Robert Schwarcz

Summary

Affiliation: University of Maryland
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Targeting kynurenine aminotransferase II in psychiatric diseases: promising effects of an orally active enzyme inhibitor
    Hui Qiu Wu
    To whom correspondence should be addressed Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, US tel 1 410 402 7635, fax 1 410 747 2434, E mail
    Schizophr Bull 40:S152-8. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint Memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: the role of entorhinal lesions
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Epilepsy Res 50:161-77. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation as a drug target
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:12-7. 2004
  4. pmc Of mice, rats and men: Revisiting the quinolinic acid hypothesis of Huntington's disease
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 90:230-45. 2010
  5. pmc Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: linkage through astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid?
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:652-3. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Manipulation of brain kynurenines: glial targets, neuronal effects, and clinical opportunities
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:1-10. 2002
  7. pmc The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 40:204-10. 2010
  8. pmc Pre- and postnatal exposure to kynurenine causes cognitive deficits in adulthood
    Ana Pocivavsek
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 35:1605-12. 2012
  9. ncbi request reprint Endogenous kynurenate controls the vulnerability of striatal neurons to quinolinate: Implications for Huntington's disease
    Michael T Sapko
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Exp Neurol 197:31-40. 2006
  10. pmc Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior
    Michelle C Potter
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1734-42. 2010

Research Grants

  1. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2000
  2. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2001
  3. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2002
  4. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2003
  5. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2004
  6. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2005
  8. QUINOLINIC ACID AND SEIZURE DISORDERS
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1992
  9. QUINOLINIC ACID AND SEIZURE DISORDERS
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1991
  10. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1999

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. pmc Targeting kynurenine aminotransferase II in psychiatric diseases: promising effects of an orally active enzyme inhibitor
    Hui Qiu Wu
    To whom correspondence should be addressed Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, US tel 1 410 402 7635, fax 1 410 747 2434, E mail
    Schizophr Bull 40:S152-8. 2014
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: the role of entorhinal lesions
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Epilepsy Res 50:161-77. 2002
    ..These animals will also be useful for evaluating new treatment strategies that focus on the prevention of pathological events in the EC...
  3. ncbi request reprint The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation as a drug target
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:12-7. 2004
    ..Some of these 'kynurenergic' agents can be envisioned to be of therapeutic value, especially in the treatment of diseases that are associated with impaired kynurenine pathway metabolism...
  4. pmc Of mice, rats and men: Revisiting the quinolinic acid hypothesis of Huntington's disease
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 90:230-45. 2010
    ..Thus, pharmacological normalization of the imbalance in brain KP metabolism may provide clinical benefits, which could be especially effective in early stages of the disease...
  5. pmc Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: linkage through astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid?
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:652-3. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Manipulation of brain kynurenines: glial targets, neuronal effects, and clinical opportunities
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:1-10. 2002
    ..These compounds can be used to normalize KP defects, show remarkable efficacy in animal models of central nervous system disorders, and offer novel therapeutic opportunities...
  7. pmc The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 40:204-10. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that selective attenuation of cerebral KYNA production, by increasing glutamatergic tone, might improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia...
  8. pmc Pre- and postnatal exposure to kynurenine causes cognitive deficits in adulthood
    Ana Pocivavsek
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 35:1605-12. 2012
    ..Collectively, these studies introduce a novel, naturalistic rat model of SZ, and also suggest that increases in brain KYNA during a vulnerable period in brain development may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of the disease...
  9. ncbi request reprint Endogenous kynurenate controls the vulnerability of striatal neurons to quinolinate: Implications for Huntington's disease
    Michael T Sapko
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Exp Neurol 197:31-40. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that timely pharmacological interventions resulting in an up-regulation of brain KYNA levels may benefit patients suffering from HD or other neurodegenerative diseases...
  10. pmc Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior
    Michelle C Potter
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1734-42. 2010
    ..Our studies raise the prospect that interventions aimed specifically at reducing KYNA formation in the brain may constitute a promising molecular strategy for cognitive improvement in health and disease...
  11. doi request reprint Glial activation precedes seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration in measles virus-infected mice
    Elin Lehrmann
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Epilepsia 49:13-23. 2008
    ..In addition to its conceptual implications, our study indicates that timely interventions modulating glial activation or 3-HK/QUIN synthesis may be of benefit in preventing or arresting seizure-induced neuronal damage...
  12. ncbi request reprint Kynurenate and 7-chlorokynurenate formation in chronically epileptic rats
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, U S A
    Epilepsia 46:1010-6. 2005
    ..The present study was designed to examine these biosynthetic processes, as well as astrogliosis, in animals with spontaneously recurring seizures...
  13. pmc Dysfunctional kynurenine pathway metabolism in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease
    Korrapati V Sathyasaikumar
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Neurochem 113:1416-25. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that impairments in its immediate metabolic enzymes jointly account for the abnormally high brain levels of 3-HK in the R6/2 model of HD...
  14. pmc Fluctuations in endogenous kynurenic acid control hippocampal glutamate and memory
    Ana Pocivavsek
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:2357-67. 2011
    ..This approach might be especially useful in the treatment of cognitive deficits in neurological and psychiatric diseases that are associated with increased brain KYNA levels...
  15. pmc Enzymatic transamination of D-kynurenine generates kynurenic acid in rat and human brain
    Verónica Pérez-De La Cruz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurochem 120:1026-35. 2012
    ..Thus, enzymatic transamination accounts in part for kynurenic acid synthesis from d-kynurenine in the brain. These results are discussed with regard to implications for brain physiology and pathology...
  16. ncbi request reprint Strain-specific nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the CA1 field of the rat hippocampus: August Copenhagen Irish versus Sprague-Dawley
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:1163-70. 2007
    ..The differential sensitivity of these rats to PPI disruption by apomorphine may result from strain-specific levels of glutamatergic activity and its strain-specific modulation by alpha3beta4* nAChRs in the hippocampus...
  17. pmc Age dependency of inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and tonically active N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by endogenously produced kynurenic acid in the brain
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:572-82. 2011
    ..These results suggest that in the mature brain α7 nAChRs and extrasynaptic NMDARs are in close apposition to KYNA release sites and, thereby, readily accessible to inhibition by endogenously produced KYNA...
  18. pmc Impaired kynurenine pathway metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia
    Korrapati V Sathyasaikumar
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Schizophr Bull 37:1147-56. 2011
    ..The present results further support the hypothesis that the normalization of cortical KP metabolism may constitute an effective new treatment strategy in SZ...
  19. ncbi request reprint Prolonged nicotine administration results in biphasic, brain-specific changes in kynurenate levels in the rat
    Arash Rassoulpour
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:697-704. 2005
    ..Such nicotine-induced fluctuations in brain KYNA may cause functional changes in processes that regulate glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the normal and diseased brain...
  20. ncbi request reprint Competitive antagonism between the nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand galantamine and kynurenic acid at alpha7* nicotinic receptors
    Cristiane Lopes
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:48-58. 2007
    ..Reducing alpha7* nAChR inhibition by endogenous KYNA may be an important determinant of the effectiveness of galantamine in neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with decreased alpha7* nAChR activity in the brain...
  21. ncbi request reprint Neostriatal and cortical quinolinate levels are increased in early grade Huntington's disease
    Paolo Guidetti
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 17:455-61. 2004
    ..These results support a possible involvement of 3-HK and QUIN in the early phases of HD pathophysiology and indicate novel therapeutic strategies against the disease...
  22. pmc On the relationship between the two branches of the kynurenine pathway in the rat brain in vivo
    Laura Amori
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurochem 109:316-25. 2009
    ..These results indicate a remarkable functional segregation of the two pathway branches in the brain, boding well for the development of selective KAT II or KMO inhibitors for cognitive enhancement and neuroprotection, respectively...
  23. ncbi request reprint Elevated brain 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate levels in Huntington disease mice
    Paolo Guidetti
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 23:190-7. 2006
    ....
  24. pmc Downregulated kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene expression and enzyme activity in schizophrenia and genetic association with schizophrenia endophenotypes
    Ikwunga Wonodi
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:665-74. 2011
    ..The proximal cause may be an impairment of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a rate-limiting enzyme at the branching point of the kynurenine pathway...
  25. ncbi request reprint Perinatal kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition in rodents: pathophysiological implications
    Gianpiera Ceresoli-Borroni
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    J Neurosci Res 85:845-54. 2007
    ..Selective inhibitors of this enzyme may therefore provide neuroprotection in newborns and will also be useful for the experimental evaluation of the long-term effects of perinatal KP impairment...
  26. ncbi request reprint Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain
    Paolo Guidetti
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    J Neurochem 102:103-11. 2007
    ..KAT II was most abundant in rat and human brain, while mitAAT played the major role in mouse brain. It remains to be seen if mitAAT participates in cerebral KYNA synthesis under physiological and/or pathological conditions in vivo...
  27. pmc Kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine production from D-kynurenine in mice
    Xiao dan Wang
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Brain Res 1455:1-9. 2012
    ..These results show that biosynthetic routes other than those classically ascribed to L-KYN can account for the synthesis of both KYNA and 3-HK in vivo. This new insight may be of significant physiological or pathological relevance...
  28. pmc Cortical kynurenine pathway metabolism: a novel target for cognitive enhancement in Schizophrenia
    Ikwunga Wonodi
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 36:211-8. 2010
    ..The emerging, remarkable confluence of data from humans and animals suggests an opportunity for developing a rational pharmacology by targeting cortical kynurenine pathway metabolism for cognition enhancement in schizophrenia and beyond...
  29. ncbi request reprint Targeted deletion of the kynurenine aminotransferase ii gene reveals a critical role of endogenous kynurenic acid in the regulation of synaptic transmission via alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus
    Manickavasagon Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 24:4635-48. 2004
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Nanomolar concentrations of kynurenic acid reduce extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum
    Arash Rassoulpour
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurochem 93:762-5. 2005
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Astrocytic localization of kynurenine aminotransferase II in the rat brain visualized by immunocytochemistry
    Paolo Guidetti
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Glia 55:78-92. 2007
    ..This may explain the rapid access of blood-derived kynurenine to KAT II-containing astrocytes. The new anti-KAT II antibody should be useful in the further elucidation of the presumed role of KYNA in brain physiology and pathology...
  32. ncbi request reprint A method for the determination of D-kynurenine in biological tissues
    Xiao dan Wang
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD, 21228, USA
    Anal Bioanal Chem 405:9747-54. 2013
    ..Availability of a sensitive, specific, and simple method for D-KYN measurement will be instrumental for evaluating whether D-KYN should be considered for a role in physiology and pathology...
  33. ncbi request reprint Neuronal A1 receptors mediate increase in extracellular kynurenic acid after local intrastriatal adenosine infusion
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    J Neurochem 90:621-8. 2004
    ..This mechanism may result in a synergism between the neurobiological effects of adenosine and KYNA...
  34. pmc Kynurenic acid as an antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain: facts and challenges
    Edson X Albuquerque
    Division of Translational Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 85:1027-32. 2013
    ..As dysfunction of α7nAChRs plays a major role in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders, elucidation of KYNA's action on this receptor subtype has significant therapeutic implications...
  35. ncbi request reprint 3-Hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate: pathogenic synergism in early grade Huntington's disease?
    Paolo Guidetti
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 527:137-45. 2003
    ..Taken together, these studies provide further evidence for an involvement of kynurenine pathway metabolites in the early phases of HD neuropathology and suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the disease...
  36. pmc Kynurenines in the mammalian brain: when physiology meets pathology
    Robert Schwarcz
    University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA umaryland edu
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:465-77. 2012
    ..With recently developed pharmacological agents, it is now possible to restore metabolic equilibrium and envisage novel therapeutic interventions...
  37. pmc Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection of extracellular kynurenine and related metabolites in normal and lesioned rat brain
    Francesca M Notarangelo
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Anal Biochem 421:573-81. 2012
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint L-4-chlorokynurenine attenuates kainate-induced seizures and lesions in the rat
    Hui Qui Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Exp Neurol 177:222-32. 2002
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that a prodrug approach using 4-Cl-KYN might offer advantages in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy...
  39. ncbi request reprint Micromolar brain levels of kynurenic acid are associated with a disruption of auditory sensory gating in the rat
    Paul D Shepard
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1454-62. 2003
    ..These observations indicate that the disruption in auditory processing in rats with greatly elevated KYNA levels is not attributable to the compound's antagonist actions at the glycine(B) receptor...
  40. ncbi request reprint Stress-induced increase in kynurenic Acid as a potential biomarker for patients with schizophrenia and distress intolerance
    Joshua Chiappelli
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore
    JAMA Psychiatry 71:761-8. 2014
    ..The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA...
  41. pmc Continuous kynurenine administration during the prenatal period, but not during adolescence, causes learning and memory deficits in adult rats
    Ana Pocivavsek
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD, 21228, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231:2799-809. 2014
    ..Increased levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived tryptophan metabolite and antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, have been implicated in these cognitive impairments...
  42. pmc Regulation of quinolinic acid neosynthesis in mouse, rat and human brain by iron and iron chelators in vitro
    Erin K Stachowski
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    J Neural Transm 119:123-31. 2012
    ..Our results suggest that QUIN levels and function in the mammalian brain might be tightly controlled by endogenous iron and proteins that regulate the bioavailability of iron...
  43. doi request reprint Early glial dysfunction in epilepsy
    Robert Schwarcz
    University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U S A
    Epilepsia 49:1-2. 2008
  44. pmc Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid
    Zuzana Justinova
    1 Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 2 Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 3
    Nat Neurosci 16:1652-61. 2013
    ..Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. ..
  45. ncbi request reprint Determination of alpha-aminoadipic acid in brain, peripheral tissues, and body fluids using GC/MS with negative chemical ionization
    Paolo Guidetti
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 118:132-9. 2003
    ..5 microl), did not alter the striatal content of alphaAA, indicating that brain alphaAA resides at least in part in glial cells. alphaAA may therefore function as a glia-derived modulator of excitatory neurotransmission...
  46. ncbi request reprint Cortical spreading depression augments kynurenate levels and reduces malonate toxicity in the rat cortex
    Csaba Kiss
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Brain Res 1002:129-35. 2004
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that the observed increase in brain KYNA is not responsible for CSD-induced tolerance to malonate-induced neuronal damage...
  47. pmc Biochemical and phenotypic abnormalities in kynurenine aminotransferase II-deficient mice
    Ping Yu
    Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:6919-30. 2004
    ....
  48. doi request reprint Impaired spatial representation in CA1 after lesion of direct input from entorhinal cortex
    Vegard Heimly Brun
    Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience and Centre for the Biology of Memory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Neuron 57:290-302. 2008
    ..Thus, the direct projection is necessary for precise spatial firing in the CA1 place cell population...
  49. ncbi request reprint Prolonged kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition reduces development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys
    Laurent Gregoire
    Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Research Center, CHUQ, CHUL Pavillon and Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Quebec, PQ, Canada
    Behav Brain Res 186:161-7. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that long-lasting elevation of KYNA levels caused by prolonged inhibition of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase is associated with a significant reduction in LID but does not compromise the benefits of chronic LD therapy...
  50. ncbi request reprint Kynurenic acid attenuates NMDA-induced pial arteriolar dilation in newborn pigs
    Ferenc Bari
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Dom ter 10, H 6720 Szeged, Hungary
    Brain Res 1069:39-46. 2006
    ..5-2 h) following an episode of cerebral ischemia. Our data are relevant for the use of drugs that target the kynurenine pathway for therapeutic interventions in cerebrovascular diseases...
  51. ncbi request reprint In situ-produced 7-chlorokynurenate has different effects on evoked responses in rats with limbic epilepsy in comparison to naive controls
    De Xing Zhang
    Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0394, USA
    Epilepsia 46:1708-15. 2005
    ..An alternative approach may be the blockade of the glycine coagonist ("glycine(B)") site of the NMDA receptor...
  52. ncbi request reprint Modulators of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism: synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of (S)-4-(ethylsulfonyl)benzoylalanine, a potent and selective kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) inhibitor
    Roberto Pellicciari
    Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita di Perugia, Via del Liceo 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy
    ChemMedChem 1:528-31. 2006
  53. ncbi request reprint Kynurenine pathway enzymes in dendritic cells initiate tolerogenesis in the absence of functional IDO
    Maria L Belladonna
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, Perugia 06126, Italy
    J Immunol 177:130-7. 2006
    ..The paracrine production of kynurenines might be one mechanism used by IDO-competent cells to convert DCs lacking functional IDO to a tolerogenic phenotype within an IFN-gamma-rich environment...
  54. doi request reprint Sequence variants in kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) orthologs determine different potencies of the inhibitor S-ESBA
    Roberto Pellicciari
    Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Perugia, Via del Liceo 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy
    ChemMedChem 3:1199-202. 2008
  55. ncbi request reprint Effect of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition on the dyskinetic and antiparkinsonian responses to levodopa in Parkinsonian monkeys
    Pershia Samadi
    Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    Mov Disord 20:792-802. 2005
    ..These results suggest that elevation of KYNA levels through inhibition of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase constitutes a promising novel approach for managing LID in Parkinson's disease...
  56. ncbi request reprint Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates kynurenine pathway activation in yeast, microglia, and mice expressing a mutant huntingtin fragment
    Flaviano Giorgini
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:7390-400. 2008
    ....

Research Grants26

  1. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  2. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  3. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  4. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  5. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  6. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  7. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  8. QUINOLINIC ACID AND SEIZURE DISORDERS
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Taken together, the resulting data will permit a realistic evaluation of the QUIN-hypothesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, this work may pinpoint novel avenues for the treatment of the disease...
  9. QUINOLINIC ACID AND SEIZURE DISORDERS
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Taken together, the resulting data will permit a realistic evaluation of the QUIN-hypothesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, this work may pinpoint novel avenues for the treatment of the disease...
  10. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  11. QUINOLINIC ACID AND SEIZURE DISORDERS
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Taken together, the resulting data will permit a realistic evaluation of the QUIN-hypothesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, this work may pinpoint novel avenues for the treatment of the disease...
  12. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....