Kenneth Rock

Summary

Affiliation: University of Massachusetts Medical School
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Re-examining class-I presentation and the DRiP hypothesis
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA Electronic address
    Trends Immunol 35:144-52. 2014
  2. pmc Mice completely lacking immunoproteasomes show major changes in antigen presentation
    Eleanor Z Kincaid
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 13:129-35. 2012
  3. doi request reprint The sterile inflammatory response
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 28:321-42. 2010
  4. pmc Proteases in MHC class I presentation and cross-presentation
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 184:9-15. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Cross-presentation: underlying mechanisms and role in immune surveillance
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunol Rev 207:166-83. 2005
  6. pmc The inflammatory response to cell death
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 3:99-126. 2008
  7. pmc Innate and adaptive immune responses to cell death
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunol Rev 243:191-205. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Natural endogenous adjuvants
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Springer Semin Immunopathol 26:231-46. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the role of bleomycin hydrolase in antigen presentation and the generation of CD8 T cell responses
    Charles F Towne
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 178:6923-30. 2007
  10. pmc Characterizing the specificity and cooperation of aminopeptidases in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum during MHC class I antigen presentation
    Arron Hearn
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 184:4725-32. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi request reprint Re-examining class-I presentation and the DRiP hypothesis
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA Electronic address
    Trends Immunol 35:144-52. 2014
    ..Here, we critically examine the DRiP hypothesis and discuss recent studies indicating that antigenic peptides are generated from the entire proteome and not just from failures in protein synthesis or folding. ..
  2. pmc Mice completely lacking immunoproteasomes show major changes in antigen presentation
    Eleanor Z Kincaid
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 13:129-35. 2012
    ..These results indicated that immunoproteasomes were more important in antigen presentation than previously thought...
  3. doi request reprint The sterile inflammatory response
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 28:321-42. 2010
    ..Here we review established and emerging data about these responses...
  4. pmc Proteases in MHC class I presentation and cross-presentation
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 184:9-15. 2010
    ..The Ag presentation mechanisms used by the sentinel cells can be different from those in other cells. This article will review these mechanisms with a focus in each case on how antigenic peptides are generated for presentation...
  5. ncbi request reprint Cross-presentation: underlying mechanisms and role in immune surveillance
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunol Rev 207:166-83. 2005
    ..In addition to the critical role of cross-presentation in normal immune physiology, this pathway has considerable potential for being exploited for developing subunit vaccines that elicit both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell immunity...
  6. pmc The inflammatory response to cell death
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 3:99-126. 2008
    ..Here we review what is presently known about the sterile inflammatory response and its underlying mechanisms...
  7. pmc Innate and adaptive immune responses to cell death
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunol Rev 243:191-205. 2011
    ..These pathways underlie the pathogenesis of a number of diseases...
  8. ncbi request reprint Natural endogenous adjuvants
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Springer Semin Immunopathol 26:231-46. 2005
    ..The potential biological roles of this class of adjuvants are discussed...
  9. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the role of bleomycin hydrolase in antigen presentation and the generation of CD8 T cell responses
    Charles F Towne
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 178:6923-30. 2007
    ..Therefore, BH does influence presentation of some Ags, although its role is largely redundant with other aminopeptidases...
  10. pmc Characterizing the specificity and cooperation of aminopeptidases in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum during MHC class I antigen presentation
    Arron Hearn
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 184:4725-32. 2010
    ..Because N-terminal trimming has different specificity in the cytosol and ER, the cleavage of peptides in both of these compartments serves to broaden the repertoire of sequences that are presented...
  11. ncbi request reprint Leucine aminopeptidase is not essential for trimming peptides in the cytosol or generating epitopes for MHC class I antigen presentation
    Charles F Towne
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 175:6605-14. 2005
    ..These data demonstrate that LAP is not an essential enzyme for generating most MHC class I-presented peptides and reveal redundancy in the function of cellular aminopeptidases...
  12. pmc The specificity of trimming of MHC class I-presented peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum
    Arron Hearn
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 183:5526-36. 2009
    ..These data define key determinants in the specificity of Ag processing...
  13. doi request reprint Analysis of the role of tripeptidyl peptidase II in MHC class I antigen presentation in vivo
    Masahiro Kawahara
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 183:6069-77. 2009
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint The cytosolic endopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase, destroys antigenic peptides and limits the extent of MHC class I antigen presentation
    Ian A York
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunity 18:429-40. 2003
    ..TOP therefore plays an important role in vivo in degrading peptides released by proteasomes and is a significant factor limiting the extent of antigen presentation...
  15. ncbi request reprint Both dendritic cells and macrophages can stimulate naive CD8 T cells in vivo to proliferate, develop effector function, and differentiate into memory cells
    Lu Ann M Pozzi
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 175:2071-81. 2005
    ..Because Mphi can be very abundant cells, especially at sites of infection and inflammation, they have the potential to play an important role in immune surveillance and the initiation of T cell immunity...
  16. ncbi request reprint Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase limits MHC class I presentation in dendritic cells but does not affect CD8 T cell responses during viral infections
    Charles F Towne
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 180:1704-12. 2008
    ....
  17. pmc Identification of the cellular sensor that stimulates the inflammatory response to sterile cell death
    Hajime Kono
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 184:4470-8. 2010
    ..One key way they accomplish this important task is by producing IL-1alpha that is needed to initiate the inflammatory response...
  18. ncbi request reprint Cutting edge: elimination of an endogenous adjuvant reduces the activation of CD8 T lymphocytes to transplanted cells and in an autoimmune diabetes model
    Yan Shi
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA
    J Immunol 176:3905-8. 2006
    ..These findings support the concept that danger signals contribute to the T cell responses to cell-associated Ags by activating APCs and identify uric acid as one of these signals...
  19. pmc Cellular protein is the source of cross-priming antigen in vivo
    Lianjun Shen
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3035-40. 2004
    ..Therefore, cellular proteins, rather than peptides or heat shock protein/peptide complexes, are the major source of antigen that is transferred from antigen-bearing cells and cross-presented in vivo...
  20. ncbi request reprint The ER aminopeptidase ERAP1 enhances or limits antigen presentation by trimming epitopes to 8-9 residues
    Ian A York
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1177-84. 2002
    ..However, after interferon-gamma treatment, which causes proteasomes to produce more NH2-extended antigenic precursors, ERAP1 increased the supply of peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation...
  21. pmc Uric acid promotes an acute inflammatory response to sterile cell death in mice
    Hajime Kono
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:1939-49. 2010
    ..Collectively, our data identify uric acid as a proinflammatory molecule released from dying cells that contributes significantly to the cell death-induced inflammatory responses in vivo...
  22. ncbi request reprint Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells
    Yan Shi
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Nature 425:516-21. 2003
    ..Our findings provide a molecular link between cell injury and immunity and have important implications for vaccines, autoimmunity and inflammation...
  23. ncbi request reprint CD40-CD40 ligand interaction between dendritic cells and CD8+ T cells is needed to stimulate maximal T cell responses in the absence of CD4+ T cell help
    Maria Genevive H Hernandez
    Department of Pathology and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 178:2844-52. 2007
    ..Altogether, these results reveal a direct and unique role for CD40L on CD8+ T cells interacting with CD40 on APCs that affects the magnitude and quality of CD8+ T cell responses...
  24. ncbi request reprint Exiting the outside world for cross-presentation
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Immunity 25:523-5. 2006
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Post-proteasomal antigen processing for major histocompatibility complex class I presentation
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:670-7. 2004
    ..Thus, the extent of antigen presentation depends on the balance between several proteolytic processes that may generate or destroy epitopes...
  26. ncbi request reprint Tripeptidyl peptidase II is the major peptidase needed to trim long antigenic precursors, but is not required for most MHC class I antigen presentation
    Ian A York
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 177:1434-43. 2006
    ..Moreover, these findings reveal that three sequential proteolytic steps (by proteasomes, TPPII, and then ER aminopepsidase 1) are required for the generation of a subset of epitopes...
  27. pmc Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) trims MHC class I-presented peptides in vivo and plays an important role in immunodominance
    Ian A York
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9202-7. 2006
    ..Moreover, peptide trimming and the resulting abundance of peptide-MHC complexes are dominant factors in establishing immunodominance...
  28. ncbi request reprint Priming of T cells by exogenous antigen cross-presented on MHC class I molecules
    Lianjun Shen
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 18:85-91. 2006
    ..This pathway is of considerable interest because it has an important role in the immune surveillance of tissues for pathogens and cancers...
  29. ncbi request reprint A mutant cell with a novel defect in MHC class I quality control
    Ian A York
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, 01655, USA
    J Immunol 174:6839-46. 2005
    ..The 4S8.12 cells provide strong genetic evidence for a novel component in the MHC class I pathway. This as-yet unidentified gene is important in early assembly of primate, but not mouse, MHC class I complexes...
  30. pmc How dying cells alert the immune system to danger
    Hajime Kono
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:279-89. 2008
    ..The importance of these processes to host defence and disease pathogenesis has only been appreciated relatively recently. This article reviews our current knowledge of these processes...
  31. ncbi request reprint CD40 on APCs is needed for optimal programming, maintenance, and recall of CD8+ T cell memory even in the absence of CD4+ T cell help
    Maria Genevive H Hernandez
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 180:4382-90. 2008
    ..Therefore, CD40 signaling on APCs plays an important role in all phases of a memory CD8(+) T cell response...
  32. ncbi request reprint Protein degradation and the generation of MHC class I-presented peptides
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Adv Immunol 80:1-70. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Cell death releases endogenous adjuvants that selectively enhance immune surveillance of particulate antigens
    Yan Shi
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, USA
    Eur J Immunol 32:155-62. 2002
    ..This process will allow the immune system to rapidly detect and respond to viral infections and tumors...
  34. pmc NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals
    Peter Duewell
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nature 464:1357-61. 2010
    ..These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease...
  35. pmc MyD88-dependent IL-1 receptor signaling is essential for gouty inflammation stimulated by monosodium urate crystals
    Chun Jen Chen
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:2262-71. 2006
    ..These results indicate that IL-1 is essential for the MSU-induced inflammatory response and that the requirement of MyD88 in this process is primarily through its function as an adaptor molecule in the IL-1R signaling pathway...
  36. ncbi request reprint Identification of a key pathway required for the sterile inflammatory response triggered by dying cells
    Chun Jen Chen
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Room S2 109, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Nat Med 13:851-6. 2007
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Important role of cathepsin S in generating peptides for TAP-independent MHC class I crosspresentation in vivo
    Lianjun Shen
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Immunity 21:155-65. 2004
    ..Therefore, cathepsin S plays a major role in generating presented peptides for the vacuolar pathway of crosspresentation, and this mechanism is active in vivo...
  38. pmc Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization
    Veit Hornung
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:847-56. 2008
    ..Our results indicate that the NALP3 inflammasome senses lysosomal damage as an endogenous 'danger' signal...
  39. ncbi request reprint Pillars article: antigen presentation by hapten-specific B lymphocytes. I. Role of surface immunoglobulin receptors. 1984
    Kenneth L Rock
    J Immunol 179:7194-205. 2007
  40. ncbi request reprint The ins and outs of cross-presentation
    Kenneth L Rock
    Nat Immunol 4:941-3. 2003
  41. ncbi request reprint An IFN-gamma-induced aminopeptidase in the ER, ERAP1, trims precursors to MHC class I-presented peptides
    Tomo Saric
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1169-76. 2002
    ..Like other proteins involved in antigen presentation, ERAP1 is induced by interferon-gamma. When overexpressed in vivo, we found that ERAP1 stimulates the processing and presentation of an antigenic precursor in the ER...
  42. ncbi request reprint The importance of the proteasome and subsequent proteolytic steps in the generation of antigenic peptides
    Alfred L Goldberg
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Immunol 39:147-64. 2002
    ..If cells express large amounts of TOP, class I presentation decreases, and if TOP is inhibited, presentation increases. Thus, peptide degradation in the cytosol appears to limit the efficiency of antigen presentation...
  43. ncbi request reprint Characterization of a proapoptotic antiganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody and evaluation of its therapeutic effect on melanoma and small cell lung carcinoma xenografts
    Marc W Retter
    Antigen Discovery and Preclinical Biology, Corixa Corporation, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Cancer Res 65:6425-34. 2005
    ..Therefore, monoclonal antibody DMF10.167.4 has immunotherapeutic potential...

Research Grants31

  1. VACCINE STRATEGIES FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In addition they will examine whether these manipulations lead to more effective immunotherapy due to stronger responses or by preventing tumors from evading immune responses. ..
  2. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our underlying hypothesis is that cell injury results in the release of MSU that then provides a danger signal, which stimulates immune responses to co-released autoantigens in genetically susceptible hosts. ..
  3. Immunobiology of Antigen Presenting Cells in Vivo
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The goals of this Aim are to test these hypotheses and determine the underlying mechanism for the loss APCs. ..
  4. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF MHC RESTRICTION OF T CELLS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  5. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our underlying hypothesis is that cell injury results in the release of MSU that then provides a danger signal, which stimulates immune responses to co-released autoantigens in genetically susceptible hosts. ..
  6. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF MHC RESTRICTION OF T-CELLS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The information gained by the proposed studies may lead to a better ability to predict and monitor immune responses to viruses and cancers and ultimately aid in the development of vaccines for these diseases. ..
  7. How cell death and sterile particulates stimulate inflammation and disease
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The information gained by the proposed studies may lead to new treatments to block the inflammatory response and thereby prevent or treat diseases. ..
  8. Immunobiology of CTL Responses to Exogenous Antigen
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The information gained by the proposed studies may lead to a better ability to predict and monitor immune responses to viruses and cancers and ultimately aid in the development of vaccines for these diseases. ..
  9. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF MHC RESTRICTION OF T-CELLS
    Kenneth L Rock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The information gained by the proposed studies may lead to a better ability to predict and monitor immune responses to viruses and cancers and ultimately aid in the development of vaccines for these diseases. ..
  10. How cell death and sterile particulates stimulate inflammation and disease
    Kenneth L Rock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The information gained by the proposed studies may lead to new treatments to block the inflammatory response and thereby prevent or treat diseases. ..
  11. Immunobiology of Antigen Presenting Cells in Vivo
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The goals of this Aim are to test these hypotheses and determine the underlying mechanism for the loss APCs. ..
  12. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our underlying hypothesis is that cell injury results in the release of MSU that then provides a danger signal, which stimulates immune responses to co-released autoantigens in genetically susceptible hosts. ..
  13. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our underlying hypothesis is that cell injury results in the release of MSU that then provides a danger signal, which stimulates immune responses to co-released autoantigens in genetically susceptible hosts. ..
  14. VACCINE STRATEGIES FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In addition they will examine whether these manipulations lead to more effective immunotherapy due to stronger responses or by preventing tumors from evading immune responses. ..
  15. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..g. cannot be infected with a virus) and when animals lack the exogenous pathway of presentation. We will also examine the importance of MHC class II presentation and costimulation in the generating responses in these settings. ..
  16. VACCINE STRATEGIES FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition they will examine whether these manipulations lead to more effective immunotherapy due to stronger responses or by preventing tumors from evading immune responses. ..
  17. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..g. cannot be infected with a virus) and when animals lack the exogenous pathway of presentation. We will also examine the importance of MHC class II presentation and costimulation in the generating responses in these settings. ..
  18. Antibody Immunotherapy to a Pro-apoptotic Tumor Antigen
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In another set of experiments, we will test the effect of p40 on human tumors transplanted into immunodeficient mice. ..
  19. VACCINE STRATEGIES FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition they will examine whether these manipulations lead to more effective immunotherapy due to stronger responses or by preventing tumors from evading immune responses. ..
  20. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..g. cannot be infected with a virus) and when animals lack the exogenous pathway of presentation. We will also examine the importance of MHC class II presentation and costimulation in the generating responses in these settings. ..
  21. Immunobiology of Antigen Presenting Cells in Vivo
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The goals of this Aim are to test these hypotheses and determine the underlying mechanism for the loss APCs. ..
  22. Antibody Immunotherapy to a Pro-apoptotic Tumor Antigen
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In another set of experiments, we will test the effect of p40 on human tumors transplanted into immunodeficient mice. ..
  23. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CTL RESPONSES TO EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g. cannot be infected with a virus) and when animals lack the exogenous pathway of presentation. We will also examine the importance of MHC class II presentation and costimulation in the generating responses in these settings. ..
  24. Immunobiology of Antigen Presenting Cells in Vivo
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The goals of this Aim are to test these hypotheses and determine the underlying mechanism for the loss APCs. ..
  25. Immunobiology of Antigen Presenting Cells in Vivo
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The goals of this Aim are to test these hypotheses and determine the underlying mechanism for the loss APCs. ..
  26. Antibody Immunotherapy to a Pro-apoptotic Tumor Antigen
    Kenneth Rock; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In another set of experiments, we will test the effect of p40 on human tumors transplanted into immunodeficient mice. ..
  27. Immunobiology of CTL Responses to Exogenous Antigen
    Kenneth L Rock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The information gained by the proposed studies may lead to a better ability to predict and monitor immune responses to viruses and cancers and ultimately aid in the development of vaccines for these diseases. ..