WILLIAM STOOPS

Summary

Affiliation: University of Kentucky
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Influence of aripiprazole pretreatment on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in humans
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, United States University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology, 110 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, United States Electronic address
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 47:111-7. 2013
  2. pmc Miotic and subject-rated effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol, tramadol, and hydromorphone in occasional opioid users
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 228:255-62. 2013
  3. pmc Pharmacodynamic profile of tramadol in humans: influence of naltrexone pretreatment
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 223:427-38. 2012
  4. pmc Influence of acute bupropion pre-treatment on the effects of intranasal cocaine
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Addiction 107:1140-7. 2012
  5. pmc Reinforcing effects of stimulants in humans: sensitivity of progressive-ratio schedules
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:503-12. 2008
  6. pmc Intranasal cocaine functions as reinforcer on a progressive ratio schedule in humans
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 644:101-5. 2010
  7. pmc Intravenous oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine in recreational opioid users: abuse potential and relative potencies
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:193-203. 2010
  8. pmc An internet-based abstinence reinforcement smoking cessation intervention in rural smokers
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 105:56-62. 2009
  9. doi request reprint The influence of acute varenicline administration on smoking and eating behavior in humans
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:165-9. 2008
  10. pmc Influence of escalating alternative reinforcer values on cigarette choice
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Behav Processes 87:302-5. 2011

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Influence of aripiprazole pretreatment on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in humans
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, United States University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology, 110 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, United States Electronic address
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 47:111-7. 2013
    ..g., ratings of Like Drug). These results indicate that acute aripiprazole pretreatment attenuates the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine...
  2. pmc Miotic and subject-rated effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol, tramadol, and hydromorphone in occasional opioid users
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 228:255-62. 2013
    ..Tapentadol is a novel analgesic that activates mu-opioid receptors and blocks norepinephrine reuptake. There is very little information available regarding the non-analgesic pharmacodynamic effects of tapentadol...
  3. pmc Pharmacodynamic profile of tramadol in humans: influence of naltrexone pretreatment
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 223:427-38. 2012
    ..Tramadol is thought to have limited abuse potential compared to mu opioid agonists, but laboratory data indicate that it shares some of their pharmacodynamic effects...
  4. pmc Influence of acute bupropion pre-treatment on the effects of intranasal cocaine
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Addiction 107:1140-7. 2012
    ..The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of acute bupropion pre-treatment on subject-rated effects and choice of intranasal cocaine versus money...
  5. pmc Reinforcing effects of stimulants in humans: sensitivity of progressive-ratio schedules
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:503-12. 2008
    ..Future research is necessary, however, to understand better how pharmacological factors like route of administration, onset of effects, and pretreatment influence the reinforcing effects of stimulants under progressive-ratio schedules...
  6. pmc Intranasal cocaine functions as reinforcer on a progressive ratio schedule in humans
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 644:101-5. 2010
    ..These procedures may be useful for examining the influence of putative pharmacological and behavioral interventions on intranasal cocaine self-administration...
  7. pmc Intravenous oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine in recreational opioid users: abuse potential and relative potencies
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:193-203. 2010
    ....
  8. pmc An internet-based abstinence reinforcement smoking cessation intervention in rural smokers
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 105:56-62. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate the feasibility and short-term efficacy of delivering reinforcement for smoking abstinence over the Internet to rural populations...
  9. doi request reprint The influence of acute varenicline administration on smoking and eating behavior in humans
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:165-9. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc Influence of escalating alternative reinforcer values on cigarette choice
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Behav Processes 87:302-5. 2011
    ..e., relapse)...
  11. pmc Alternative reinforcer response cost impacts cocaine choice in humans
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086 United States
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 36:189-93. 2012
    ..g., increased ratings of Like Drug; elevated blood pressure). These data demonstrate that making alternative reinforcers easier to earn reduces cocaine self-administration, which has implications for treatment efforts...
  12. ncbi request reprint Aripiprazole attenuates the discriminative-stimulus and subject-rated effects of D-amphetamine in humans
    Joshua A Lile
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:2103-14. 2005
    ....
  13. pmc The safety, tolerability, and subject-rated effects of acute intranasal cocaine administration during aripiprazole maintenance II: increased aripipirazole dose and maintenance period
    Joshua A Lile
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 34:721-9. 2008
    ..This experiment determined the safety and tolerability of intranasal cocaine during aripiprazole maintenance...
  14. pmc Human sex differences in d-amphetamine self-administration
    Andrea R Vansickel
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    Addiction 105:727-31. 2010
    ..Women and men may respond differently to the effects of stimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine...
  15. ncbi request reprint The safety, tolerability, and subject-rated effects of acute intranasal cocaine administration during aripiprazole maintenance
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0086, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 33:769-76. 2007
    ..Aripiprazole was generally devoid of effects, but did alter temperature-increasing and subject-rated effects of cocaine as a function of cocaine dose...
  16. ncbi request reprint A low dose of aripiprazole attenuates the subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40536 0086, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 84:206-9. 2006
    ..Future research should examine the effects of chronic aripiprazole administration in combination with methamphetamine or cocaine...
  17. ncbi request reprint Oxazepam does not modulate the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in humans
    Joshua A Lile
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 82:270-9. 2005
    ..The results of this experiment are discordant with previous research and suggest that benzodiazepines differ in their ability to modulate the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine...
  18. ncbi request reprint Reinforcing effects of methylphenidate: influence of dose and behavioral demands following drug administration
    William W Stoops
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 177:349-55. 2005
    ..The reinforcing effects of stimulant drugs such as D-amphetamine, caffeine, and cocaine are modulated by behavioral demands following drug administration...
  19. ncbi request reprint Reinforcing, subject-rated, performance and physiological effects of methylphenidate and d-amphetamine in stimulant abusing humans
    William W Stoops
    Departments of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    J Psychopharmacol 18:534-43. 2004
    ..These findings are consistent with epidemiological data and previous findings from laboratory studies that suggest methylphenidate has at least some abuse potential...
  20. doi request reprint Stimulant-induced changes in smoking and caloric intake: influence of rate of onset
    Andrea R Vansickel
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:597-602. 2009
    ..Smoking should be monitored in patients that are prescribed stimulant medications, regardless of the formulation type...
  21. ncbi request reprint Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking
    Craig R Rush
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 181:781-9. 2005
    ..The effects of methylphenidate on smoking have not been assessed although it is the most commonly prescribed pharmacotherapy for ADHD and individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for smoking...
  22. pmc Acute d-amphetamine pretreatment does not alter stimulant self-administration in humans
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky Medical Center, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87:20-9. 2007
    ..These results indicate that acute d-amphetamine pretreatment does not increase stimulant self-administration...
  23. ncbi request reprint Behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in humans: influence of subclinical levels of inattention and hyperactivity
    Rajkumar J Sevak
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0086, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 36:220-7. 2010
    ..g., inattention and hyperactivity). To further assess the nature of this relationship, the present study examined the association between subclinical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity and the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine...
  24. pmc Similar discriminative-stimulus effects of D-amphetamine in women and men
    Andrea R Vansickel
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87:289-96. 2007
    ..g. drug self-administration) to determine if women and men respond differently to the effects of D-amphetamine...
  25. pmc Safety, tolerability and subject-rated effects of acute intranasal cocaine administration during atomoxetine maintenance
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 92:282-5. 2008
    ..These results indicate that cocaine is well tolerated during atomoxetine maintenance. Further research is needed to better determine the effects of atomoxetine and cocaine combinations...
  26. pmc Repeated dosing with oral cocaine in humans: assessment of direct effects, withdrawal, and pharmacokinetics
    Sharon L Walsh
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Center on Drug and Alcohol Research, Department of Behavioral Science, Lexington, KY 40502, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 17:205-16. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours...
  27. ncbi request reprint Alprazolam attenuates the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in humans
    Craig R Rush
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 24:410-20. 2004
    ..Future laboratory experiments with humans should also determine if benzodiazepines with lower abuse potential (eg, oxazepam) might also attenuate the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine...
  28. ncbi request reprint Cocaine choice in humans during D-amphetamine maintenance
    Craig R Rush
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 30:152-9. 2010
    ..These results are concordant with those of previous preclinical experiments, human laboratory studies, and clinical trials that suggest that agonist replacement therapy may be a viable strategy for managing cocaine dependence...
  29. doi request reprint Subjective and physiological effects of acute intranasal methamphetamine during d-amphetamine maintenance
    Craig R Rush
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 214:665-74. 2011
    ..However, many patients enrolled in behavioral therapies are unable to achieve significant periods of abstinence, suggesting other strategies like pharmacotherapy are needed...
  30. pmc Prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users in a multistate community-based study
    Jennifer R Havens
    Center on Drug and Alcohol Research, Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 35:18-23. 2009
    ..The purpose of the current analysis was to examine the factors associated with prescription opiate misuse among stimulant users from rural counties in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio (N = 714)...
  31. pmc Discriminative stimulus and subject-rated effects of methamphetamine, d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and triazolam in methamphetamine-trained humans
    Rajkumar J Sevak
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 328:1007-18. 2009
    ..Future studies should assess whether the similarity in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine and related stimulants can be extended to other behavioral assays, such as measures of reinforcement, in humans...
  32. pmc Cocaine effects during D-amphetamine maintenance: a human laboratory analysis of safety, tolerability and efficacy
    Craig R Rush
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 99:261-71. 2009
    ..g., higher cocaine doses) and behavioral arrangements (e.g., drug self-administration or discrimination)...
  33. ncbi request reprint Reinforcing, subject-rated, and physiological effects of intranasal methylphenidate in humans: a dose-response analysis
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, College of Medicine Office Building Rm 127, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 71:179-86. 2003
    ..Future studies should test higher doses and directly compare the behavioral effects of intranasal methylphenidate to those of a prototypical abused stimulant (e.g. cocaine)...
  34. ncbi request reprint Baclofen does not alter the reinforcing, subject-rated or cardiovascular effects of intranasal cocaine in humans
    Joshua A Lile
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, Room 127, College of Medicine Office Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 171:441-9. 2004
    ..There is evidence from research in animals and humans that the gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor subtype (GABA(B)) agonist baclofen may have promise as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction...
  35. ncbi request reprint Clinical neuropharmacology of drugs of abuse: a comparison of drug-discrimination and subject-report measures
    Thomas H Kelly
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536 0086, USA
    Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2:227-60. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Methamphetamine use in nonurban and urban drug court clients
    William W Stoops
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 111 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 49:260-76. 2005
    ..These results suggest that differences exist between these populations and clinicians, and criminal justice officials may need to consider these differences when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies...
  37. ncbi request reprint Risperidone attenuates the discriminative-stimulus effects of d-amphetamine in humans
    Craig R Rush
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:195-204. 2003
    ..The results of these studies might guide the development of a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of amphetamine abuse/dependence...
  38. ncbi request reprint Kentucky rural stimulant use: a comparison of methamphetamine and other stimulant users
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky Medical Center, Department of Behavioral Science, COMOB, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs . 2007
    ..These results suggest that differences exist between rural stimulant users and that clinicians may need to consider these differences when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies...
  39. ncbi request reprint Aripiprazole as a potential pharmacotherapy for stimulant dependence: human laboratory studies with d-amphetamine
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:413-21. 2006
    ..A large-scale clinical trial is also needed to evaluate the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of stimulant dependence...
  40. pmc The reinforcing, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine: influence of sensation-seeking status
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Addict Behav 32:1177-88. 2007
    ..These results suggest that increased stimulant drug use and abuse among high sensation seekers may be related, in part, to increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of stimulants among these individuals...
  41. ncbi request reprint A pharmacological analysis of stimulant-induced increases in smoking
    Andrea R Vansickel
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 193:305-13. 2007
    ..Stimulants increase tobacco smoking in healthy adults under controlled laboratory conditions. The mechanisms that mediate stimulant-induced increases in smoking are not known...
  42. pmc Methylphenidate increases choice of cigarettes over money
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:29-33. 2011
    ..The effects of methylphenidate on a 9-trial, discrete cigarette versus money ($0.25) choice task were tested to elucidate the mechanisms underlying stimulant-induced increases in smoking...
  43. ncbi request reprint Discriminative-stimulus, self-reported, performance, and cardiovascular effects of atomoxetine in methylphenidate-trained humans
    Joshua A Lile
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:136-47. 2006
    ..These data suggest that the behavioral effects of atomoxetine overlap to a small degree with psychomotor stimulants and that it has low abuse potential...
  44. ncbi request reprint Discriminative stimulus and self-reported effects of methylphenidate, d-amphetamine, and triazolam in methylphenidate-trained humans
    William W Stoops
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:56-64. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Acute administration of the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine does not alter the effects of oral cocaine in humans
    Joshua A Lile
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, College of Medicine Office Building Room No 127, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 76:81-91. 2004
    ..In general, acute administration of tiagabine did not alter the effects of oral cocaine. These findings suggest that tiagabine would not be effective at preventing continued cocaine use by blocking its acute, abuse-related effects...
  46. ncbi request reprint Reinforcing effects of modafinil: influence of dose and behavioral demands following drug administration
    William W Stoops
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182:186-93. 2005
    ..The reinforcing effects of stimulant drugs are modulated by behavioral demands following drug administration...
  47. pmc Monetary alternative reinforcers more effectively decrease intranasal cocaine choice than food alternative reinforcers
    William W Stoops
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Science, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 95:187-91. 2010
    ..Future research should determine the sensitivity of this model to specific behavioral aspects of contingency management and whether food could compete with drugs as reinforcers in humans under laboratory conditions...
  48. ncbi request reprint Alcohol choice and amphetamine effects in light and moderate drinkers
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:804-11. 2003
    ..g., diazepam or ethanol). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether light and moderate drinkers respond differentially to the effects of ethanol and d-amphetamine...
  49. ncbi request reprint Differential effects in humans after repeated administrations of zolpidem and triazolam
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0086, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 29:281-99. 2003
    ..Future studies should assess the tolerance-producing effects of zolpidem across a range of doses, as well as other novel sedatives such as zaleplon...

Research Grants3

  1. Neuropharmacology of Tramadol: Clinical Efficacy and Abuse Potential
    WILLIAM STOOPS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Developing analgesics with reduced abuse potential may reduce the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse and subsequent opioid use disorders. ..
  2. Neuropharmacology of Tramadol: Clinical Efficacy and Abuse Potential
    WILLIAM WALTON STOOPS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Developing analgesics with reduced abuse potential may reduce the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse and subsequent opioid use disorders. ..