Jacques Robert

Summary

Affiliation: University of Rochester
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic conservation of glycoprotein 96 ability to interact with CD91 and facilitate antigen cross-presentation
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 180:3176-82. 2008
  2. pmc Novel nonclassical MHC class Ib genes associated with CD8 T cell development and thymic tumors
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Mol Immunol 46:1775-86. 2009
  3. pmc Colony-stimulating factor-1-responsive macrophage precursors reside in the amphibian (Xenopus laevis) bone marrow rather than the hematopoietic subcapsular liver
    Leon Grayfer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, N Y, USA
    J Innate Immun 5:531-42. 2013
  4. ncbi request reprint Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae
    Eva Stina Edholm
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA
    Immunogenetics 66:411-26. 2014
  5. ncbi request reprint Localization and differential expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the amphibian Xenopus upon antigen stimulation and during early development
    Shauna Marr
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 179:6783-9. 2007
  6. pmc The amphibian (Xenopus laevis) type I interferon response to frog virus 3: new insight into ranavirus pathogenicity
    Leon Grayfer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    J Virol 88:5766-77. 2014
  7. pmc Susceptibility of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to infection by the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 correlates with a reduced and delayed innate immune response in comparison with adult frogs
    Francisco De Jesús Andino
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Virology 432:435-43. 2012
  8. ncbi request reprint Anti-tumor MHC class Ia-unrestricted CD8 T cell cytotoxicity elicited by the heat shock protein gp96
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Eur J Immunol 34:2449-58. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Involvement of nonclassical MHC class Ib molecules in heat shock protein-mediated anti-tumor responses
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:1494-501. 2007
  10. pmc Hsp72 mediates stronger antigen-dependent non-classical MHC class Ib anti-tumor responses than hsc73 in Xenopus laevis
    Hristina Nedelkovska
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Cancer Immun 13:4. 2013

Collaborators

  • Nicholas Cohen
  • Leon Grayfer
  • Guangchun Chen
  • Yuko Ohta
  • Gregory D Maniero
  • Andrea Bottaro
  • EDITH LORD
  • V Gregory Chinchar
  • Rebecca Stewart
  • Steven R Gill
  • Harold C Smith
  • Joseph E Wedekind
  • Martin Flajnik
  • Ana Goyos
  • Hristina Nedelkovska
  • Eva Stina Edholm
  • Jennifer Gantress
  • Heidi D Morales
  • Francisco De Jesús Andino
  • Shauna Marr
  • Thaminda Ramanayake
  • Nikesha Haynes-Gilmore
  • Nikesha Haynes
  • Heidi Morales
  • Asiya Seema Chida
  • Jessica Sowa
  • Laura Rau
  • Sergey Guselnikov
  • Sergey V Guselnikov
  • Michelle M Appenheimer
  • Valérie Le Morvan
  • H Travis Ichikawa
  • Alexander M Najakshin
  • Alexander V Taranin
  • Jacques Bonnet
  • Armelle Laurand
  • Sergei V Guselnikov
  • Trudy L Horton
  • Alisa Bell
  • Maureen Banach
  • Valerie Pavillard
  • Joseph Taran
  • Jason R Myers
  • Ann L Gill
  • Liz Marie Albertorio Saez
  • Zhenghui Li
  • Lara Abramowitz
  • Ashley Vogel
  • Jacqueline Gertz
  • Aleksandra Y Erilova
  • Ludmila V Mechetina
  • Sanjay B Maggirwar
  • Frank Ridgley
  • John G Frelinger
  • Katherine C Bankert
  • Bernd Kaspers
  • Michelle Cooper
  • Heinz Baumann
  • Joy Hardison
  • Lynn F Sniderhan
  • Sharon S Evans
  • Wan Chao Wang
  • Qing Chen
  • Sonja Kothlow
  • David A L Simon
  • Stefan Rose-John
  • Edward J Sarcione
  • Asiya S Chida
  • Sandra Buitrago
  • Mark D Bain
  • Rachael A Girard
  • Pinwei Huang
  • Shauna H Marr
  • Ricardo Bellott
  • Simone Mathoulin-Pelissier
  • Mark P Sowden
  • François Moisan
  • Geoffrey S C Dance
  • Andrew T Torelli
  • Jurgen Bachl
  • Emilienne Soma
  • Sylvie Huet
  • Annick Larrue
  • Audrey Laroche-Clary
  • John D Horton
  • Pamela Ritchie
  • Alma Muharemagic
  • Martin D Watson
  • Virginie Charasson
  • Trudy Horton

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic conservation of glycoprotein 96 ability to interact with CD91 and facilitate antigen cross-presentation
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 180:3176-82. 2008
    ..The persistence of this biological process for >350 million years that separate mammals and amphibians from a common ancestor strongly supports the proposition that gp96 and CD91 are critically involved in immune surveillance...
  2. pmc Novel nonclassical MHC class Ib genes associated with CD8 T cell development and thymic tumors
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Mol Immunol 46:1775-86. 2009
    ..These data provide the first evidence of the expression of any class Ib genes in Xenopus larvae, and suggests evolutionary relationships between certain class Ib genes, malignancy and CD8 T cell ontogeny...
  3. pmc Colony-stimulating factor-1-responsive macrophage precursors reside in the amphibian (Xenopus laevis) bone marrow rather than the hematopoietic subcapsular liver
    Leon Grayfer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, N Y, USA
    J Innate Immun 5:531-42. 2013
    ..Together, our findings indicate that in contrast to all other vertebrates studied to date, committed Xenopus macrophage precursor populations are not present at the central site of hematopoiesis, but reside in the bone marrow. ..
  4. ncbi request reprint Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae
    Eva Stina Edholm
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA
    Immunogenetics 66:411-26. 2014
    ..This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians...
  5. ncbi request reprint Localization and differential expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the amphibian Xenopus upon antigen stimulation and during early development
    Shauna Marr
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 179:6783-9. 2007
    ..This study highlights the conserved involvement of XlAID during Ag-dependent B cell responses in Xenopus but also suggests another role in B cell differentiation earlier in ontogeny...
  6. pmc The amphibian (Xenopus laevis) type I interferon response to frog virus 3: new insight into ranavirus pathogenicity
    Leon Grayfer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    J Virol 88:5766-77. 2014
    ....
  7. pmc Susceptibility of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to infection by the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 correlates with a reduced and delayed innate immune response in comparison with adult frogs
    Francisco De Jesús Andino
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Virology 432:435-43. 2012
    ..Furthermore, greater proportions of larval than adult PLs were infected by FV3. Our study suggests that tadpole susceptibility to FV3 infection is partially due to poor virus-elicited innate immune responses...
  8. ncbi request reprint Anti-tumor MHC class Ia-unrestricted CD8 T cell cytotoxicity elicited by the heat shock protein gp96
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Eur J Immunol 34:2449-58. 2004
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Involvement of nonclassical MHC class Ib molecules in heat shock protein-mediated anti-tumor responses
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:1494-501. 2007
    ..This study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence of the evolutionary conservation of class Ib involvement in anti-tumor CD8+ T cell responses...
  10. pmc Hsp72 mediates stronger antigen-dependent non-classical MHC class Ib anti-tumor responses than hsc73 in Xenopus laevis
    Hristina Nedelkovska
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Cancer Immun 13:4. 2013
    ..These results suggest that hsp72 can stimulate class Ib-mediated immune responses and represents a promising candidate for immunotherapy against malignancies with downregulated class Ia expression...
  11. ncbi request reprint CD91 up-regulates upon immune stimulation in Xenopus adult but not larval peritoneal leukocytes
    Shauna Marr
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA
    Immunogenetics 56:735-42. 2005
    ..These data are in agreement with a conserved role of CD91 in immunity...
  12. pmc Remarkable conservation of distinct nonclassical MHC class I lineages in divergent amphibian species
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 186:372-81. 2011
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Xenopus as an experimental model for studying evolution of hsp--immune system interactions
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Methods 32:42-53. 2004
    ..Finally, techniques to study modalities of expression of the endoplasmic reticulum resident gp96 at the cell surface of tumor and normal lymphocytes are considered...
  14. pmc Phylogenetic and developmental study of CD4, CD8 α and β T cell co-receptor homologs in two amphibian species, Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis
    Asiya Seema Chida
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 35:366-77. 2011
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Xenopus, a unique comparative model to explore the role of certain heat shock proteins and non-classical MHC class Ib gene products in immune surveillance
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA
    Immunol Res 45:114-22. 2009
    ..In addition to a transplantable lymphoid tumor in genetically defined cloned Xenopus, we are generating transgenic frogs with inducible or knocked-down (RNAi) gene expression...
  16. ncbi request reprint Adaptive immunity and histopathology in frog virus 3-infected Xenopus
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Virology 332:667-75. 2005
    ....
  17. pmc Innate immune responses and permissiveness to ranavirus infection of peritoneal leukocytes in the frog Xenopus laevis
    Heidi D Morales
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Virol 84:4912-22. 2010
    ..This suggests that although PLs are actively involved in anti-FV3 immune responses, some of these cells can be permissive and harbor quiescent, asymptomatic FV3...
  18. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of Xenopus CD8+ T cells expressing an NK cell-associated molecule
    Laura Rau
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Eur J Immunol 32:1574-83. 2002
    ..Taken together, these new data suggest that regulation of CD8+ T cell activity involving NK cell-associated molecules is a general and evolutionarily ancient phenomenon...
  19. pmc Comparative and developmental study of the immune system in Xenopus
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    Dev Dyn 238:1249-70. 2009
    ..laevis and S. tropicalis, as well as the whole Xenopus genus. Developmental Dynamics 238:1249-1270, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  20. ncbi request reprint Xenopus laevis: a possible vector of Ranavirus infection?
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:645-52. 2007
    ..These results suggest that FV3 can become quiescent in resistant species such as Xenopus, thereby making these species potential viral reservoirs...
  21. pmc Antiviral immunity in amphibians
    Guangchun Chen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Viruses 3:2065-86. 2011
    ....
  22. pmc Characterization of primary and memory CD8 T-cell responses against ranavirus (FV3) in Xenopus laevis
    Heidi D Morales
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Virol 81:2240-8. 2007
    ..These results provide in vivo evidence of protective antigen-dependent CD8+ T-cell proliferation, recognition, and memory in fighting a natural pathogen in Xenopus...
  23. pmc The genus Xenopus as a multispecies model for evolutionary and comparative immunobiology of the 21st century
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, United States
    Dev Comp Immunol 35:916-23. 2011
    ..We also discuss the rich potential of the species with different degrees of polypoidy resulting from whole genome-wide duplication of the Xenopodinae subfamily as a model to study regulation at the genome level...
  24. pmc Bacterial stimulation upregulates the surface expression of the stress protein gp96 on B cells in the frog Xenopus
    Heidi Morales
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Cell Stress Chaperones 8:265-71. 2003
    ....
  25. pmc Immune evasion strategies of ranaviruses and innate immune responses to these emerging pathogens
    Leon Grayfer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Viruses 4:1075-92. 2012
    ..This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of the RV immune evasion strategies with emphasis on the roles of the innate immune system in ranaviral infections...
  26. ncbi request reprint Development and characterization of a model system to study amphibian immune responses to iridoviruses
    Jennifer Gantress
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Virology 311:254-62. 2003
    ....
  27. pmc Waterborne infectivity of the Ranavirus frog virus 3 in Xenopus laevis
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Virology 417:410-7. 2011
    ..These data highlight the efficiency of FV3 infectivity by the water route and the ability of FV3 to adapt to its hosts...
  28. ncbi request reprint Structural phylogenetic analysis of activation-induced deaminase function
    H Travis Ichikawa
    Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 177:355-61. 2006
    ....
  29. pmc Nonclassical MHC class I-dependent invariant T cells are evolutionarily conserved and prominent from early development in amphibians
    Eva Stina Edholm
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:14342-7. 2013
    ....
  30. doi request reprint "Ranaviruses: an emerging threat to ectothermic vertebrates" report of the First International Symposium on Ranaviruses, Minneapolis MN July 8, 2011
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 36:259-61. 2012
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Minor histocompatibility antigen-specific MHC-restricted CD8 T cell responses elicited by heat shock proteins
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 168:1697-703. 2002
    ..e., gp96 purified from normal tissue also generates a significant antitumor response); this suggests a prominent contribution of an innate type of response in the absence of MHC class I Ags...
  32. pmc Tumorigenesis and anti-tumor immune responses in Xenopus
    Ana Goyos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 14:167-76. 2009
    ....
  33. pmc Improved knockout methodology reveals that frog virus 3 mutants lacking either the 18K immediate-early gene or the truncated vIF-2alpha gene are defective for replication and growth in vivo
    Guangchun Chen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Virol 85:11131-8. 2011
    ..In addition, our study describes a powerful methodology that lays the foundation for the discovery of potentially new ranaviral genes involved in virulence and immune escape...
  34. ncbi request reprint In vivo study of T-cell responses to skin alloantigens in Xenopus using a novel whole-mount immunohistology method
    Thaminda Ramanayake
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Transplantation 83:159-66. 2007
    ..The African clawed frog, Xenopus, is a widely used comparative model for studying the immune response to transplantation antigens...
  35. pmc Optimized transgenesis in Xenopus laevis/gilli isogenetic clones for immunological studies
    Hristina Nedelkovska
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Genesis 50:300-6. 2012
    ..Production of transgenic LG clones will allow us to modulate immune gene expression and further strengthen X. laevis as a biomedical model...
  36. ncbi request reprint Evolution of heat shock protein and immunity
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Box 672 601, Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 27:449-64. 2003
    ..Data from studies with the frog Xenopus support this proposition...
  37. ncbi request reprint A critical role of non-classical MHC in tumor immune evasion in the amphibian Xenopus model
    Nikesha Haynes-Gilmore
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Pathology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Carcinogenesis 35:1807-13. 2014
    ..These findings suggest that XNC10 allows the 15/0-tumor to escape immune recognition and class Ia-independent cytotoxicity, thus emphasizing the critical roles of class Ibs in tumor immunity. ..
  38. pmc Effective RNAi-mediated β2-microglobulin loss of function by transgenesis in Xenopus laevis
    Hristina Nedelkovska
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Open 2:335-42. 2013
    ..Additionally, b2m knockdown increased susceptibility to viral infection of F0 transgenic larvae. This loss of function strategy offers new avenues for studying ontogeny of immunity and other developmental processes in Xenopus...
  39. pmc Comparative study of tumorigenesis and tumor immunity in invertebrates and nonmammalian vertebrates
    Jacques Robert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, United States jacques
    Dev Comp Immunol 34:915-25. 2010
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Generation of a long-lasting, protective, and neutralizing antibody response to the ranavirus FV3 by the frog Xenopus
    Gregory D Maniero
    Department of Biology, Stonehill College, Easton, MA 02356, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 30:649-57. 2006
    ..These results with Xenopus suggest that other anuran amphibians are likely to develop effective long-lasting protective humoral immunity after an initial viral exposure...
  41. ncbi request reprint Conservation of IL-6 trans-signaling mechanisms controlling L-selectin adhesion by fever-range thermal stress
    Michelle M Appenheimer
    Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 0001, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:2856-67. 2007
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Ontogeny of Xenopus NK cells in the absence of MHC class I antigens
    Trudy L Horton
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Dev Comp Immunol 27:715-26. 2003
    ....
  43. pmc The Xenopus FcR family demonstrates continually high diversification of paired receptors in vertebrate evolution
    Sergey V Guselnikov
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia
    BMC Evol Biol 8:148. 2008
    ..To better understand the evolutionary history of paired receptors, we extended the study of FcR-like genes in amphibian representatives Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis...
  44. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic conservation of gp96-mediated antigen-specific cellular immunity: new evidence from adoptive cell transfer in xenopus
    Gregory D Maniero
    Department of Biology, Stonehill College, Easton, MA, USA
    Transplantation 78:1415-21. 2004
    ..We have developed an adoptive cell transfer protocol to further characterize these gp96-stimulated Xenopus effectors in vivo...
  45. ncbi request reprint Relationships between genetic polymorphisms and anticancer drug cytotoxicity vis-à-vis the NCI-60 panel
    Valérie Le Morvan
    Laboratoire de Pharmacologie des Agents Anticancéreux, Institut Bergonie, 229 Cours de l Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Pharmacogenomics 7:843-52. 2006
    ..We tested its potential interest for establishing relationships between the polymorphism of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport or in DNA repair, and drug cytotoxicity extracted from NCI databases...
  46. ncbi request reprint Quantification of the expression of multidrug resistance-related genes in human tumour cell lines grown with free doxorubicin or doxorubicin encapsulated in polyisohexylcyanoacrylate nanospheres
    Armelle Laurand
    Laboratoire de Pharmacologie des Agents Anticancéreux, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, and Institut Bergonié, 229 Cours de l Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux, France
    Anticancer Res 24:3781-8. 2004
    ..Our results show that several mechanisms may be involved in the acquisition of drug resistance and that drug encapsulation markedly alters or delays these processes...
  47. ncbi request reprint Determinants of the cytotoxicity of irinotecan in two human colorectal tumor cell lines
    Valerie Pavillard
    Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 and Institut Bergonie, 229 Cours de l Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux, France
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 49:329-35. 2002
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Signaling FcRgamma and TCRzeta subunit homologs in the amphibian Xenopus laevis
    Sergei V Guselnikov
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk 30090, Russian Federation
    Dev Comp Immunol 27:727-33. 2003
    ..TCRzeta mRNA was predominantly expressed in the thymus and spleen. These data indicate that the amphibian immune system employs activating receptor complexes arranged in a mammalian-like way...