S Shiffman

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Craving in intermittent and daily smokers during ad libitum smoking
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
    Nicotine Tob Res 16:1063-9. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint A comparison of nicotine biomarkers and smoking patterns in daily and nondaily smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Authors Affiliations Smoking Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23:1264-72. 2014
  3. pmc Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e89911. 2014
  4. pmc Smoker reactivity to cues: effects on craving and on smoking behavior
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 122:264-80. 2013
  5. pmc Cue reactivity in non-daily smokers: effects on craving and on smoking behavior
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 226:321-33. 2013
  6. pmc Smoking motives of daily and non-daily smokers: a profile analysis
    Saul Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 126:362-8. 2012
  7. pmc Tobacco dependence among intermittent smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:1372-81. 2012
  8. pmc Characteristics and smoking patterns of intermittent smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 20:264-77. 2012
  9. pmc Prediction of lapse from associations between smoking and situational antecedents assessed by ecological momentary assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 91:159-68. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 111:531-45. 2002

Detail Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Craving in intermittent and daily smokers during ad libitum smoking
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
    Nicotine Tob Res 16:1063-9. 2014
    ..This study aimed to assess average and peak craving intensity among nondaily intermittent smokers (ITS) in smoking episodes and when not smoking compared to that of daily smokers (DS)...
  2. ncbi request reprint A comparison of nicotine biomarkers and smoking patterns in daily and nondaily smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Authors Affiliations Smoking Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23:1264-72. 2014
    ..Nondaily or intermittent smokers (ITS) are increasingly common, but how much nicotine, if any, ITS take in and how quickly they metabolize it has not yet been studied...
  3. pmc Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e89911. 2014
    ..Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS...
  4. pmc Smoker reactivity to cues: effects on craving and on smoking behavior
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 122:264-80. 2013
    ..Some craving effects were curvilinear, suggesting that they are subject to thresholds and might not be observed under some circumstances...
  5. pmc Cue reactivity in non-daily smokers: effects on craving and on smoking behavior
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 226:321-33. 2013
    ..Non-daily, or intermittent smokers (ITS), are increasingly prevalent. Their smoking may be more situational than that of daily smokers (DS), and thus is hypothesized to be more influenced by cues...
  6. pmc Smoking motives of daily and non-daily smokers: a profile analysis
    Saul Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 126:362-8. 2012
    ..Non-daily or intermittent smoking is becoming common, but little is known about smoking patterns of intermittent smokers (ITS). This study assesses differences in the profile of smoking motives of non-daily, ITS and daily smokers (DS)...
  7. pmc Tobacco dependence among intermittent smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:1372-81. 2012
    ..Intermittent smokers (ITS) are an increasingly prevalent segment of smokers, yet it is unknown whether or how dependence severity may vary across ITS...
  8. pmc Characteristics and smoking patterns of intermittent smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 20:264-77. 2012
    ..In many respects, CITS were intermediate between NITS and DS. ITS show distinct patterns of smoking behavior that are not well explained by current models of nicotine dependence...
  9. pmc Prediction of lapse from associations between smoking and situational antecedents assessed by ecological momentary assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 91:159-68. 2007
    ..The effect was only seen in EMA assessments of NA smoking, and was not captured by questionnaire measures of negative affect smoking, which did not predict lapse risk. Moreover, the effect was not mediated by nicotine dependence...
  10. ncbi request reprint Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 111:531-45. 2002
    ..Smoking was unrelated to negative or positive affect or to arousal, although it was associated with restlessness. Thus, in daily life, affect appears to exert little influence over ad-lib smoking in heavy smoking adults...
  11. ncbi request reprint Does heightened affect make smoking cues more salient?
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Smoking Research Group, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 117:618-24. 2008
    ..Indeed, analyses showed that the effect of cues was typically diminished under conditions of NA. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that smoking cues and lapsing are more closely linked under NA conditions...
  12. ncbi request reprint Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking: an analysis of unrestricted smoking patterns
    Saul Shiftman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 113:166-71. 2004
    ..Smoking was associated with particular activities and locations. Urge to smoke was the strongest predictor of smoking. The results replicated the findings of S. Shiffman et al. (2002)...
  13. ncbi request reprint Smoking patterns and dependence: contrasting chippers and heavy smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 115:509-23. 2006
    ..In idiographic analyses, CHs' smoking was under much stronger stimulus control than was that of HSs. The authors propose that the disappearance of stimulus control over use is a characteristic of dependence...
  14. ncbi request reprint Analyzing milestones in smoking cessation: illustration in a nicotine patch trial in adult smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 74:276-85. 2006
    ..6). The biggest effect of treatment was to prevent progression to relapse among those who had lapsed (HR = 7.1). Analysis of effects by milestones may enhance understanding of cessation treatments and their mechanisms of action...
  15. pmc Validation of the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS): a criterion-group design contrasting chippers and regular smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 79:45-52. 2005
    ..NDSS scales also discriminated levels of intake and dependence within the chippers group, suggesting that the scales were sensitive to individual differences even at the very low end of the dependence continuum...
  16. ncbi request reprint Negative affect and smoking lapses: a prospective analysis
    Saul Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:192-201. 2004
    ..Thus, rapid increases in NA, but not slow-changing shifts in stress and NA, were associated with relapse...
  17. pmc Patterns of intermittent smoking: An analysis using Ecological Momentary Assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Addict Behav 34:514-9. 2009
    ..Overall, results suggest that non-daily smoking patterns are quite heterogeneous, and that many non-daily smokers may not be primarily social smokers...
  18. pmc Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Psychol Assess 21:486-97. 2009
    ..Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data and holds promise for substance use research...
  19. ncbi request reprint Ecological momentary assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Annu Rev Clin Psychol 4:1-32. 2008
    ..EMA holds unique promise to advance the science and practice of clinical psychology by shedding light on the dynamics of behavior in real-world settings...
  20. pmc Point process analyses of variations in smoking rate by setting, mood, gender, and dependence
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA15213, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 25:501-10. 2011
    ..Point process analyses of ecological momentary assessment data can bring out even small influences on smoking rate...
  21. pmc Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 10:i33-40. 2001
    ..To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes...
  22. ncbi request reprint Temptations to smoke after quitting: a comparison of lapsers and maintainers
    S Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Health Psychol 15:455-61. 1996
    ..Temptations reported by lapsers and maintainers did not differ in any respect, including their reported coping. The results highlight situational variance over individual differences...
  23. ncbi request reprint Progression from a smoking lapse to relapse: prediction from abstinence violation effects, nicotine dependence, and lapse characteristics
    S Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 64:993-1002. 1996
    ..More nicotine-dependent participants progressed more rapidly toward relapse, but neither the amount smoked in the first lapse nor its subjective reinforcement predicted progression...
  24. ncbi request reprint The effect of bupropion on nicotine craving and withdrawal
    S Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 148:33-40. 2000
    ..Given the importance of nicotine craving and withdrawal in the smoking cessation process, the current study examined the effects of bupropion on these parameters during smoking abstinence...
  25. pmc Effect of health messages about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes on beliefs and quitting intent
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 10:i24-32. 2001
    ..To test the impact of three health messages focusing on vent holes, sensory effects of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes, or health consequences of smoking, respectively, on beliefs and quitting intentions...
  26. ncbi request reprint A day at a time: predicting smoking lapse from daily urge
    S Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 106:104-16. 1997
    ..Only urge intensity at waking still predicted lapse risk; this was not because of this measured being closer in time to the day's lapses. Among lapsers, urge intensity at waking and in temptations rose preceding a lapse...
  27. pmc Characteristics of selectors of nicotine replacement therapy
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 14:346-55. 2005
    ..To assess differences in demographic and smoking characteristics between smokers who have and have not used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...
  28. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in the context of smoking lapse episodes
    S Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Addict Behav 22:797-811. 1997
    ..The results demonstrate the interplay between individual traits and contextual influences in smoking relapse, and they particularly highlight the role of nicotine dependence in relation to contextual factors...
  29. pmc A multi-dimensional analysis of cue-elicited craving in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers
    M A Sayette
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Addiction 96:1419-32. 2001
    ..This research examined the performance of a broad range of measures posited to relate to smoking craving...
  30. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of the nicotine patch for relief of craving and withdrawal 7-10 weeks after cessation
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, 201 North Craig Street, Suite 320, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 2:371-8. 2000
    ..This study demonstrated the utility of continuing patch treatment for symptom relief in weeks 7-10 of abstinence. Future research should examine the optimal duration of treatment, which may vary across different classes of smokers...
  31. ncbi request reprint Dynamic influences on smoking relapse process
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Pers 73:1715-48. 2005
    ..The findings highlight the importance of dynamic changes in background conditions and in immediate states as important influences on lapses and relapse and also suggest the importance of considering person by situation interactions...
  32. ncbi request reprint The efficacy of computer-tailored smoking cessation material as a supplement to nicotine polacrilex gum therapy
    S Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Arch Intern Med 160:1675-81. 2000
    ..Standard, generic self-help materials have been largely ineffective as behavioral treatments for smoking cessation. In contrast, self-help programs tailored to the needs of specific smokers have shown promise in facilitating quitting...
  33. doi request reprint The relevance and treatment of cue-induced cravings in tobacco dependence
    Stuart G Ferguson
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 36:235-43. 2009
    ..Cue-induced craving plays an important role in smoking and relapse and likely in other addictions as well. Treatments to mitigate the effect of cue-induced craving are both important and needed...
  34. ncbi request reprint Daily smoking patterns, their determinants, and implications for quitting
    Siddharth Chandra
    Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:67-80. 2007
    ..5 standard deviations) in the evening. Daily smoking patterns were related to environmental smoking restrictions, but the strength of this relationship differed among clusters and by time of day. Clusters differed in lapse risk...
  35. ncbi request reprint Does reducing withdrawal severity mediate nicotine patch efficacy? A randomized clinical trial
    Stuart G Ferguson
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 74:1153-61. 2006
    ..This suggests that other mechanisms for the effectiveness of NRT need to be examined...
  36. ncbi request reprint Immediate hedonic response to smoking lapses: relationship to smoking relapse, and effects of nicotine replacement therapy
    Saul Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh and Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:608-18. 2006
    ..Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been shown to decrease the risk of progression from lapse to relapse. We hypothesized that this effect might be mediated via decreases in reinforcement from smoking lapses...
  37. ncbi request reprint Prediction of abstinence at 10 weeks based on smoking status at 2 weeks during a quit attempt: secondary analysis of two parallel, 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 21-mg nicotine patch in adult smokers
    Stuart G Ferguson
    Pinney Associates, Inc, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Clin Ther 31:1957-65. 2009
    ....
  38. pmc Psychological mediators of bupropion sustained-release treatment for smoking cessation
    Danielle E McCarthy
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 152 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Addiction 103:1521-33. 2008
    ..The specificity of bupropion SR effects was also tested in exploratory analyses...
  39. doi request reprint A randomized controlled clinical trial of bupropion SR and individual smoking cessation counseling
    Danielle E McCarthy
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:717-29. 2008
    ..17, 95% CI 0.68-2.03) or prolonged abstinence (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.75-2.12) substantially when offered in conjunction with active medication...
  40. pmc Smokers' beliefs about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 10:i17-23. 2001
    ..To assess beliefs about the tar and nicotine delivery characteristics and health benefits of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes among cigarette smokers...
  41. doi request reprint Effect of nicotine lozenges on affective smoking withdrawal symptoms: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Clin Ther 30:1461-75. 2008
    ..The suggested mechanism for the effects of nicotine replacement medications such as nicotine lozenges on smoking abstinence is reduction in the withdrawal symptoms of emotional distress and craving (the subjective desire to smoke)...
  42. ncbi request reprint The morning after: limit violations and the self-regulation of alcohol consumption
    Mark Muraven
    Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 19:253-62. 2005
    ..Consistent with the limit violation effect, violating a limit produced distress over consumption among social drinkers, and they responded to that distress by drinking more...
  43. pmc How many cigarettes did you smoke? Assessing cigarette consumption by global report, Time-Line Follow-Back, and ecological momentary assessment
    Saul Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Psychology, BELPB 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Health Psychol 28:519-26. 2009
    ..This study evaluated and compared several methods of assessing daily cigarette consumption...
  44. pmc Cigarette-by-cigarette satisfaction during ad libitum smoking
    Saul Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 118:348-59. 2009
    ..The best predictor of subsequent smoking satisfaction was the intensity of craving prior to smoking. Understanding subjective smoking satisfaction provides insight into sources of reinforcement for smoking...
  45. ncbi request reprint Cue-provoked craving and nicotine replacement therapy in smoking cessation
    Andrew J Waters
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:1136-43. 2004
    ..Cue-provoked craving predicted relapse among participants on the nicotine patch but not among those on placebo. In summary, NRT users could benefit from treatment that attenuates cue-provoked craving...
  46. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in adoption of treatment for smoking cessation: demographic and smoking history characteristics
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 93:121-31. 2008
    ..Behavioral and pharmacological treatments have been shown to improve smoking cessation rates, but treatments are under-utilized...
  47. ncbi request reprint Using self-efficacy judgments to predict characteristics of lapses to smoking
    Chad J Gwaltney
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 70:1140-9. 2002
    ..This pattern of results remained when multiple lapse episodes were considered. Thus, low-ASE contexts tend to be associated with lapses to smoking...
  48. pmc Smoker and ex-smoker reactions to cigarettes claiming reduced risk
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 13:78-84. 2004
    ..If PREPs are perceived as safe, they may deter smokers from quitting and encourage re-initiation by smokers who have quit...
  49. pmc Persistent use of nicotine replacement therapy: an analysis of actual purchase patterns in a population based sample
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 12:310-6. 2003
    ..Some expressed concerns that broader availability and lack of physician control might increase persistent use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-that is, use beyond the period specified by the FDA approved label...
  50. ncbi request reprint Tobacco dependence treatments: review and prospectus
    S Shiffman
    Smoking Research Group, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Annu Rev Public Health 19:335-58. 1998
    ..In this review, we present principles to guide the development of such a therapy, and for its application, should it be proven effective...
  51. ncbi request reprint The relationship between cigarette use, nicotine dependence, and craving in laboratory volunteers
    Eric C Donny
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:934-42. 2008
    ..Further research into the sources of this variance is critical to understanding the process of and risk for nicotine dependence...
  52. doi request reprint Relationship between adherence to daily nicotine patch use and treatment efficacy: secondary analysis of a 10-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial simulating over-the-counter use in adult smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    PinneyAssociates, Inc, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Clin Ther 30:1852-8. 2008
    ..It has been reported that the efficacy of acute forms of nicotine replacement therapy, such as nicotine gum and lozenges, improves when sufficient quantities of medication are used...
  53. pmc Do smokers crave cigarettes in some smoking situations more than others? Situational correlates of craving when smoking
    Michael S Dunbar
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:226-34. 2010
    ..Smokers tend to smoke when experiencing craving, but even within smoking occasions, craving may vary. We examine variations in craving when people were smoking in various real-world situations...
  54. ncbi request reprint Smokers' interest in using nicotine replacement to aid smoking reduction
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Inc, and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:1177-82. 2007
    ..We conclude that many smokers are interested in gradually reducing prior to quitting and that promoting reduction is unlikely to undermine motivation to quit smoking...
  55. ncbi request reprint Unplanned quit attempts--results from a U.S. sample of smokers and ex-smokers
    Stuart G Ferguson
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:827-32. 2009
    ..We set out to explore further the nature of unplanned quit attempts among U.S. smokers...
  56. doi request reprint Smoking during the night: prevalence and smoker characteristics
    Deborah M Scharf
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:167-78. 2008
    ..People who smoke at night may need nicotine replacement therapy overnight. Future research should determine whether treatments that improve sleep quality also improve cessation outcomes in night smokers...
  57. doi request reprint The relationship between cigarette use, nicotine dependence, and craving in laboratory volunteers
    Eric C Donny
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:447-55. 2008
    ..Further research into the sources of this variance is critical to understanding the process of and risk for nicotine dependence...
  58. doi request reprint Quitting by gradual smoking reduction using nicotine gum: a randomized controlled trial
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Inc, and the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Prev Med 36:96-104.e1. 2009
    ..Many smokers express a desire to quit smoking by gradually reducing the number of cigarettes they smoke until they stop completely. This study tested the efficacy of nicotine gum in facilitating cessation through gradual reduction...
  59. ncbi request reprint Psychosocial demands and ambulatory blood pressure: a field assessment approach
    Thomas W Kamarck
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 4501 Sennott Square, 210 South Bouquet Street, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Physiol Behav 77:699-704. 2002
    ..These results support the possibility that psychosocial factors may account for some of the unique predictive value associated with ABP, and they support the value of these field assessment methods...
  60. ncbi request reprint Experiences of demand and control in daily life as correlates of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in a healthy older sample
    Thomas W Kamarck
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Health Psychol 23:24-32. 2004
    ..Previous findings linking job stress with cardiovascular disease may reflect the broader impact of daily psychological demands, not necessarily associated with the workplace...
  61. ncbi request reprint Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk: what is the role of daily experience?
    Thomas W Kamarck
    University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Pers 73:1749-74. 2005
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Reduction of abstinence-induced withdrawal and craving using high-dose nicotine replacement therapy
    Saul Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:637-44. 2006
    ..Prior studies have shown that Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) decreases withdrawal symptom severity but have relied on retrospective reports and lacked robust measures of baseline symptoms or symptoms during unmedicated abstinence...
  63. ncbi request reprint Correspondence between laboratory and ambulatory measures of cardiovascular reactivity: a multilevel modeling approach
    Thomas W Kamarck
    Department of Psychology, Behavioral Medicine Research Group, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Psychophysiology 40:675-83. 2003
    ..This multilevel modeling approach may enhance our ability to detect the correspondence between laboratory and ambulatory measures of CVR, and to identify the circumstances under which it may be most clearly observed...
  64. ncbi request reprint Recommendation for the assessment of tobacco craving and withdrawal in smoking cessation trials
    Saul Shiffman
    University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:599-614. 2004
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint One too many: predicting future alcohol consumption following heavy drinking
    Mark Muraven
    Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, 12222, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:127-36. 2005
    ..Likewise, gender and trait temptation and restriction moderated this process. The results are consistent with the Limit Violation Effect model (R. L. Collins, 1993) of mood and regulation of alcohol intake...
  66. ncbi request reprint Multidimensional assessment of nicotine dependence in adolescents
    Duncan B Clark
    Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 77:235-42. 2005
    ..The findings suggest that the NDSS has acceptable psychometric properties when applied to adolescents, complementing smoking rate and FTND in a multidimensional smoking assessment...
  67. ncbi request reprint Are there gender differences in smoking cessation, with and without bupropion? Pooled- and meta-analyses of clinical trials of Bupropion SR
    Deborah Scharf
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Addiction 99:1462-9. 2004
    ..We test whether women and men have comparable success rates quitting smoking regardless of treatment, whether Bupropion SR is effective for women, and whether Bupropion SR efficacy differs for men and women...
  68. ncbi request reprint Validation of the Detroit Area Study Discrimination Scale in a community sample of older African American adults: the Pittsburgh healthy heart project
    Teletia R Taylor
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    Int J Behav Med 11:88-94. 2004
    ..In contrast, Lifetime History of Discrimination, as measured by the DAS-DQ, was unrelated to global measures or daily experiences of stress. Thus, this study lends support to the construct validity of the DAS-DQ...
  69. ncbi request reprint Frequency of spousal interaction and 3-year progression of carotid artery intima medial thickness: the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project
    Denise L Janicki
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Psychosom Med 67:889-96. 2005
    ..We employed Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) real-time recording in the natural setting to determine whether spousal interaction frequency predicts 3-year progression of carotid artery intima medial thickening (IMT)...
  70. ncbi request reprint Application of ecological momentary assessment to the study of marital adjustment and social interactions during daily life
    Denise L Janicki
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Fam Psychol 20:168-72. 2006
    ..Results underscore the merit of obtaining representative measures of social interactions during daily life for understanding influences on and consequences of MA...
  71. ncbi request reprint Nicotine patch and lozenge are effective for women
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:119-27. 2005
    ..Treatment with nicotine patch or lozenge is effective for women, and the analysis did not reveal significant gender differences in efficacy. Gender differences in outcome may be moderated by nicotine dependence...
  72. ncbi request reprint Successful treatment with a nicotine lozenge of smokers with prior failure in pharmacological therapy
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Addiction 99:83-92. 2004
    ..To assess the influence of unsuccessful past quit attempts using pharmacological treatment on smoking cessation when using a new nicotine lozenge...
  73. ncbi request reprint Dynamic self-efficacy and outcome expectancies: prediction of smoking lapse and relapse
    Chad J Gwaltney
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 114:661-75. 2005
    ..ASE and POEs generally neither mediated nor moderated each other's effects. These data emphasize the role of dynamic factors in the relapse process...
  74. ncbi request reprint Absentminded lapses during smoking cessation
    D Catley
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 14:73-6. 2000
    ..Quantitative urge levels were significantly lower during absentminded lapses compared with nonabsentminded lapses; however, urges were not very low. Results indicate that absentminded lapses may occur but are probably relatively rare...
  75. pmc Switching to "lighter" cigarettes and quitting smoking
    H A Tindle
    Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 18:485-90. 2009
    ..We assessed factors associated with switching and the association between switching and (1) making a quit attempt, and (2) recent quitting, yielding a measure of net quitting (attempts x recent quitting)...
  76. ncbi request reprint Does smoking abstinence self-efficacy vary across situations? Identifying context-specificity within the Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire
    C J Gwaltney
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 69:516-27. 2001
    ..However, the context rated with the least confidence proved to be the best outcome predictor, suggesting the existence of "Achilles' heel" situations. These data indicate the internal and predictive validity of the RSEQ...
  77. doi request reprint Perceived safety and efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies among US smokers and ex-smokers: relationship with use and compliance
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Addiction 103:1371-8. 2008
    ..Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective for smoking cessation, but most smokers try to quit without using it. We examined the impact of misperceptions of NRT safety and efficacy on its use...
  78. ncbi request reprint Daily fluctuations in self-control demands and alcohol intake
    Mark Muraven
    Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, 12222, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 19:140-7. 2005
    ..Consistent with the self-control strength model, it appears that exerting self-control in nondrinking areas undermines individuals' capacity to exert self-control of drinking in daily life...
  79. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of acute administration of nicotine gum in relief of cue-provoked cigarette craving
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and the University of Pittsburgh, 201 North Craig Street, Suite 320, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166:343-50. 2003
    ..Acute cravings, often provoked by exposure to smoking cues, appear to be important triggers for smoking relapse. Relief of acute craving may therefore be an important step in preventing relapse...
  80. ncbi request reprint Use of more nicotine lozenges leads to better success in quitting smoking
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Addiction 102:809-14. 2007
    ..We tested these alternative explanations in secondary analyses of data from a clinical trial of nicotine lozenges...
  81. doi request reprint Nicotine patch therapy prior to quitting smoking: a meta-analysis
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Addiction 103:557-63. 2008
    ..To evaluate the incremental efficacy of starting nicotine patch treatment prior to quitting compared to the current regimen of starting patch treatment on the target quit day...
  82. ncbi request reprint The effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge in very heavy smokers
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA, USA University of Pittsburgh, Smoking Research Group, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 28:49-55. 2005
    ..The nicotine patch and lozenge are effective (vs. placebo) even in heavy and highly dependent smokers...
  83. pmc The measurement of drug craving
    M A Sayette
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Addiction 95:S189-210. 2000
    ..It is concluded that advances in assessment will proceed only when combined with additional research and a better theoretical understanding of craving...
  84. ncbi request reprint Reflections on smoking relapse research
    Saul Shiffman
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Rev 25:15-20. 2006
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of a nicotine lozenge for smoking cessation
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, 201 N Craig St, Suite 320, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Arch Intern Med 162:1267-76. 2002
    ..Some smokers prefer acute oral forms, but many smokers reject chewing gum. We tested the safety and efficacy of a new nicotine polacrilex lozenge for smoking cessation...
  86. ncbi request reprint Hostility explains some of the discrepancy between daytime ambulatory and clinic blood pressures
    Deborah E Polk
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Health Psychol 21:202-6. 2002
    ..These results suggest that the addition of hostility to CBP may improve its predictive power...
  87. pmc Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among first-year U.S. college students: a time series analysis
    Lisa Dierker
    Wesleyan University, Department of Psychology, Middletown, Connecticut 06459, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 43:680-99. 2008
    ..Study limitations are noted...
  88. ncbi request reprint UK smokers' and ex-smokers' reactions to cigarettes promising reduced risk
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Addiction 102:156-60. 2007
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint The effect of a nicotine patch on cigarette craving over the course of the day: results from two randomized clinical trials
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 24:2795-804. 2008
    ..The primary end-point was craving during the evening hours, because previous research suggested that smoking relapse was particularly likely at that time...
  90. pmc Hostility moderates the effects of social support and intimacy on blood pressure in daily social interactions
    Elizabeth J Vella
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA
    Health Psychol 27:S155-62. 2008
    ..This study sought to determine the role of hostility in moderating the effects of positive social interactions on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP)...
  91. ncbi request reprint Tobacco harm reduction: conceptual structure and nomenclature for analysis and research
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:S113-29. 2002
    ..The suggested framework is intended to clarify the debate, provide for common nomenclature, and facilitate analysis of diverse approaches to tobacco harm reduction...
  92. ncbi request reprint Binge antecedents in obese women with and without binge eating disorder
    C G Greeno
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 68:95-102. 2000
    ..Binge eating NBED women tended to experience worse mood, less control, and more craving than other NBED women, contributing to evidence of the close relationship of binge eating and decrements in emotional and appetitive functioning...
  93. ncbi request reprint Coping with daily events and short-term mood changes: an unexpected failure to observe effects of coping
    C A Marco
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York SUNY at Stony Brook, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 67:755-64. 1999
    ..Coping failed to predict any pre- to poststressor mood changes. Possible explanations for the overall failure of coping to predict momentary mood changes are discussed...
  94. ncbi request reprint Playful and rebellious states vs. negative affect in explaining the occurrence of temptations and lapses during smoking cessation
    Kathleen O'Connell
    University of Kansas School of Nursing, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:661-74. 2004
    ..Treatment and policy implications of these findings are discussed...
  95. ncbi request reprint Attentional shifts to smoking cues in smokers
    Andrew J Waters
    Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
    Addiction 98:1409-17. 2003
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy
    Victor J Strecher
    University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor 48109 0471, USA
    Addiction 100:682-8. 2005
    ..To assess the efficacy of World Wide Web-based tailored behavioral smoking cessation materials among nicotine patch users...
  97. ncbi request reprint Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers
    Mark L Rubinstein
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:129-35. 2007
    ..497, p = .001), NDSS (r = 0.439, p = .002), timing of craving in the morning (r = -0.601, p = .000), and self-rated addiction (r = 0.562, p = .000). Most interesting, cotinine levels reached a plateau at around 4-5 cigarettes/day...
  98. ncbi request reprint Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users
    Victor J Strecher
    University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, 300 N Ingalls Room 5D 04 0471, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0471, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:S95-101. 2006
    ..Moderating variables may be particularly useful to address in tailored messaging. The mediating factor of perceived message relevance may provide a partial mechanism of effective program tailoring...
  99. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of over-the-counter nicotine patch
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:477-83. 2002
    ..The nicotine patch was safe and effective for smoking cessation at least during 10 weeks of treatment under open-sale conditions, without face-to-face instruction or counseling...
  100. pmc Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in the "real world"
    Saul Shiffman
    Thorax 62:930-1. 2007
  101. ncbi request reprint Situational correlates of abstinence self-efficacy
    Chad J Gwaltney
    Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 114:649-60. 2005
    ..These results suggest that self-efficacy may be reactive to affect-motivational states during a quit attempt. Whether these influences represent cognitive biases or objective risk assessments is not known...

Research Grants15

  1. Understanding Emerging Patterns of Non-Daily Smoking: Field and Lab Assessments
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  2. RELAPSE PROCESS IN TRANSDERMAL NICOTINE REPLACEMENT
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  3. COMPUTERIZED SELF-MONITORING OF SMOKING RELAPSE PROCESS
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The findings of the study are expected to be highly relevant for the design of more effective interventions to prevent relapse to cigarette smoking and other drug addictions...
  4. COMPUTERIZED SELF-MONITORING OF SMOKING RELAPSE PROCESS
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The findings of the study are expected to be highly relevant for the design of more effective interventions to prevent relapse to cigarette smoking and other drug addictions...
  5. COMPUTERIZED SELF-MONITORING OF SMOKING RELAPSE PROCESS
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The findings of the study are expected to be highly relevant for the design of more effective interventions to prevent relapse to cigarette smoking and other drug addictions...
  6. RELAPSE PROCESS IN TRANSDERMAL NICOTINE REPLACEMENT
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  7. Understanding Emerging Patterns of Non-Daily Smoking: Field and Lab Assessments
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  8. COMPUTERIZED SELF-MONITORING OF SMOKING RELAPSE PROCESS
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The findings of the study are expected to be highly relevant for the design of more effective interventions to prevent relapse to cigarette smoking and other drug addictions...
  9. Understanding Emerging Patterns of Non-Daily Smoking: Field and Lab Assessments
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  10. Understanding Emerging Patterns of Non-Daily Smoking: Field and Lab Assessments
    Saul Shiffman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....