Richard Santen


Affiliation: University of Virginia
Country: USA


  1. Santen R, Song R, Masamura S, Yue W, Fan P, Sogon T, et al. Adaptation to estradiol deprivation causes up-regulation of growth factor pathways and hypersensitivity to estradiol in breast cancer cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;630:19-34 pubmed
  2. Santen R, Yue W, Wang J. Estrogen metabolites and breast cancer. Steroids. 2015;99:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, delayed the onset of tumor formation. Taken together, these data support a role for estradiol metabolism as one of the components in the development of experimental breast cancer. ..
  3. Santen R. Clinical review: Effect of endocrine therapies on bone in breast cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with breast cancer exerts substantial effects on bone, and guidelines are available to assist in the management of bone-related problems. ..
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    Santen R, Lynch A, Neal L, McPherson R, Yue W. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid: inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis of hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2006;17:33-40 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that FTS is a promising agent to be developed for treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. ..
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    Santen R, Pinkerton J, Conaway M, Ropka M, Wisniewski L, Demers L, et al. Treatment of urogenital atrophy with low-dose estradiol: preliminary results. Menopause. 2002;9:179-87 pubmed
    ..Circulating E2 levels remained within the postmenopausal range of 3-10 pg/mL. A 10-microg dose of vaginal E2 effectively treated urogenital atrophy in seven women and did not cause endometrial hyperplasia or increase E2 levels. ..
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    Santen R, Song R, Zhang Z, Kumar R, Jeng M, Masamura A, et al. Long-term estradiol deprivation in breast cancer cells up-regulates growth factor signaling and enhances estrogen sensitivity. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005;12 Suppl 1:S61-73 pubmed
  7. Santen R, Radisky D, Degnim A, Frost M, Vachon C, Ghosh K, et al. Aromatase expression in atypical ductal hyperplasia in women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017;163:623-629 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest from these studies that overexpression of aromatase in breast tissue and its resultant increase in estradiol levels may contribute to the later development of breast cancer in women with ADH. ..
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    Santen R, Song R, Zhang Z, Yue W, Kumar R. Adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogen: mechanism for sequential responses to hormonal therapy in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:337S-45S pubmed
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    Santen R, Mansel R. Benign breast disorders. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:275-85 pubmed

More Information


  1. Santen R, Song Y, Wang J, Yue W. Preclinical breast effects of a tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) including conjugated estrogen with bazedoxifene. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;170:61-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a rationale for future clinical studies to determine whether this TSEC prevents the growth of occult breast cancer in women. ..