Richard Santen

Summary

Affiliation: University of Virginia
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Adaptation to estradiol deprivation causes up-regulation of growth factor pathways and hypersensitivity to estradiol in breast cancer cells
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 630:19-34. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Effects of menopausal hormonal therapy on occult breast tumors
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States Electronic address
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 137:150-6. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Occult breast tumor reservoir: biological properties and clinical significance
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 1416, USA
    Horm Cancer 4:195-207. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Modeling of the growth kinetics of occult breast tumors: role in interpretation of studies of prevention and menopausal hormone therapy
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21:1038-48. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Use of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate carcinoma
    R J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Cancer 92:2095-101. 2001
  6. doi request reprint Estrogen signals via an extra-nuclear pathway involving IGF-1R and EGFR in tamoxifen-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Steroids 74:586-94. 2009
  7. doi request reprint Potential role of ultra-sensitive estradiol assays in estimating the risk of breast cancer and fractures
    Richard J Santen
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Steroids 73:1318-21. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Superiority of gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC/MS/MS) for estradiol for monitoring of aromatase inhibitor therapy
    Richard J Santen
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Steroids 72:666-71. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Farnesylthiosalicylic acid: inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis of hormone-dependent breast cancer cells
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Anticancer Drugs 17:33-40. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Long-term estradiol deprivation in breast cancer cells up-regulates growth factor signaling and enhances estrogen sensitivity
    R J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, 450 Ray C Hunt Dr, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 12:S61-73. 2005

Research Grants

  1. ROLE OF THE CELL CYCLE IN HYPERSENSITIVITY TO ESTRADIOL
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. ROLE OF THE CELL CYCLE IN HYPERSENSITIVITY TO ESTRADIOL
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. DETERMINANTS OF TISSUE ESTRADIOL SENSITIVITY
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. DETERMINANTS OF TISSUE ESTRADIOL SENSITIVITY
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 1999
  5. DETERMINANTS OF TISSUE ESTRADIOL SENSITIVITY
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. pmc Adaptation to estradiol deprivation causes up-regulation of growth factor pathways and hypersensitivity to estradiol in breast cancer cells
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 630:19-34. 2008
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Effects of menopausal hormonal therapy on occult breast tumors
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States Electronic address
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 137:150-6. 2013
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'...
  3. doi request reprint Occult breast tumor reservoir: biological properties and clinical significance
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 1416, USA
    Horm Cancer 4:195-207. 2013
    ..Our models suggest that occult, undiagnosed tumors are prevalent, grow slowly, and are the biologic targets of a hormone therapy in menopausal women and of antiestrogen therapy for prevention...
  4. doi request reprint Modeling of the growth kinetics of occult breast tumors: role in interpretation of studies of prevention and menopausal hormone therapy
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21:1038-48. 2012
    ..88 to 1.66 cm. Modeling of the biologic behavior of these occult tumors facilitates interpretation of tamoxifen breast cancer prevention and menopausal hormone therapy studies...
  5. ncbi request reprint Use of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate carcinoma
    R J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Cancer 92:2095-101. 2001
    ..Reports of androgen receptor mutations and historic clinical observations raised the hypothesis that estrogens might be involved in the proliferation of androgen-refractory prostate carcinoma...
  6. doi request reprint Estrogen signals via an extra-nuclear pathway involving IGF-1R and EGFR in tamoxifen-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Steroids 74:586-94. 2009
    ..This effect can be abrogated by administration of the c-Src inhibitor, PP2 which also restores sensitivity to tamoxifen...
  7. doi request reprint Potential role of ultra-sensitive estradiol assays in estimating the risk of breast cancer and fractures
    Richard J Santen
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Steroids 73:1318-21. 2008
    ..With such assays, greater discrimination should be achievable when using estradiol levels as a predictor of the risks for breast cancer and for fractures...
  8. ncbi request reprint Superiority of gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC/MS/MS) for estradiol for monitoring of aromatase inhibitor therapy
    Richard J Santen
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Steroids 72:666-71. 2007
    ..Several pharmacological and clinical considerations suggest that GC/MS/MS should become the preferred method for monitoring aromatase inhibitor therapy...
  9. ncbi request reprint Farnesylthiosalicylic acid: inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis of hormone-dependent breast cancer cells
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Anticancer Drugs 17:33-40. 2006
    ..These data suggest that FTS is a promising agent to be developed for treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer...
  10. ncbi request reprint Long-term estradiol deprivation in breast cancer cells up-regulates growth factor signaling and enhances estrogen sensitivity
    R J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, 450 Ray C Hunt Dr, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 12:S61-73. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Benign breast disorders
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:275-85. 2005
  12. doi request reprint Estrogen mediation of breast tumor formation involves estrogen receptor-dependent, as well as independent, genotoxic effects
    Richard Santen
    University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1155:132-40. 2009
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that both ER-dependent and genotoxic ER-independent effects of estradiol mediate breast cancer development...
  13. doi request reprint History of aromatase: saga of an important biological mediator and therapeutic target
    R J Santen
    University of Virginia Health System, Division of Endocrinology, P O Box 801416, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Endocr Rev 30:343-75. 2009
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Adaptive hypersensitivity to estradiol: potential mechanism for secondary hormonal responses in breast cancer patients
    R Santen
    Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 800379, Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 79:115-25. 2001
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that the cell membrane ER pathway may be responsible for upregulation of MAP kinase and hypersensitivity in cells adapted to estradiol deprivation...
  15. ncbi request reprint The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in breast cancer
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 800379, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 80:239-56. 2002
    ..Additional studies are now needed to determine the precise relationship between MAP kinase activation and tumor proliferation, apoptosis, and degree of invasiveness as well as on disease free and overall survival...
  16. ncbi request reprint Treatment of urogenital atrophy with low-dose estradiol: preliminary results
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Menopause 9:179-87. 2002
    ..To determine the lowest dosage of vaginally administered estradiol (E2) that reverses signs and symptoms of urogenital atrophy but does not substantially increase plasma E2 levels...
  17. ncbi request reprint To block estrogen's synthesis or action: that is the question
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, PO Box 800379, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3007-12. 2002
  18. ncbi request reprint Adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogen: mechanism for sequential responses to hormonal therapy in breast cancer
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 10:337S-45S. 2004
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Clinical review: Effect of endocrine therapies on bone in breast cancer patients
    R J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 1416, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:308-19. 2011
    ..Recent comparative studies of these agents provide extensive data on fracture rates, bone mineral density, and markers of bone formation and resorption...
  20. doi request reprint Postmenopausal hormone therapy: an Endocrine Society scientific statement
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:s1-s66. 2010
    ..No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement...
  21. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of aromatase: insights from recent studies
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 801416, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Steroids 68:559-67. 2003
    ..The recent advances in development of the aromatase inhibitors clearly demonstrate the utility of these agents for treatment of breast cancer and potentially for other indications...
  22. ncbi request reprint Adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogen: mechanisms and clinical relevance to aromatase inhibitor therapy in breast cancer treatment
    R J Santen
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 801416, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 95:155-65. 2005
    ..We have used a new downstream inhibitor of these pathways, farnesyl-thio-salicylic acid (FTS), to block proliferation in hypersensitive cells as a model for a potentially effective strategy for treatment of patients...
  23. doi request reprint Effects of estrogen on breast cancer development: Role of estrogen receptor independent mechanisms
    Wei Yue
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Int J Cancer 127:1748-57. 2010
    ..These observations suggest 1 mechanism whereby AIs, which block E(2) synthesis, would be more effective for breast cancer prevention than use of antiestrogens, which only block ER-mediated effects...
  24. ncbi request reprint Long-term treatment with tamoxifen facilitates translocation of estrogen receptor alpha out of the nucleus and enhances its interaction with EGFR in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
    Ping Fan
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Cancer Res 67:1352-60. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that enhanced nongenomic function of ERalpha via cooperation with the EGFR pathway is one of the mechanisms responsible for acquired tamoxifen resistance...
  25. ncbi request reprint The role of adapter protein Shc in estrogen non-genomic action
    Zhenguo Zhang
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    Steroids 69:523-9. 2004
    ..In this review, the role of Shc in mediating estrogen effects on MAP Kinase regulation, cell growth and anti-apoptosis will be discussed. The possible role of PI3-kinase in estrogen rapid action is also reviewed in brief...
  26. pmc Mechanisms of resistance to structurally diverse antiestrogens differ under premenopausal and postmenopausal conditions: evidence from in vitro breast cancer cell models
    Ping Fan
    University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Department of Internal Medicine, P O Box 801416, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Endocrinology 150:2036-45. 2009
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that culture of breast cancer cells under Pre-M and PM conditions and structurally diverse antiestrogens results in adaptive responses with differing biological signatures...
  27. pmc Estrogen signaling via a linear pathway involving insulin-like growth factor I receptor, matrix metalloproteinases, and epidermal growth factor receptor to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
    Robert X D Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA
    Endocrinology 148:4091-101. 2007
    ..Together, our data support the novel view that E2 can activate a linear pathway involving the sequential activation of IGF-IR, MMP, HB-EGF, EGFR, and MAPK...
  28. pmc Estrogen utilization of IGF-1-R and EGF-R to signal in breast cancer cells
    Robert X D Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 450 Ray Hunt Dr, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 118:219-30. 2010
    ..Taken in aggregate, these studies suggest that secondary resistance to hormonal therapy results in usage of both IGF-R and EGF-R for non-genomic signaling...
  29. ncbi request reprint Effects of tetramethoxystilbene on hormone-resistant breast cancer cells: biological and biochemical mechanisms of action
    Hoyong Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Cancer Res 67:5717-26. 2007
    ..Our data suggest that TMS is a promising therapeutic agent because of its unique ability to block several pathways involved in the development of hormone resistance...
  30. ncbi request reprint Membrane association of estrogen receptor alpha mediates estrogen effect on MAPK activation
    Zhenguo Zhang
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 294:926-33. 2002
    ..Our data support the view that membrane-associated ERalpha is critical in estrogen-initiated MAPK activation...
  31. ncbi request reprint Farnesylthiosalicylic acid inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity both in cells and in vitro by promoting dissociation of the mTOR-raptor complex
    Lloyd P McMahon
    Department of Pharmacology, P O Box 800735, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 19:175-83. 2005
    ..Thus, our findings indicate that FTS represents a new type of mTOR inhibitor, which acts by dissociating the functional mTOR-raptor signaling complex...
  32. ncbi request reprint The novel Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylate, suppresses growth of prostate cancer in vitro
    Robert A McPherson
    Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Prostate 58:325-34. 2004
    ..The compound farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS), a specific antagonist of the 21 kDa Ras protein, suppresses GF signaling and it might be a useful therapy against advanced PCa...
  33. ncbi request reprint Estrogen therapy in Turner syndrome: does the type, dose and mode of delivery matter?
    Nelly Mauras
    Nemours Children s Clinic, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes at Metabolism, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 9:718-22. 2012
    ..Whether this translates into better body composition and metabolic outcomes in girls with hypogonadism is being actively investigated and data will soon be available...
  34. ncbi request reprint The oestrogen paradox: a hypothesis
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia, Charlotesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Endokrynol Pol 58:222-7. 2007
    ..These hypotheses regarding oestrogen-induced apoptosis in the short term and carcinogenesis in the long term now require rigorous verification but would serve to explain the "oestrogen paradox"...
  35. pmc The role of Shc and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in mediating the translocation of estrogen receptor alpha to the plasma membrane
    Robert X Song
    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomolecular Research Facility, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2076-81. 2004
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that Shc and IGF-1R serve as key elements in the translocation of ERalpha to the cell membrane and in the facilitation of ERalpha-mediated rapid E2 action...
  36. pmc Mechanisms of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells
    Wei Yue
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 106:102-10. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in acquired endocrine resistance and the necessity for individualized treatment of recurrent diseases...
  37. ncbi request reprint Activation of the MAPK pathway enhances sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to the mitogenic effect of estradiol
    Wei Yue
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Endocrinology 143:3221-9. 2002
    ..In support of this possibility, LTED and TGFalpha-treated wild-type cells were hypersensitive to the effects of E(2) on the key cell cycle regulator, E2F1...
  38. pmc Estrogen stimulation of cell migration involves multiple signaling pathway interactions
    Yan Li
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Virginia 22908, USA
    Endocrinology 151:5146-56. 2010
    ..Each pathway represents a potential target for blocking cell migration and metastasis of breast cancer cells...
  39. ncbi request reprint Farnesylthiosalicylic acid blocks mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in breast cancer cells
    Wei Yue
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlovttesville, VA 22903, USA
    Int J Cancer 117:746-54. 2005
    ..These later data provide support for the concept that FTS exerts its effects predominantly by blocking mTOR and to a lesser effect by inhibition of MAP kinase in breast cancer cells...
  40. ncbi request reprint Histologic changes in the breast with menopausal hormone therapy use: correlation with breast density, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and proliferation indices
    Jennifer A Harvey
    Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Menopause 15:67-73. 2008
    ..This retrospective study systematically compared mammographic density with histology in women receiving or not receiving menopausal hormone therapy (HT)...
  41. ncbi request reprint Linkage of rapid estrogen action to MAPK activation by ERalpha-Shc association and Shc pathway activation
    Robert X D Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 16:116-27. 2002
    ..The E2-induced morphological changes were prevented by antiestrogen. Together our results demonstrate that ERalpha can mediate the rapid effects of E2 on Shc, MAPK, Elk-1, and morphological changes in breast cancer cells..
  42. ncbi request reprint Estrogen rapid action via protein complex formation involving ERalpha and Src
    Robert X D Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 16:347-53. 2005
    ..Understanding the mechanisms underlying these relationships, with the aim of abrogating specific steps, should lead to more targeted strategies to treat hormone-dependent breast cancer...
  43. ncbi request reprint Membrane initiated estrogen signaling in breast cancer
    Robert X D Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA
    Biol Reprod 75:9-16. 2006
    ..A full understanding of the mechanisms underlying these relationships, with the ultimate aim of abrogating specific steps, should lead to more-targeted strategies for treatment of hormone dependent-breast cancer...
  44. ncbi request reprint Role of receptor complexes in the extranuclear actions of estrogen receptor alpha in breast cancer
    Robert X D Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 13:S3-13. 2006
    ..A full understanding of the mechanisms underlying these relationships with the ultimate aim of abrogating specific steps, should lead to more targeted strategies for treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer...
  45. ncbi request reprint The estrogen paradox
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 1416, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:496-7. 2007
  46. ncbi request reprint Adaptive hypersensitivity following long-term estrogen deprivation: involvement of multiple signal pathways
    Wei Yue
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, PO Box 801416, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 86:265-74. 2003
    ..Our data suggest that in addition to the MAP kinase pathway, activation of the PI3 kinase pathway is involved in E2 hypersensitivity, which develops during adaptation of MCF-7 cells to the low estrogen environment...
  47. ncbi request reprint Recombinant cell ultrasensitive bioassay for measurement of estrogens in postmenopausal women
    Shuping Wang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 801416, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1407-13. 2005
    ..These results provide validation for the RCUB in postmenopausal women and suggest that it might prove useful for selection of women for drug therapy to prevent breast cancer...
  48. ncbi request reprint Tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer prevention
    Wei Yue
    University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 11:925s-30s. 2005
    ..These findings support the possibility that aromatase inhibitors might be more effective than antiestrogens in preventing breast cancer...
  49. ncbi request reprint Risk of breast cancer with progestins: critical assessment of current data
    Richard J Santen
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 801416, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Steroids 68:953-64. 2003
    ..However, we conclude from our analysis that the burden of proof regarding progestins has now shifted. One must now prove that an estrogen/progestin combination is safe with respect to breast cancer rather than having to prove it harmful...
  50. ncbi request reprint Menopausal hormone therapies: their effect on mammographic density and breast cancer risk
    Richard Santen
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA
    Gynecol Endocrinol 21:12-6. 2005
    ..Mammographic breast density therefore needs to be examined in further detail in order to better assess the risks of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and further individualize prescribing practices...
  51. pmc Development of a high sensitivity, nested Q-PCR assay for mouse and human aromatase
    Gui jian Liu
    Department of Internal Medicine and Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 111:343-51. 2008
    ..The human assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect aromatase in a single human JAR (choriocarcinoma) cell, in all breast biopsies measured, and in 7/23 ductal lavage fluids...
  52. ncbi request reprint Critical assessment of new risk factors for breast cancer: considerations for development of an improved risk prediction model
    Richard J Santen
    Department of Internal Medicine Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 801416, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 14:169-87. 2007
    ..The BCPCG analyzed potentially available clinical material from previous prospective studies and determined that a large case/control study to evaluate these new factors might be feasible at this time...
  53. ncbi request reprint MICoA, a novel metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) interacting protein coactivator, regulates estrogen receptor-alpha transactivation functions
    Sandip K Mishra
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:19209-19. 2003
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Recent Advances and Future Directions in Endocrine Manipulation of Breast Cancer: conference summary statement
    Steven E Come
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 10:327S-330S. 2004
  55. pmc CYP1B1 is not a major determinant of the disposition of aromatase inhibitors in epithelial cells of invasive ductal carcinoma
    Mostafizur Rahman
    W Harry Feinstone Center for Genomic Research, University of Memphis, 201 Life Sciences Building, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 36:963-70. 2008
    ..Thus, although both CYP19 and CYP1B1 are expressed in a high percentage of breast cancers, CYP1B1 is not a major determinant of the disposition of AIs...
  56. ncbi request reprint Standardization of steroid hormone assays: why, how, and when?
    Frank Z Stanczyk
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Women s and Children s Hospital, Room 1M2, 1240 North Mission Road, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1713-9. 2007
    ..These criteria would allow validation of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of current steroid hormone assay methodology and provide surrogates until a true gold standard can be developed...
  57. ncbi request reprint Long-term exposure to tamoxifen induces hypersensitivity to estradiol
    Lev M Berstein
    Laboratory of Oncoendocrinology, N N Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny, St Petersburg, Russia
    Clin Cancer Res 10:1530-4. 2004
    ..These studies provide evidence that long-term TAM exposure enhances sensitivity to the estrogenic effects of TAM and also to E(2) itself...
  58. ncbi request reprint Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer after chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea: caution and suggested guidelines
    Ian E Smith
    Royal Marsden Hospital Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 24:2444-7. 2006
    ..Their use is sometimes extended to younger women after chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea; we have audited this in one institution's breast unit, and we propose guidelines for use in such circumstances...
  59. pmc Demethylation of promoter C region of estrogen receptor alpha gene is correlated with its enhanced expression in estrogen-ablation resistant MCF-7 cells
    Tetsuya Sogon
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 5 2, Hijiyama Park, Minami Ku, Hiroshima 732 0815, Japan
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 105:106-14. 2007
    ..Our findings imply that demethylation of promoter C region in the ERalpha gene is in part responsible for the enhanced expression of ERalpha gene in LTED cells...
  60. ncbi request reprint Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances and Future Directions in Endocrine Manipulation of Breast Cancer: conference summary statement
    Steven E Come
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 11:861s-4s. 2005
  61. ncbi request reprint Hot flashes: the old and the new, what is really true?
    Lorraine A Fitzpatrick
    Mayo Clin Proc 77:1155-8. 2002
  62. ncbi request reprint Innovative endocrinology of cancer. Preface
    Lev M Berstein
    Adv Exp Med Biol 630:v. 2008

Research Grants22

  1. ROLE OF THE CELL CYCLE IN HYPERSENSITIVITY TO ESTRADIOL
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A clinical trial in women, which is designed to specifically demonstrate that high dose estrogen induces tumor regression through the mechanism of apoptosis will be conducted. ..
  2. ROLE OF THE CELL CYCLE IN HYPERSENSITIVITY TO ESTRADIOL
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. DETERMINANTS OF TISSUE ESTRADIOL SENSITIVITY
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The applicant expects these studies to be the basis for future clinical trials. ..
  4. DETERMINANTS OF TISSUE ESTRADIOL SENSITIVITY
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  5. DETERMINANTS OF TISSUE ESTRADIOL SENSITIVITY
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..FTS, a novel mTOR inhibitor will be used in vitro to activate the stress kinase pathway and apoptosis. In vivo, FTS will be used to enhance estradiol induced apoptosis in nude mice. ..