nur77 and apoptosis in developing thymocytes and indicate that HDAC7 is likely to play an important role in the control of central immune tolerance...
  23. pmc HIV reproducibly establishes a latent infection after acute infection of T cells in vitro
    Albert Jordan
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
    EMBO J 22:1868-77. 2003
    ..These observations demonstrate that HIV can reproducibly establish a latent infection as a consequence of integration in or near heterochromatin...
  24. ncbi request reprint The human Sir2 ortholog, SIRT2, is an NAD+-dependent tubulin deacetylase
    Brian J North
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, 94141, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Mol Cell 11:437-44. 2003
    ..These observations establish SIRT2 as a bona fide tubulin deacetylase...
  25. doi request reprint Acetylation of mitochondrial proteins
    Matthew D Hirschey
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Methods Enzymol 457:137-47. 2009
    ..Here we review experimental approaches that can be used in vitro and in vivo to study the role of acetylation in mitochondrial cell biology...
  26. pmc Histone deacetylase 7 functions as a key regulator of genes involved in both positive and negative selection of thymocytes
    Herbert G Kasler
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, 1650 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:5184-200. 2007
    ....
  27. pmc SIRT1 regulates HIV transcription via Tat deacetylation
    Sara Pagans
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e41. 2005
    ..These results support a model in which cycles of Tat acetylation and deacetylation regulate HIV transcription. SIRT1 recycles Tat to its unacetylated form and acts as a transcriptional coactivator during Tat transactivation...
  28. ncbi request reprint The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex is a cofactor for Tat transactivation of the HIV promoter
    Tokameh Mahmoudi
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:19960-8. 2006
    ..This synergism depended on the acetyltransferase activity of p300 and on Tat Lys(50) and Lys(51). In conclusion, Tat-mediated activation of the HIV promoter requires the SWI/SNF complex in synergy with the coactivator p300...
  29. ncbi request reprint Preparation of enzymatically active recombinant class III protein deacetylases
    Brian J North
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Methods 36:338-45. 2005
    ..This review discusses protocols for the purification of enzymatically active human sirtuin 1, 2, and 3 and their activities on histone and nonhistone substrates...
  30. pmc Myosin phosphatase dephosphorylates HDAC7, controls its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and inhibits apoptosis in thymocytes
    Maribel Parra
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Genes Dev 21:638-43. 2007
    ..Myosin phosphatase dephosphorylates HDAC7 and promotes its nuclear localization, leading to the repression of the HDAC7 target, Nur77, and the inhibition of apoptosis in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes...
  31. ncbi request reprint Mitochondrial sirtuins
    Jing Yi Huang
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1804:1645-51. 2010
    ..Here, we review and discuss recent progress in the study of mitochondrial sirtuins and their targets...
  32. ncbi request reprint Regulation of insulin secretion by SIRT4, a mitochondrial ADP-ribosyltransferase
    Nidhi Ahuja
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:33583-92. 2007
    ..Depletion of SIRT4 from insulin-producing INS-1E cells results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose. These observations define a new role for mitochondrial SIRT4 in the regulation of insulin secretion...
  33. pmc Conserved P-TEFb-interacting domain of BRD4 inhibits HIV transcription
    Dwayne A Bisgrove
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13690-5. 2007
    ..Incubation of cells with a synthetic peptide containing the C-terminal domain of BRD4 interferes with transactivation of the HIV promoter by the Tat protein...
  34. ncbi request reprint Mitotic regulation of SIRT2 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1-dependent phosphorylation
    Brian J North
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:19546-55. 2007
    ..Overexpression of SIRT2 mediates a delay in cellular proliferation that is dependent on serine 368 phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutation of serine 368 reduces hyperploidy in cells under mitotic stress due to microtubule poisons...
  35. ncbi request reprint Tat acetylation: a regulatory switch between early and late phases in HIV transcription elongation
    Melanie Ott
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, 365 Vermont Street, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
    Novartis Found Symp 259:182-93; discussion 193-6, 223-5. 2004
    ..Our data collectively show that Tat acetylation by p300 defines a critical step in Tat transactivation that serves to disrupt the Tat/TAR/CyclinT1 complex and helps in recruiting PCAF to the elongating RNA polymerase II...
  36. pmc Epigenetic regulation of HIV-1 latency by cytosine methylation
    Steven E Kauder
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000495. 2009
    ..Clearance of HIV-1 from infected persons may be enhanced by inclusion of DNA methylation inhibitors, such as aza-CdR, and NF-kappaB activators into current antiviral therapies...
  37. pmc The Cellular lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 binds HIV-1 TAR RNA, monomethylates the viral transactivator Tat, and enhances HIV transcription
    Sara Pagans
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:234-44. 2010
    ..Our findings uncover a positive role for Set7/9-KMT7 and Tat methylation during early steps of the Tat transactivation cycle...
  38. ncbi request reprint Prostratin antagonizes HIV latency by activating NF-kappaB
    Samuel A Williams
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94141, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:42008-17. 2004
    ..These findings provide new insights into the molecular pathway through which prostratin antagonizes HIV latency highlighting a central role for the action of NF-kappaB...
  39. ncbi request reprint Measurement of mammalian histone deacetylase activity
    Eric Verdin
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94103, USA
    Methods Enzymol 377:180-96. 2004
  40. pmc The serum response factor and a putative novel transcription factor regulate expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 in neurons
    Sean A Pintchovski
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    J Neurosci 29:1525-37. 2009
    ..This element binds serum response factor, which is recruited by synaptic activity to regulate Arc. Thus, Arc is the first target of serum response factor that functions at synapses to mediate plasticity...
  41. doi request reprint Conserved metabolic regulatory functions of sirtuins
    Bjoern Schwer
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell Metab 7:104-12. 2008
    ..Recent findings support the idea that sirtuins play a pivotal role in metabolic control in higher organisms, including mammals. This review surveys evidence for an emerging role of sirtuins as regulators of metabolism in mammals...
  42. pmc Tissue-resident macrophages are productively infected ex vivo by primary X4 isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Prerana Jayakumar
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Virol 79:5220-6. 2005
    ..Infection of tissue macrophages by X4 HIV-1 may be highly relevant in vivo and contribute to key events in HIV-1 pathogenesis...

Research Grants21

  1. Epigenetic regulation of HIV latency
    ERIC M VERDIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Here we propose to study the role of epigenetic modifications in HIV latency and the possible role of drugs that modify epigenetic silencing as a novel therapeutic approach to induce the reactivation of latent HIV. ..
  2. ROLE OF CHROMATIN IN HIV TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    ERIC M VERDIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These experiments have the potential of identifying novel factors mediating HIV transcriptional regulation that could be targeted therapeutically in the future. ..
  3. MODULATION OF T CELL FUNCTIONS BY HIV1 TAT
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These studies will further define the role of Tat as modulator of T cell differentiated functions and establish its role in HIV pathogenesis. ..
  4. ROLE OF CHROMATIN IN HIV TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These experiments have the potential of identifying novel factors mediating HIV transcriptional regulation that could be targeted therapeutically in the future. ..
  5. MODULATION OF CD8 T CELL FUNCTION BY HIV ENVELOPE PROTEI
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. A New In Vitro Model for HIV Latency
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies should further establish the validity of our model for the study of HIV latency in patients. ..
  7. Regulation of HIV transcription and replication by SDF-1gamma
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will determine whether a correlations exist between SDF-1gamma expression, HIV replication and the presence of the SDF1-3'A allele. ..
  8. ROLE OF CHROMATIN IN HIV TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These experiments have the potential of identifying novel factors mediating HIV transcriptional regulation that could be targeted therapeutically in the future. ..
  9. ROLE OF CHROMATIN IN HIV TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, the applicant will use an in vitro transcription system reconstituted with purified histones to evaluate the effects of specific mutations in the histone amino tails (sites of acetylation) on HIV expression. ..
  10. MODULATION OF CD8 T CELL FUNCTION BY HIV ENVELOPE PROTEI
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. MODULATION OF CD8 T CELL FUNCTION BY HIV ENVELOPE PROTEI
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. MODULATION OF CD8 T CELL FUNCTION BY HIV ENVELOPE PROTEI
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. MODULATION OF T CELL FUNCTIONS BY HIV1 TAT
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will further define the role of Tat as modulator of T cell differentiated functions and establish its role in HIV pathogenesis. ..
  14. ROLE OF CHROMATIN IN HIV TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Finally, the applicant will use an in vitro transcription system reconstituted with purified histones to evaluate the effects of specific mutations in the histone amino tails (sites of acetylation) on HIV expression. ..
  15. MODULATION OF CD8 T CELL FUNCTION BY HIV ENVELOPE PROTEI
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. ROLE OF CHROMATIN IN HIV TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, the applicant will use an in vitro transcription system reconstituted with purified histones to evaluate the effects of specific mutations in the histone amino tails (sites of acetylation) on HIV expression. ..
  17. MODULATION OF T CELL FUNCTIONS BY HIV1 TAT
    Eric Verdin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These studies will further define the role of Tat as modulator of T cell differentiated functions and establish its role in HIV pathogenesis. ..