CAROL SCHRADER

Summary

Affiliation: University of Massachusetts Medical School
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Role for mismatch repair proteins Msh2, Mlh1, and Pms2 in immunoglobulin class switching shown by sequence analysis of recombination junctions
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 195:367-73. 2002
  2. pmc Inducible DNA breaks in Ig S regions are dependent on AID and UNG
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 202:561-8. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent DNA breaks in class switch recombination occur during G1 phase of the cell cycle and depend upon mismatch repair
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 179:6064-71. 2007
  4. pmc Mutations occur in the Ig Smu region but rarely in Sgamma regions prior to class switch recombination
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 0122, USA
    EMBO J 22:5893-903. 2003
  5. pmc Mlh1 can function in antibody class switch recombination independently of Msh2
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA 01655 0122, USA
    J Exp Med 197:1377-83. 2003
  6. pmc APE1- and APE2-dependent DNA breaks in immunoglobulin class switch recombination
    Jeroen E J Guikema
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 204:3017-26. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Mismatch repair converts AID-instigated nicks to double-strand breaks for antibody class-switch recombination
    Janet Stavnezer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 0122, USA
    Trends Genet 22:23-8. 2006
  8. pmc Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination
    Janet Stavnezer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 012, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 26:261-92. 2008
  9. pmc Deletion of the nucleotide excision repair gene Ercc1 reduces immunoglobulin class switching and alters mutations near switch recombination junctions
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 200:321-30. 2004
  10. pmc Reassessment of the role of Mut S homolog 5 in Ig class switch recombination shows lack of involvement in cis- and trans-switching
    Jeroen E J Guikema
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 181:8450-9. 2008

Research Grants

  1. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications15

  1. pmc Role for mismatch repair proteins Msh2, Mlh1, and Pms2 in immunoglobulin class switching shown by sequence analysis of recombination junctions
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 195:367-73. 2002
    ..The data indicate that MMR proteins are directly involved in class switching and that the role of Msh2 differs from that of Mlh1 and Pms2...
  2. pmc Inducible DNA breaks in Ig S regions are dependent on AID and UNG
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 202:561-8. 2005
    ..Our results indicate that AID attacks cytosines on both DNA strands, and staggered breaks are processed to blunt DSBs at the initiating ss break sites. We propose a model to explain the types of end-processing events observed...
  3. ncbi request reprint Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent DNA breaks in class switch recombination occur during G1 phase of the cell cycle and depend upon mismatch repair
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 179:6064-71. 2007
    ..We also show that nucleotide excision repair does not contribute to class switching. Our data support the hypothesis that MMR is required to convert SSBs into DSBs when SSBs on opposite strands are too distal to form DSBs spontaneously...
  4. pmc Mutations occur in the Ig Smu region but rarely in Sgamma regions prior to class switch recombination
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 0122, USA
    EMBO J 22:5893-903. 2003
    ..Finally, we find that mice expressing a transgene for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) have nucleotide insertions at S-S junctions, indicating that the recombining DNA ends are accessible to end-processing enzyme activities...
  5. pmc Mlh1 can function in antibody class switch recombination independently of Msh2
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA 01655 0122, USA
    J Exp Med 197:1377-83. 2003
    ..The finding that MMR functions to reduce mutations in switch regions is unexpected since MMR proteins have been shown to contribute to somatic hypermutation of antibody variable region genes...
  6. pmc APE1- and APE2-dependent DNA breaks in immunoglobulin class switch recombination
    Jeroen E J Guikema
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 204:3017-26. 2007
    ..We show that both APE1 and APE2 function in CSR, resulting in the DSBs necessary for CSR and thereby describing a novel in vivo function for APE2...
  7. ncbi request reprint Mismatch repair converts AID-instigated nicks to double-strand breaks for antibody class-switch recombination
    Janet Stavnezer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 0122, USA
    Trends Genet 22:23-8. 2006
    ..This halts excision activity and creates a DSB. This model explains why B cells that lack either S mu and MSH2 or UNG and MSH2 cannot undergo CSR...
  8. pmc Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination
    Janet Stavnezer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 012, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 26:261-92. 2008
    ..These proteins are important for faithful joining of S regions, and in their absence aberrant recombination and chromosomal translocations involving S regions occur...
  9. pmc Deletion of the nucleotide excision repair gene Ercc1 reduces immunoglobulin class switching and alters mutations near switch recombination junctions
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Exp Med 200:321-30. 2004
    ..The results indicate that ERCC1 is not epistatic with MMR and suggest that ERCC1 might be involved in processing or repair of DNA lesions in S regions during CSR...
  10. pmc Reassessment of the role of Mut S homolog 5 in Ig class switch recombination shows lack of involvement in cis- and trans-switching
    Jeroen E J Guikema
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 181:8450-9. 2008
    ..From these data, we conclude that Msh5 does not participate in CSR...
  11. pmc p53 represses class switch recombination to IgG2a through its antioxidant function
    Jeroen E J Guikema
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 184:6177-87. 2010
    ..Finally, we show that p53 inhibits DNA breaks and mutations in S regions in B cells undergoing CSR, suggesting that p53 inhibits the activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase...
  12. pmc The roles of APE1, APE2, DNA polymerase beta and mismatch repair in creating S region DNA breaks during antibody class switch
    Carol E Schrader
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01545, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:645-52. 2009
    ..We also show that the S region DSBs are introduced and resolved during the G1 phase of the cell cycle...
  13. pmc Shifts in targeting of class switch recombination sites in mice that lack mu switch region tandem repeats or Msh2
    Irene M Min
    Genetics Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Exp Med 201:1885-90. 2005
    ..We propose that Msh2 affects S site location because sequences with few activation-induced cytidine deaminase targets generate mostly switch DNA cleavages that require Msh2-directed processing to allow CSR joining...
  14. ncbi request reprint The ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein late SV40 factor binds Ig switch regions and represses class switching to IgA
    Elise E Drouin
    Division of Molecular Genetics, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, and Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 168:2847-56. 2002
    ..LSF interacts with both histone deacetylases and the corepressor Sin3A. We propose that LSF represses CSR by histone deacetylation of chromatin within S regions, thereby limiting accessibility to the switch recombination machinery...
  15. ncbi request reprint The Smu tandem repeat region is critical for Ig isotype switching in the absence of Msh2
    Irene M Min
    Genetics Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Immunity 19:515-24. 2003
    ..These findings help to explain the conservation of tandemly repeated switch regions associated with heavy chain constant genes in species capable of switching...

Research Grants5

  1. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Enzymes from the BER pathway will be used to treat genomic DNA from B cells induced to switch in order to detect intermediates in the repair pathway that are predicted by this model. ..
  2. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Enzymes from the BER pathway will be used to treat genomic DNA from B cells induced to switch in order to detect intermediates in the repair pathway that are predicted by this model. ..
  3. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Enzymes from the BER pathway will be used to treat genomic DNA from B cells induced to switch in order to detect intermediates in the repair pathway that are predicted by this model. ..
  4. DNA Breaks in Class Switch Recombination
    CAROL SCHRADER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Enzymes from the BER pathway will be used to treat genomic DNA from B cells induced to switch in order to detect intermediates in the repair pathway that are predicted by this model. ..