Ajit P Varki

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Nothing in medicine makes sense, except in the light of evolution
    Ajit Varki
    Department of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 90:481-94. 2012
  2. pmc Group B Streptococcus engages an inhibitory Siglec through sialic acid mimicry to blunt innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo
    Yung Chi Chang
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 10:e1003846. 2014
  3. pmc Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-autoantibodies against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid
    Rachel E Taylor
    Department of Medicine, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and PharmaceuticalSciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Exp Med 207:1637-46. 2010
  4. pmc Sensitive and specific detection of the non-human sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human tissues and biotherapeutic products
    Sandra L Diaz
    Departments of Medicine, Pathology and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4241. 2009
  5. pmc A simple method for assessment of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies applied to Kawasaki disease
    Vered Padler-Karavani
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e58443. 2013
  6. pmc Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates
    Vered Padler-Karavani
    39500 Gilman Dr, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    FASEB J 28:1280-93. 2014
  7. pmc Cell-intrinsic mechanism involving Siglec-5 associated with divergent outcomes of HIV-1 infection in human and chimpanzee CD4 T cells
    Paula C Soto
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 91:261-70. 2013
  8. pmc Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0687, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1253:16-36. 2012
  9. pmc Chronic OVA allergen challenged Siglec-F deficient mice have increased mucus, remodeling, and epithelial Siglec-F ligands which are up-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13
    Jae Youn Cho
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA
    Respir Res 11:154. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Nothing in glycobiology makes sense, except in the light of evolution
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 126:841-5. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications73

  1. doi request reprint Nothing in medicine makes sense, except in the light of evolution
    Ajit Varki
    Department of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 90:481-94. 2012
    ..However, the trend is in the right direction. Let us aim for a day when an essay like this will no longer be relevant...
  2. pmc Group B Streptococcus engages an inhibitory Siglec through sialic acid mimicry to blunt innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo
    Yung Chi Chang
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 10:e1003846. 2014
    ....
  3. pmc Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-autoantibodies against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid
    Rachel E Taylor
    Department of Medicine, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and PharmaceuticalSciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Exp Med 207:1637-46. 2010
    ..As the flora residing in the nasopharynx of infants can be in contact with ingested food, we propose a novel model for how NTHi and dietary Neu5Gc cooperate to generate anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in humans...
  4. pmc Sensitive and specific detection of the non-human sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human tissues and biotherapeutic products
    Sandra L Diaz
    Departments of Medicine, Pathology and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4241. 2009
    ..However, prior preparations of such antibodies (including our own) suffered from some non-specificity, as well as some cross-reactivity with the human sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)...
  5. pmc A simple method for assessment of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies applied to Kawasaki disease
    Vered Padler-Karavani
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e58443. 2013
    ..Both assays revealed an elevated response in acute KD patients with normal coronaries compared to patients with aneurysm or dilated coronaries. Implications of these findings are discussed...
  6. pmc Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates
    Vered Padler-Karavani
    39500 Gilman Dr, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    FASEB J 28:1280-93. 2014
    ..Chang, Y.-C., Sonnenburg, J. L., Ronaghy, A., Yu, H., Verhagen, A., Nizet, V., Chen, X., Varki, N., Varki, A., Angata, T. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. ..
  7. pmc Cell-intrinsic mechanism involving Siglec-5 associated with divergent outcomes of HIV-1 infection in human and chimpanzee CD4 T cells
    Paula C Soto
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 91:261-70. 2013
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Siglec-5 expression protects T cells from HIV-1- and apoptosis-induced cell death and contributes to the different outcomes of HIV-1 infection in humans and chimpanzees...
  8. pmc Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0687, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1253:16-36. 2012
    ....
  9. pmc Chronic OVA allergen challenged Siglec-F deficient mice have increased mucus, remodeling, and epithelial Siglec-F ligands which are up-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13
    Jae Youn Cho
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA
    Respir Res 11:154. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Nothing in glycobiology makes sense, except in the light of evolution
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 126:841-5. 2006
    ..The remarkable structural diversity of glycans in nature, and their roles in cellular processes, host-pathogen interactions, biological diversity and speciation can be explained by evolutionary processes...
  11. doi request reprint Multiple changes in sialic acid biology during human evolution
    Ajit Varki
    Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr MC 0687, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Glycoconj J 26:231-45. 2009
    ..As humans also have varying and sometime high levels of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, there are implications for biotechnology products, and for some human diseases associated with chronic inflammation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Glycan-based interactions involving vertebrate sialic-acid-recognizing proteins
    Ajit Varki
    Department of Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Nature 446:1023-9. 2007
    ..Studying the roles of such proteins in vertebrates has improved our understanding of normal physiology, disease and human evolution...
  13. pmc Sialic acids in human health and disease
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Trends Mol Med 14:351-60. 2008
    ..This review considers some examples of their established and newly emerging roles in aspects of human physiology and disease...
  14. pmc Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture
    Ajit Varki
    Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:749-63. 2008
    ....
  15. pmc Symbol nomenclature for glycan representation
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proteomics 9:5398-9. 2009
    ..We also note that >200 illustrations in the second edition have already been published using our nomenclature and are available for download at PubMed...
  16. pmc Colloquium paper: uniquely human evolution of sialic acid genetics and biology
    Ajit Varki
    Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8939-46. 2010
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genome Res 15:1746-58. 2005
    ..These two approaches will intersect at many levels and should be considered complementary. We also cite some known genetic differences between humans and great apes, realizing that these likely represent only the tip of the iceberg...
  18. pmc Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms
    Ajit Varki
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093 0687, USA
    Blood 110:1723-9. 2007
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids
    Pascal Gagneux
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:48245-50. 2003
    ....
  20. pmc Synergistic effects of L- and P-selectin in facilitating tumor metastasis can involve non-mucin ligands and implicate leukocytes as enhancers of metastasis
    Lubor Borsig
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center and the Cancer Center, Department of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2193-8. 2002
    ..Thus, L-selectin on neutrophils, monocytes, and/or NK cells has a role in facilitating metastasis, acting beyond the early time points wherein P-selectin mediates interactions of platelet with tumor cells...
  21. ncbi request reprint System-wide genomic and biochemical comparisons of sialic acid biology among primates and rodents: Evidence for two modes of rapid evolution
    Tasha K Altheide
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:25689-702. 2006
    ....
  22. pmc Selectin-mucin interactions as a probable molecular explanation for the association of Trousseau syndrome with mucinous adenocarcinomas
    Mark Wahrenbrock
    Department of Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:853-62. 2003
    ..These data may also explain why heparin ameliorates Trousseau syndrome, while vitamin K antagonists that merely depress thrombin production do not...
  23. ncbi request reprint Differential metastasis inhibition by clinically relevant levels of heparins--correlation with selectin inhibition, not antithrombotic activity
    Jennifer L Stevenson
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 11:7003-11. 2005
    ..We studied metastasis inhibition by clinically relevant levels of various heparins and investigated the structural basis for selectin inhibition differences...
  24. ncbi request reprint Human-specific expression of Siglec-6 in the placenta
    Els C M Brinkman-Van der Linden
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Glycobiology 17:922-31. 2007
    ..The leptin-binding ability of Siglec-6 is also consistent with this hypothesis, as leptin-deficient mice have increased parturition times...
  25. pmc Evolution of human-chimpanzee differences in malaria susceptibility: relationship to human genetic loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid
    Maria J Martin
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12819-24. 2005
    ..These results also have implications for the prehistory of hominids and for the genetic origins and recent emergence of P. falciparum as a major human pathogen...
  26. ncbi request reprint Diversity in cell surface sialic acid presentations: implications for biology and disease
    Nissi M Varki
    Department of Pathology, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Lab Invest 87:851-7. 2007
    ..This review will provide some examples of these diverse roles of Sias and briefly address immunohistochemical approaches to their detection...
  27. pmc Loss of Siglec expression on T lymphocytes during human evolution
    Dzung H Nguyen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7765-70. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint 9-O-acetylation of exogenously added ganglioside GD3. The GD3 molecule induces its own O-acetylation machinery
    Helen Y Chen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:7825-33. 2006
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Biomedical differences between human and nonhuman hominids: potential roles for uniquely human aspects of sialic acid biology
    Nissi M Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0687, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 6:365-93. 2011
    ..We also discuss the metabolic incorporation of a diet-derived nonhuman sialic acid, which generates a novel xeno-autoantigen reaction, and chronic inflammation known as xenosialitis...
  30. ncbi request reprint Cell surface sialic acids do not affect primary CD22 interactions with CD45 and surface IgM nor the rate of constitutive CD22 endocytosis
    Mai Zhang
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Glycobiology 14:939-49. 2004
    ..The effects on antibody-mediated endocytosis could be of relevance to immunotoxin treatment of lymphomas...
  31. doi request reprint The sialome--far more than the sum of its parts
    Miriam Cohen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    OMICS 14:455-64. 2010
    ..Understanding the full complexity of the sialome thus requires combined analyses at multiple levels, that is, the sialome is far more than the sum of its parts...
  32. ncbi request reprint A uniquely human consequence of domain-specific functional adaptation in a sialic acid-binding receptor
    Justin L Sonnenburg
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Glycobiology 14:339-46. 2004
    ..Such domain-specific divergences should also be considered in upcoming comparisons of human and chimpanzee genomes...
  33. ncbi request reprint Cloning and characterization of human Siglec-11. A recently evolved signaling molecule that can interact with SHP-1 and SHP-2 and is expressed by tissue macrophages, including brain microglia
    Takashi Angata
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:24466-74. 2002
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Emerging opportunities and career paths for the young physician-scientist
    Ajit Varki
    Department of Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Med 8:437-9. 2002
  35. pmc Large-scale sequencing of the CD33-related Siglec gene cluster in five mammalian species reveals rapid evolution by multiple mechanisms
    Takashi Angata
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13251-6. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of uptake and incorporation of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid into human cells
    Muriel Bardor
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:4228-37. 2005
    ..The approach could, thus, potentially be generalized to any small molecule that has a specific lysosomal transporter but not a plasma membrane transporter...
  37. pmc Six blind men and the elephant--the many faces of heparan sulfate
    Ajit Varki
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:543-5. 2002
  38. ncbi request reprint Siglecs--the major subfamily of I-type lectins
    Ajit Varki
    Research Center for Glycoscience, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8568, Japan
    Glycobiology 16:1R-27R. 2006
    ..This article provides an overview of historical and current information about the Siglecs...
  39. ncbi request reprint Heparin inhibition of selectin-mediated interactions during the hematogenous phase of carcinoma metastasis: rationale for clinical studies in humans
    Nissi M Varki
    Department of Medicine, Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Semin Thromb Hemost 28:53-66. 2002
    ..A suggested clinical trial is outlined...
  40. ncbi request reprint Genetically altered mice with different sialyltransferase deficiencies show tissue-specific alterations in sialylation and sialic acid 9-O-acetylation
    Laura T Martin
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32930-8. 2002
    ..These data demonstrate selective regulation of sialylation and 9-O-acetylation, point to cell types with potential physiological defects in null animals, and show in vivo evidence for competition between Golgi enzymes...
  41. pmc Innovations in host and microbial sialic acid biosynthesis revealed by phylogenomic prediction of nonulosonic acid structure
    Amanda L Lewis
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13552-7. 2009
    ..Together, these data indicate that some of the long-standing paradigms in Sia biology should be reconsidered in a wider evolutionary context of the extended family of NulO sugars...
  42. ncbi request reprint Chemical diversity in the sialic acids and related alpha-keto acids: an evolutionary perspective
    Takashi Angata
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Chem Rev 102:439-69. 2002
  43. pmc Group B Streptococcus suppression of phagocyte functions by protein-mediated engagement of human Siglec-5
    Aaron F Carlin
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1691-9. 2009
    ..We conclude that protein-mediated functional engagement of an inhibitory host lectin receptor promotes bacterial innate immune evasion...
  44. pmc Molecular mimicry of host sialylated glycans allows a bacterial pathogen to engage neutrophil Siglec-9 and dampen the innate immune response
    Aaron F Carlin
    Department of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Blood 113:3333-6. 2009
    ..Thus, GBS can impair neutrophil defense functions by coopting a host inhibitory receptor via sialoglycan molecular mimicry, a novel mechanism of bacterial immune evasion...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of sialic acid substitutions on recognition by Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis hemagglutinin
    Els C M Brinkman-Van der Linden
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Anal Biochem 303:98-104. 2002
  46. pmc CD33/Siglec-3 binding specificity, expression pattern, and consequences of gene deletion in mice
    Els C M Brinkman-Van der Linden
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:4199-206. 2003
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint A human-specific gene in microglia
    Toshiyuki Hayakawa
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 309:1693. 2005
    ..SIGLEC11 is expressed in human but not in chimpanzee brain microglia. Further studies will determine if this event was related to the evolution of Homo...
  48. doi request reprint alpha 2-6-Linked sialic acids on N-glycans modulate carcinoma differentiation in vivo
    Maria Hedlund
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Cancer Res 68:388-94. 2008
    ..These findings indicate a role for ST6Gal-I as a mediator of tumor progression, with its expression causing a less differentiated phenotype, via enhanced beta1-integrin function...
  49. pmc Discovery and characterization of sialic acid O-acetylation in group B Streptococcus
    Amanda L Lewis
    Division of Biological Sciences, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11123-8. 2004
    ..Thus, our discovery has important implications for GBS pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and vaccine design...
  50. ncbi request reprint Heparin attenuates metastasis mainly due to inhibition of P- and L-selectin, but non-anticoagulant heparins can have additional effects
    Jennifer L Stevenson
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Thromb Res 120:S107-11. 2007
    ..However, such heparins could have further effects at higher doses...
  51. ncbi request reprint Probing for masked and unmasked siglecs on cell surfaces
    Els C Brinkman-Van der Linden
    Departments of Medicine and Cellular Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Methods Enzymol 363:113-20. 2003
  52. pmc Relative over-reactivity of human versus chimpanzee lymphocytes: implications for the human diseases associated with immune activation
    Paula C Soto
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Immunol 184:4185-95. 2010
    ..Taken together, these data may help explain human propensities for diseases associated with excessive activation of the adaptive immune system...
  53. pmc Group B streptococcal capsular sialic acids interact with siglecs (immunoglobulin-like lectins) on human leukocytes
    Aaron F Carlin
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Medicine East, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    J Bacteriol 189:1231-7. 2007
    ..Thus, production of Sia-capped bacterial polysaccharide capsules that mimic human cell surface glycans in order to engage CD33rSiglecs may be an example of a previously unrecognized bacterial mechanism of leukocyte manipulation...
  54. ncbi request reprint Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease
    Maynard V Olson
    University of Washington Genome Center, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 4:20-8. 2003
    ..Second, chimpanzee-human comparisons are likely to yield molecular insights into how new biological characteristics evolve--findings that might be relevant throughout the tree of life...
  55. pmc Implications of the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins
    Darius Ghaderi
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 28:863-7. 2010
    ..Our findings may be relevant to improving the half-life, efficacy and immunogenicity of glycoprotein therapeutics...
  56. ncbi request reprint The ethics of research on great apes
    Pascal Gagneux
    Conservation and Research for Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    Nature 437:27-9. 2005
  57. pmc Severe preeclampsia-related changes in gene expression at the maternal-fetal interface include sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-6 and pappalysin-2
    Virginia D Winn
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Endocrinology 150:452-62. 2009
    ..The functional significance of these novel observations may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PE, and assaying the circulating levels of these proteins could have clinical utility for predicting and/or diagnosing PE...
  58. pmc Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid
    Pam Tangvoranuntakul
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12045-50. 2003
    ..Potential implications for human diseases are briefly discussed...
  59. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the acid stability of glycosidically linked neuraminic acid: use in detecting de-N-acetyl-gangliosides in human melanoma
    Justin L Sonnenburg
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:17502-10. 2002
    ..These advances allowed us to detect covalently bound Neu in lipid extracts of a human melanoma tumor, providing the first chemical proof for naturally occurring de-N-acetyl-gangliosides...
  60. ncbi request reprint Effects of natural human antibodies against a nonhuman sialic acid that metabolically incorporates into activated and malignant immune cells
    Dzung H Nguyen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Immunol 175:228-36. 2005
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether deposition of natural GcIg and complement can also target healthy proliferating immune cells for death in vivo following incorporation of dietary Neu5Gc...
  61. pmc Defining the in vivo function of Siglec-F, a CD33-related Siglec expressed on mouse eosinophils
    Mai Zhang
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Blood 109:4280-7. 2007
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Myeloid precursors and acute myeloid leukemia cells express multiple CD33-related Siglecs
    Dzung H Nguyen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Exp Hematol 34:728-35. 2006
    ..We sought to characterize the spectrum of expression of the other CD33rSiglecs on bone marrow precursors and AML cells and asked if they can potentially serve as targets for therapy...
  63. ncbi request reprint Recombinant influenza C hemagglutinin-esterase as a probe for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation
    Laura T Martin
    Departments of Medicine and Cellular Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Methods Enzymol 363:489-98. 2003
  64. pmc NeuA sialic acid O-acetylesterase activity modulates O-acetylation of capsular polysaccharide in group B Streptococcus
    Amanda L Lewis
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:27562-71. 2007
    ....
  65. pmc O-acetylation of GD3: an enigmatic modification regulating apoptosis?
    Helen Y Chen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1529-33. 2002
  66. pmc Overview of glycoconjugate analysis
    Ajit Varki
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Curr Protoc Protein Sci . 2009
    ..A glossary of terms used in glycobiology is also provided...
  67. pmc ABO blood group glycans modulate sialic acid recognition on erythrocytes
    Miriam Cohen
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Blood 114:3668-76. 2009
    ..Thus, ABH antigens can noncovalently alter the presentation of other cell surface glycans to cognate-binding proteins, without themselves being a direct ligand...
  68. pmc Inactivation of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase occurred prior to brain expansion during human evolution
    Hsun Hua Chou
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11736-41. 2002
    ..1-2.2 mya. In this regard, it is of interest that although Neu5Gc is the major sialic acid in most organs of the chimpanzee, its expression is selectively down-regulated in the brain, for as yet unknown reasons...
  69. pmc Advances in the biology and chemistry of sialic acids
    Xi Chen
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    ACS Chem Biol 5:163-76. 2010
    ..Research efforts not only will lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity but also could lead to the development of therapeutics...
  70. pmc Heparin's anti-inflammatory effects require glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and are mediated by blockade of L- and P-selectins
    Lianchun Wang
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:127-36. 2002
    ..Such analogs may prove useful as therapeutically effective inhibitors of inflammation...
  71. pmc Generation of mice deficient for macrophage galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin: limited role in lymphoid and erythroid homeostasis and evidence for multiple lectins
    Thandi M Onami
    Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biology, Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 22:5173-81. 2002
    ..Experiments are presented that indicate the existence of another galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-recognizing lectin distinct from mMGL. This may explain the absence of a strong phenotype in mMGL-deficient mice...
  72. pmc The glycans of stem cells
    Pascal M Lanctot
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 11:373-80. 2007
    ..Transplantation of Neu5Gc-contaminated cells poses immunological risks due to the presence, in humans, of circulating antibodies recognizing this glycan epitope...

Research Grants44

  1. Oligosaccharies of Normal and Malignant Cells
    Ajit P Varki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to study all of these issues in detail, using carefully designed mouse models. ..
  2. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Initial emphasis will be on aims involving Neu5Gc in tumors (Aim 2). The extent to which Aim 3 is pursued will depend on outcomes with Aim 2 and its ramifications; and on results of preliminary studies. ..
  3. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACIDS AND THEIR SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In the long run, these studies should help elucidate the molecular and cellular basis for certain diseases that appear to be uniquely or preferentially manifested in humans. ..
  4. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Initial emphasis will be on aims involving Neu5Gc in tumors (Aim 2). The extent to which Aim 3 is pursued will depend on outcomes with Aim 2 and its ramifications; and on results of preliminary studies. ..
  5. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If so, current approaches aimed at selectin inhibition for inflammatory states may become applicable to patients with early stage who are risk for metastatic progression. ..
  6. NUCLEOTIDE DONORS AFFECTING GLYCOSYLATION PATHWAYS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  7. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..If so, current approaches aimed at selectin inhibition for inflammatory states may become applicable to patients with early stage who are risk for metastatic progression. ..
  8. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..If so, current approaches aimed at selectin inhibition for inflammatory states may become applicable to patients with early stage who are risk for metastatic progression. ..
  9. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..If so, current approaches aimed at selectin inhibition for inflammatory states may become applicable to patients with early stage who are risk for metastatic progression. ..
  10. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..If so, current approaches aimed at selectin inhibition for inflammatory states may become applicable to patients with early stage who are risk for metastatic progression. ..
  11. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACIDS AND THEIR SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the long run, these studies should help elucidate the molecular and cellular basis for certain diseases that appear to be uniquely or preferentially manifested in humans. ..
  12. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Initial emphasis will be on aims involving Neu5Gc in tumors (Aim 2). The extent to which Aim 3 is pursued will depend on outcomes with Aim 2 and its ramifications; and on results of preliminary studies. ..
  13. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACIDS AND THEIR SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit P Varki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We are studying all aspects of this matter, ranging from the basic biochemistry, all the way to trying to eliminate the molecule from the human body. ..
  14. OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Initial emphasis will be on aims involving Neu5Gc in tumors (Aim 2). The extent to which Aim 3 is pursued will depend on outcomes with Aim 2 and its ramifications; and on results of preliminary studies. ..
  15. Neu5Gc and anti-Neu5Gc antibodies for detection of cancer and cancer risk
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  16. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACIDS AND THEIR SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the long run, these studies should help elucidate the molecular and cellular basis for certain diseases that appear to be uniquely or preferentially manifested in humans. ..
  17. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACID SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  18. N-LINKED OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  19. N-LINKED OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  20. N-LINKED OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  21. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACID SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  22. BIOSYNTHESIS AND REGULATION OF SUBSTITUTED SIALIC ACIDS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  23. BIOLOGY OF SIALIC ACID SUBSTITUTIONS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  24. N-LINKED OLIGOSACCHARIDES OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT CELLS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....