Terry J Smith

Summary

Affiliation: University of Michigan
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc PGE2 induces IL-6 in orbital fibroblasts through EP2 receptors and increased gene promoter activity: implications to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Nupur Raychaudhuri
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15296. 2010
  2. pmc Nuclear targeting of IGF-1 receptor in orbital fibroblasts from Graves' disease: apparent role of ADAM17
    Neil Hoa
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34173. 2012
  3. pmc Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy
    Terry J Smith
    University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 26:291-302. 2012
  4. pmc Potential role for bone marrow-derived fibrocytes in the orbital fibroblast heterogeneity associated with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    T J Smith
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Division of Metabolism and Endocrine Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 162:24-31. 2010
  5. pmc Insulin-like growth factor-I regulation of immune function: a potential therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases?
    Terry J Smith
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 62:199-236. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy: a 2010 update
    T J Smith
    Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Endocrinol Invest 33:414-21. 2010
  7. pmc Fibroblasts expressing the thyrotropin receptor overarch thyroid and orbit in Graves' disease
    Terry J Smith
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Kellogg Eye Center, Brehm Tower, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:3827-37. 2011
  8. pmc B cells from patients with Graves' disease aberrantly express the IGF-1 receptor: implications for disease pathogenesis
    Raymond S Douglas
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 181:5768-74. 2008
  9. pmc Unique attributes of orbital fibroblasts and global alterations in IGF-1 receptor signaling could explain thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Terry J Smith
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Thyroid 18:983-8. 2008
  10. pmc Orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy overexpress CD40: CD154 hyperinduces IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1
    Catherine J Hwang
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:2262-8. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. pmc PGE2 induces IL-6 in orbital fibroblasts through EP2 receptors and increased gene promoter activity: implications to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Nupur Raychaudhuri
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15296. 2010
    ..Orbital tissues become inflamed in TAO, a process in which prostanoids have been implicated. Orbital fibroblasts both generate and respond to PGE(2), underlying the inflammatory phenotype of these cells...
  2. pmc Nuclear targeting of IGF-1 receptor in orbital fibroblasts from Graves' disease: apparent role of ADAM17
    Neil Hoa
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34173. 2012
    ..We thus identify a heretofore-unrecognized behavior of IGF-1R that appears limited to GD-derived fibroblasts. Nuclear IGF-1R may play a role in disease pathogenesis...
  3. pmc Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy
    Terry J Smith
    University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 26:291-302. 2012
    ..In sum, based on current evidence, IGF-1R and TSHR can be thought of as "partners in crime". Involvement of the former probably transcends disease boundaries, while TSHR may not...
  4. pmc Potential role for bone marrow-derived fibrocytes in the orbital fibroblast heterogeneity associated with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    T J Smith
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Division of Metabolism and Endocrine Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 162:24-31. 2010
    ..These attributes also raise the possibility that they might be useful targets against which therapeutic agents might be aimed...
  5. pmc Insulin-like growth factor-I regulation of immune function: a potential therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases?
    Terry J Smith
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 62:199-236. 2010
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy: a 2010 update
    T J Smith
    Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Endocrinol Invest 33:414-21. 2010
    ..As emerging insights into human autoimmunity becomes applied to the study of Graves' disease, we anticipate that improved therapeutic strategies will find their way to our patients with GO...
  7. pmc Fibroblasts expressing the thyrotropin receptor overarch thyroid and orbit in Graves' disease
    Terry J Smith
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Kellogg Eye Center, Brehm Tower, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:3827-37. 2011
    ..Patients with GD have increased frequency of circulating monocyte lineage cells known as fibrocytes. These fibrocytes infiltrate orbital connective tissues in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and express functional TSH receptor (TSHR)...
  8. pmc B cells from patients with Graves' disease aberrantly express the IGF-1 receptor: implications for disease pathogenesis
    Raymond S Douglas
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 181:5768-74. 2008
    ..02) in vitro while those from control donors failed to respond. These findings suggest a potentially important role for IGF-1R display by B lymphocytes in patients with GD in supporting their expansion and abnormal Ig production...
  9. pmc Unique attributes of orbital fibroblasts and global alterations in IGF-1 receptor signaling could explain thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Terry J Smith
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Thyroid 18:983-8. 2008
    ..In this brief review we attempt to survey our findings. We believe that they might provide a "roadmap" for further discovery into the pathogenesis of TAO. Clearly, more questions remain than those thus far answered...
  10. pmc Orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy overexpress CD40: CD154 hyperinduces IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1
    Catherine J Hwang
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:2262-8. 2009
    ..In the present study the authors investigated the role of CD40 ligation on macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, and IL-8 expression in fibroblasts from patients with TAO...
  11. pmc Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: a tale of two antigens implicated in Graves' disease
    Shanli Tsui
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 181:4397-405. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Immunoglobulin G from patients with Graves' disease induces interleukin-16 and RANTES expression in cultured human thyrocytes: a putative mechanism for T-cell infiltration of the thyroid in autoimmune disease
    Andrew G Gianoukakis
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Endocrinology 147:1941-9. 2006
    ..These actions of GD-IgG appear to be mediated through pathways independent of the TSH receptor. Thus, in GD, thyrocytes may participate directly in lymphocyte recruitment through their expression of IL-16 and RANTES...
  13. ncbi request reprint Immunoglobulin activation of T cell chemoattractant expression in fibroblasts from patients with Graves' disease is mediated through the insulin-like growth factor I receptor pathway
    Jane Pritchard
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 170:6348-54. 2003
    ..These findings identify a novel disease mechanism involving a functional GD-IgG/IGF-IR bridge, which potentially explains T cell infiltration in GD. Interrupting this pathway may constitute a specific therapeutic strategy...
  14. pmc Human fibrocytes coexpress thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor
    Roshini Fernando
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7427-32. 2012
    ..These findings indicate that human fibrocytes express multiple "thyroid-specific" proteins, the levels of which are reduced after they infiltrate tissue. Our observations establish the basis for Tg accumulation in orbital GD...
  15. ncbi request reprint Cytoplasmic prostaglandin E2 synthase is dominantly expressed in cultured KAT-50 thyrocytes, cells that express constitutive prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2. Basis for low protaglandin E2 production
    Rui Han
    Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:36897-903. 2002
    ..These observations indicate that naturally occurring cells can express a suboptimal profile of PGHS and PGES isoforms, resulting in diminished levels of PGE(2) generation...
  16. pmc Divergent frequencies of IGF-I receptor-expressing blood lymphocytes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for Graves' disease: evidence for a phenotypic signature ascribable to nongenetic factors
    Raymond S Douglas
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1797-802. 2009
    ..The fraction of T and B cells expressing IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is increased in GD. It is a potentially important autoantigen in GD. Susceptibility to GD arises from both genetic and acquired factors...
  17. pmc Increased generation of fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Raymond S Douglas
    Divisions of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:430-8. 2010
    ..Specifically why activating antibodies are generated against self-antigens remains uncertain as does the identity of the antigen(s) that provokes orbital involvement in GD, a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO)...
  18. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-4 induces 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression in human orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves disease. Evidence for anatomic site-selective actions of Th2 cytokines
    Beiling Chen
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:18296-306. 2006
    ..These results may have relevance to the pathogenesis of orbital Graves disease, an inflammatory autoimmune condition that gives way to extensive fibrosis associated with a Th2 response...
  19. pmc Interleukin-6 production in CD40-engaged fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: involvement of Akt and NF-κB
    Erin F Gillespie
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:7746-53. 2012
    ..The functional consequences of CD40 ligation are determined since these may promote tissue remodeling linked with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO)...
  20. doi request reprint Biologic therapeutics in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: translating disease mechanism into therapy
    Vibhavari Naik
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Thyroid 18:967-71. 2008
    ..It is imperative that agents targeting B-and T-cell functions be further evaluated in the treatment of aggressive forms of TAO utilizing multicenter clinical trials that allow adequate statistical power and sample size...
  21. ncbi request reprint IL-1 beta induces IL-6 expression in human orbital fibroblasts: identification of an anatomic-site specific phenotypic attribute relevant to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Beiling Chen
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California at Los Angeles, Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 175:1310-9. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, like fibroblasts from Graves' disease, express high levels of IL-16 when treated with Igs against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor
    Jane Pritchard
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 173:3564-9. 2004
    ..Immune-competent cell trafficking to synovial tissue is integral to the pathogenesis of RA. Recognition of this novel RA-IgG/fibroblast interaction and its functional consequences may help identify therapeutic targets...
  23. ncbi request reprint Aberrant expression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by T cells from patients with Graves' disease may carry functional consequences for disease pathogenesis
    Raymond S Douglas
    Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 178:3281-7. 2007
    ..02) and inhibited Fas-mediated apoptosis (p < 0.02). These findings suggest a potential role for IGF-1R displayed by lymphocytes in supporting the expansion of memory T cells in GD...
  24. pmc Rituximab treatment of patients with severe, corticosteroid-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Dinesh Khanna
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Ophthalmology 117:133-139.e2. 2010
    ..To study the effectiveness of anti-CD20 (rituximab [RTX]; Rituxan; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) therapy in patients with severe, corticosteroid (CS)-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO)...
  25. ncbi request reprint Immunoglobulins from patients with Graves' disease induce hyaluronan synthesis in their orbital fibroblasts through the self-antigen, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor
    Terry J Smith
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5076-80. 2004
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Cytokine-induced lymphocyte chemoattraction from cultured human thyrocytes: evidence for interleukin-16 and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted expression
    Andrew G Gianoukakis
    Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Endocrinology 144:2856-64. 2003
    ..Thus, human thyrocytes, through the expression of chemoattractants, may participate in the recruitment of lymphocytes to the thyroid in inflammatory states...
  27. ncbi request reprint Jak2 dampens the induction by IL-1beta of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase 2 expression in human orbital fibroblasts: evidence for divergent influence on the prostaglandin E2 biosynthetic pathway
    Rui Han
    Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 179:7147-56. 2007
    ..Moreover, it is required for IL-1beta-dependent signaling to sPLA(2), the expression and activity of which are necessary for up-regulating PGE(2) synthesis in orbital fibroblasts...
  28. ncbi request reprint Robust induction of PGHS-2 by IL-1 in orbital fibroblasts results from low levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist expression
    H James Cao
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Samuel S Stratton Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 284:C1429-37. 2003
    ..Thus a decreased level of IL-1ra expression in orbital fibroblasts may underlie the exaggerated responses to IL-1 observed in those cells and, therefore, the susceptibility of the orbit to inflammation...
  29. pmc Divergent Sp1 protein levels may underlie differential expression of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase by fibroblasts: role in susceptibility to orbital Graves disease
    Shanli Tsui
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:24487-99. 2011
    ..These high UGDH levels may underlie susceptibility of the orbit to localized overproduction of hyaluronan in Graves disease...
  30. pmc Thyrotropin regulates IL-6 expression in CD34+ fibrocytes: clear delineation of its cAMP-independent actions
    Nupur Raychaudhuri
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e75100. 2013
    ..Fibrocytes neither express adenylate cyclase nor generate cAMP and thus these findings are free from any influence of cAMP-related signaling. They identify potential therapeutic targets for TAO. ..
  31. ncbi request reprint Induction by IL-1 beta of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in human orbital fibroblasts: modulation of gene promoter activity by IL-4 and IFN-gamma
    Rui Han
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 174:3072-9. 2005
    ..This might alter the natural course of tissue remodeling in TAO...
  32. ncbi request reprint Hyaluronan accumulation in thyroid tissue: evidence for contributions from epithelial cells and fibroblasts
    Andrew G Gianoukakis
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Endocrinology 148:54-62. 2007
    ..Coupled with the newly identified influence exerted by hyaluronan on immunocompetent cells, our findings represent potentially important insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases...
  33. pmc Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Andrew G Gianoukakis
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Thyroid 18:953-8. 2008
    ..Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations...
  34. pmc Regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist by TSH in fibrocytes and orbital fibroblasts
    Bin Li
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences B L, T J S and Department of Internal Medicine T J S, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:E625-33. 2014
    ..Little is known currently about any relationship between TSH, TSH receptor, and the IL-1 pathway...
  35. ncbi request reprint The putative role of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease: evidence for the involvement of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in fibroblast activation
    Terry J Smith
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Building C 2, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Autoimmunity 36:409-15. 2003
    ..Thus, IGF-1R may represent a second self-antigen with a pathogenic role in extra-thyroidal Graves' disease...
  36. ncbi request reprint Histopathology of brow fat in thyroid-associated orbitopathy
    Catherine J Hwang
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 28:27-9. 2012
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint T helper type 1 and type 2 cytokines exert divergent influence on the induction of prostaglandin E2 and hyaluronan synthesis by interleukin-1beta in orbital fibroblasts: implications for the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Rui Han
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Endocrinology 147:13-9. 2006
    ..These unexpected findings indicate that the Th1-->Th2 cytokine transition exerts equivalent influence on PGE2 and hyaluronan production as TAO progresses from early to late stage...
  38. pmc Divergent expression of IL-1 receptor antagonists in CD34⁺ fibrocytes and orbital fibroblasts in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: contribution of fibrocytes to orbital inflammation
    Bin Li
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:2783-90. 2013
    ..Evidence suggests that orbital susceptibility to TAO may involve IL-1, which is modulated by IL-1 receptor antagonists, designated secreted (sIL-1RA) and intracellular (icIL-1RA)...
  39. pmc Human fibrocytes express multiple antigens associated with autoimmune endocrine diseases
    Roshini Fernando
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences R F, S J A, T J S, Kellogg Eye Center and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes A V, S P, M P, T J S, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:E796-803. 2014
    ..They suggest the potential for these cells playing a direct role in immune reactivity directed at the thyroid and pancreatic islets. ..
  40. pmc Increased expression of TSH receptor by fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy leads to chemokine production
    Erin F Gillespie
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Kellogg Eye Center, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E740-6. 2012
    ..These cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO)...
  41. pmc Thyroid eye disease: towards an evidence base for treatment in the 21st century
    Erin F Gillespie
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Michigan Medical School, 1000 Wall Street, Suite 7120, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 12:318-24. 2012
    ..In this article, we review evidence from prospective therapeutic trials of several treatment modalities. We focus on moderate to severe active TED...
  42. ncbi request reprint Orbital fibroblast heterogeneity may determine the clinical presentation of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Terry J Smith
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:385-92. 2002
    ..These observations enhance our understanding of orbital adipogenesis and define previously unrecognized differences between fibroblasts from the extraocular muscle and connective tissue...
  43. pmc Expression of Thyrotropin Receptor, Thyroglobulin, Sodium-Iodide Symporter, and Thyroperoxidase by Fibrocytes Depends on AIRE
    Roshini Fernando
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences R F, Y L, S J A, T M, K B, T J S, Kellogg Eye Center, and Division of Metabolism, Diabetes, and Endocrinology T J S, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:E1236-44. 2014
    ..These proteins represent the necessary molecular biosynthetic machinery necessary for thyroid hormone production. Our findings implicate AIRE in the promiscuous expression of thyroid proteins in fibrocytes. ..
  44. ncbi request reprint Up-regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis by interleukin-1beta in human orbital fibroblasts involves coordinate induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2 and glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E2 synthase expression
    Rui Han
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:16355-64. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the induction of PGHS-2 and mPGES by IL-1beta underlies robust PGE(2) production in orbital fibroblasts...
  45. ncbi request reprint Orbital fibroblasts exhibit a novel pattern of responses to proinflammatory cytokines: potential basis for the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Terry J Smith
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502 2006, USA
    Thyroid 12:197-203. 2002
    ..Notable among these are the inductions of key inflammatory genes and their products. We hypothesize that exaggerated cellular responses represent the basis for the involvement of the orbit in Graves' disease...
  46. pmc Characterization of the anaemia associated with Graves' disease
    Andrew G Gianoukakis
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70:781-7. 2009
    ..Graves' disease (GD) is associated with hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxicosis adversely affects multiple organ systems including haematopoiesis. Anaemia occurring specifically in GD has not been systematically studied previously...
  47. ncbi request reprint Rituximab (Rituxan) Therapy for Severe Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Diminishes IGF-1R(+) T Cells
    Allison N McCoy
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences A N M, D S K, E F G, S J A, T J S, R S D, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Department of Internal Medicine T J S, University of Michigan Medical School, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center R S D, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:E1294-9. 2014
    ..Thus, assessment of the abundance of IGF-1R(+) T cells in response to rituximab may provide a biomarker of clinical response. Our current findings further implicate the IGF-1R pathway in the pathogenesis of TAO. ..
  48. ncbi request reprint Insights into the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy: evolving rationale for therapy
    Michael Kazim
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Bldg C 2, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 120:380-6. 2002
  49. pmc Recent insights into the pathogenesis and management of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Andrew G Gianoukakis
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 15:446-52. 2008
    ..To identify and critique the most recent experimental findings regarding the pathogenesis and therapy of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy...
  50. pmc Current concepts in the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    Yao Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Division of Metabolic and Endocrine Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:1735-48. 2014
    ..Better understanding of the pathogenesis of TAO and development of improved animal models should greatly accelerate the identification of medical therapy for this vexing medical problem. ..
  51. ncbi request reprint Igs from patients with Graves' disease induce the expression of T cell chemoattractants in their fibroblasts
    Jane Pritchard
    Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Immunol 168:942-50. 2002
    ..These findings suggest a specific mechanism for activation of fibroblasts in GD resulting in the recruitment of T cells. They may provide insight into a missing link between the glandular and extrathyroidal manifestations of GD...
  52. doi request reprint Integrative continuum: accelerating therapeutic advances in rare autoimmune diseases
    Katja Van Herle
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 52:523-47. 2012
    ..The application of such innovative strategies may help researchers overcome barriers to therapeutic advances in NMO and other rare autoimmune diseases...