Earl L Smith

Summary

Affiliation: University of Houston
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 88:1029-44. 2011
  2. pmc Effects of foveal ablation on emmetropization and form-deprivation myopia
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3914-22. 2007
  3. pmc Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias
    Ramkumar Ramamirtham
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 47:2751-66. 2007
  4. pmc Effects of optical defocus on refractive development in monkeys: evidence for local, regionally selective mechanisms
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:3864-73. 2010
  5. pmc Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3965-72. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Directional bias of neurons in V1 and V2 of strabismic monkeys: temporal-to-nasal asymmetry?
    Ichiro Watanabe
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3899-905. 2005
  7. pmc Temporal constraints on experimental emmetropization in infant monkeys
    Chea su Kee
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:957-62. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Binocular deficits associated with early alternating monocular defocus. II. Neurophysiological observations
    Bin Zhang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:3012-23. 2003
  9. pmc Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision can prevent form-deprivation amblyopia
    Janice M Wensveen
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:2468-77. 2006
  10. pmc Hemiretinal form deprivation: evidence for local control of eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5057-69. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. pmc Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 88:1029-44. 2011
    ....
  2. pmc Effects of foveal ablation on emmetropization and form-deprivation myopia
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3914-22. 2007
    ..To test this assumption, the authors determined whether an intact fovea was essential for either normal emmetropization or the vision-induced myopic errors produced by form deprivation...
  3. pmc Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias
    Ramkumar Ramamirtham
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 47:2751-66. 2007
    ..The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development...
  4. pmc Effects of optical defocus on refractive development in monkeys: evidence for local, regionally selective mechanisms
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:3864-73. 2010
    ..To characterize the influence of optical defocus on ocular shape and the pattern of peripheral refraction in infant rhesus monkeys...
  5. pmc Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3965-72. 2005
    ..Given the prominence of central vision in humans, it has been assumed that visual signals from the fovea dominate emmetropization. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peripheral vision on emmetropization...
  6. ncbi request reprint Directional bias of neurons in V1 and V2 of strabismic monkeys: temporal-to-nasal asymmetry?
    Ichiro Watanabe
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3899-905. 2005
    ..In the current study, the hypothesis that this eye movement anomaly reflects a similar asymmetry in the directional response properties of neurons in the early stages of cortical processing was examined...
  7. pmc Temporal constraints on experimental emmetropization in infant monkeys
    Chea su Kee
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:957-62. 2007
    ..To characterize the temporal integration properties of the emmetropization process, the authors investigated the effects of brief daily interruptions of lens wear on the ocular compensation for negative lenses in infant rhesus monkeys...
  8. ncbi request reprint Binocular deficits associated with early alternating monocular defocus. II. Neurophysiological observations
    Bin Zhang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:3012-23. 2003
    ....
  9. pmc Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision can prevent form-deprivation amblyopia
    Janice M Wensveen
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:2468-77. 2006
    ....
  10. pmc Hemiretinal form deprivation: evidence for local control of eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5057-69. 2009
    ..To determine whether refractive development in primates is mediated by local retinal mechanisms, the authors examined the effects of hemiretinal form deprivation on ocular growth and the pattern of peripheral refractions in rhesus monkeys...
  11. pmc Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys
    Li Fang Hung
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:3747-57. 2008
    ..To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys...
  12. pmc A comparison of refractive development between two subspecies of infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Ying Qiao-Grider
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 47:1668-81. 2007
    ..Substantial morphological and behavioral differences have been reported between Chinese- and Indian-derived subspecies. The purpose of this study was to compare refractive development in Chinese- and Indian-derived rhesus monkeys...
  13. pmc Receptive-field subfields of V2 neurons in macaque monkeys are adult-like near birth
    Bin Zhang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    J Neurosci 33:2639-49. 2013
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Scaling the structure--function relationship for clinical perimetry
    Ronald S Harwerth
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77096 2020, USA
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 83:448-55. 2005
    ..The present study was undertaken to compare linear and logarithmic transformations, which have been proposed for correlating the perimetric defects and neural losses of glaucoma...
  15. ncbi request reprint Recovery from form-deprivation myopia in rhesus monkeys
    Ying Qiao-Grider
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:3361-72. 2004
    ..The purpose of this investigation was to re-examine the ability of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to recover from FDM...
  16. pmc Effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation on development of visual area 2
    Bin Zhang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:7222-31. 2011
    ..To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys...
  17. pmc Effects of local myopic defocus on refractive development in monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    OD, PhD, FAAO MD, OD, PhD, FAAO OD, PhD College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas ELS, L FH, BA and Vision CRC, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia ELS, L FH, BA College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio JH
    Optom Vis Sci 90:1176-86. 2013
    ..However, little is known about spatial integration for signals that slow eye growth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of myopic defocus are integrated in a local manner in primates...
  18. pmc Normal ocular development in young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Ying Qiao-Grider
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 47:1424-44. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to characterize normal ocular development in infant monkeys and to establish both qualitative and quantitative relationships between human and monkey refractive development...
  19. pmc Astigmatism in monkeys with experimentally induced myopia or hyperopia
    Chea su Kee
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 82:248-60. 2005
    ..This study examines the frequency and characteristics of astigmatism in infant monkeys that developed axial ametropias as a result of altered early visual experience...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effects of optically imposed astigmatism on emmetropization in infant monkeys
    Chea su Kee
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:1647-59. 2004
    ..Although astigmatism is prevalent during early infancy, the influence of astigmatism on early refractive development is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of astigmatism on emmetropization in monkeys...
  21. pmc Postnatal development of onset transient responses in macaque V1 AND V2 neurons
    Bin Zhang
    University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, TX, USA
    J Neurophysiol 100:1476-87. 2008
    ....
  22. pmc Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys
    Ramkumar Ramamirtham
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 46:3616-33. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint The relationship between nerve fiber layer and perimetry measurements
    Ronald S Harwerth
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:763-73. 2007
    ....
  24. pmc Objective and subjective refractive error measurements in monkeys
    Li Fang Hung
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 89:168-77. 2012
    ..To better understand the functional significance of refractive-error measures obtained using common objective methods in laboratory animals, we compared objective and subjective measures of refractive error in adolescent rhesus monkeys...
  25. pmc Protective effects of high ambient lighting on the development of form-deprivation myopia in rhesus monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:421-8. 2012
    ..To test this hypothesis, the effects of high ambient lighting on vision-induced myopia in monkeys were determined...
  26. pmc Rapid plasticity of binocular connections in developing monkey visual cortex (V1)
    Bin Zhang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9026-31. 2005
    ....
  27. pmc Effects of foveal ablation on the pattern of peripheral refractive errors in normal and form-deprived infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Juan Huang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Texas, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:6428-34. 2011
    ..46 and 9.38 respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. Central retinal signals do not contribute in an essential way to the alterations in eye shape that occur during the development of vision-induced axial myopia...
  28. pmc Nature of the refractive errors in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with experimentally induced ametropias
    Ying Qiao-Grider
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, United States
    Vision Res 50:1867-81. 2010
    ..This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies...
  29. pmc Relative peripheral hyperopic defocus alters central refractive development in infant monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 49:2386-92. 2009
    ..These results show that peripheral refractive errors can have a substantial impact on central refractive development in primates...
  30. pmc Delayed maturation of receptive field center/surround mechanisms in V2
    Bin Zhang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5862-7. 2005
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Glutathione content is altered in Müller cells of monkey eyes with experimental glaucoma
    Louvenia Carter-Dawson
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin, Suite 7 024, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neurosci Lett 364:7-10. 2004
    ..The presence of more glutathione in Müller cells of glaucomatous retinas is consistent with an increase in extracellular glutamate and an increase in transport and metabolism of glutamate...
  32. pmc Negative lens-induced myopia in infant monkeys: effects of high ambient lighting
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:2959-69. 2013
    ..To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates...
  33. pmc Recovery of peripheral refractive errors and ocular shape in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with experimentally induced myopia
    Juan Huang
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States
    Vision Res 73:30-9. 2012
    ..The results suggest that vision can actively regulate ocular shape and the development of central and peripheral refractions in infant primates...
  34. ncbi request reprint Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa
    Abhiram S Vilupuru
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 24:1417-25. 2007
    ..The AOSLO provides high-quality images of the lamina cribrosa and may have potential as a tool for early identification of glaucoma...
  35. ncbi request reprint Neural losses correlated with visual losses in clinical perimetry
    Ronald S Harwerth
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:3152-60. 2004
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neural and sensitivity losses from experimental glaucoma to establish the framework for a quantitative model for the structure-function relationships of standard clinical perimetry...
  36. pmc Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision preserve stereopsis in strabismus
    Janice M Wensveen
    University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:4872-9. 2011
    ..This study examines whether brief periods of binocular vision could preserve stereopsis in monkeys reared with optical strabismus...
  37. ncbi request reprint Astigmatism in infant monkeys reared with cylindrical lenses
    Chea su Kee
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 43:2721-39. 2003
    ..Our results indicate that visual experience can alter corneal shape, but there was no evidence that primates have an active, visually regulated "sphericalization" mechanism...
  38. ncbi request reprint Topographic map reorganization in cat area 17 after early monocular retinal lesions
    Kazuki Matsuura
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vis Neurosci 19:85-96. 2002
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of astigmatism in infant monkeys
    Chea su Kee
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 7704 2020, USA
    Vision Res 42:1349-59. 2002
    ..In this study we examine the prevalence and nature of astigmatism in infant monkeys...
  40. doi request reprint Does peripheral retinal input explain the promising myopia control effects of corneal reshaping therapy (CRT or ortho-K) & multifocal soft contact lenses?
    Earl L Smith
    University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston, USA
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 33:379-84. 2013
    ..By their nature, views expressed in each section of the Point-Counterpoint article are those of the author concerned and may not reflect the views of all of the authors...
  41. ncbi request reprint Continuous ambient lighting and lens compensation in infant monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 80:374-82. 2003
    ..To test this idea, we investigated the ability of infant monkeys reared with continuous light to compensate for optically imposed changes in refractive error...
  42. ncbi request reprint Binocular deficits associated with early alternating monocular defocus. I. Behavioral observations
    Janice M Wensveen
    University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:3001-11. 2003
    ....
  43. pmc Optical treatment strategies to slow myopia progression: effects of the visual extent of the optical treatment zone
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Exp Eye Res 114:77-88. 2013
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma
    Ronald S Harwerth
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 21:91-125. 2002
    ..These experimental findings from glaucoma in monkeys provide fundamental data that should be applicable to improving methods for assessing glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients...
  45. ncbi request reprint Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision
    Ronald S Harwerth
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    Vision Res 43:505-17. 2003
    ..In addition, increased integration time does not account for the elevated stereothresholds of subjects with abnormal binocular vision...
  46. ncbi request reprint Vitreal glutamate concentration in monkeys with experimental glaucoma
    Louvenia Carter-Dawson
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:2633-7. 2002
    ..To investigate the hypothesis that the pathophysiology for the death of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma involves excitotoxic effects from elevated concentrations of vitreal glutamate...
  47. ncbi request reprint Effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision on the development of form-deprivation myopia in monkeys
    Earl L Smith
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:291-9. 2002
    ..To characterize the temporal integration properties of the mechanisms responsible for form-deprivation myopia (FDM), the effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision on the degree of FDM were investigated in infant monkeys...
  48. ncbi request reprint Effects of the duration of early strabismus on the binocular responses of neurons in the monkey visual cortex (V1)
    Takafumi Mori
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:1262-9. 2002
    ..To determine how the duration of early strabismus influences the severity of loss of disparity sensitivity in V1 neurons and the effects of extensive poststrabismus visual experience on the maintenance of functional binocular connections...