James Riley

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint A cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cell coated with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibodies enables rapid expansion and long-term growth of CD4 T lymphocytes
    Anna K Thomas
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Clin Immunol 105:259-72. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Prostaglandin E2 impairs CD4+ T cell activation by inhibition of lck: implications in Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Jens M Chemnitz
    Molecular Tumor Biology and Tumor Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne, Germany
    Cancer Res 66:1114-22. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint ICOS costimulation requires IL-2 and can be prevented by CTLA-4 engagement
    J L Riley
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 166:4943-8. 2001
  4. pmc Mode of transmission affects the sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to restriction by rhesus TRIM5alpha
    Max W Richardson
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    J Virol 82:11117-28. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint The CD28 family: a T-cell rheostat for therapeutic control of T-cell activation
    James L Riley
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Blood 105:13-21. 2005
  6. pmc Modulation of TCR-induced transcriptional profiles by ligation of CD28, ICOS, and CTLA-4 receptors
    James L Riley
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11790-5. 2002
  7. pmc CTLA-4 and PD-1 receptors inhibit T-cell activation by distinct mechanisms
    Richard V Parry
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, 556 BRB II III, 421 Curie Blvd, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:9543-53. 2005
  8. pmc CD28 costimulation is essential for human T regulatory expansion and function
    Tatiana N Golovina
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 181:2855-68. 2008
  9. pmc HIV sequence variation associated with env antisense adoptive T-cell therapy in the hNSG mouse model
    Rithun Mukherjee
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Mol Ther 18:803-11. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Cutting edge: Regulatory T cells from lung cancer patients directly inhibit autologous T cell proliferation
    Edward Y Woo
    Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 168:4272-6. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi request reprint A cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cell coated with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibodies enables rapid expansion and long-term growth of CD4 T lymphocytes
    Anna K Thomas
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Clin Immunol 105:259-72. 2002
    ..We conclude that K32 aAPCs are a robust system for clinical scale ex vivo expansion of CD4 T cells...
  2. ncbi request reprint Prostaglandin E2 impairs CD4+ T cell activation by inhibition of lck: implications in Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Jens M Chemnitz
    Molecular Tumor Biology and Tumor Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne, Germany
    Cancer Res 66:1114-22. 2006
    ..These data strongly suggest that PGE(2) is an important factor leading to CD4+ T cell impairment observed in Hodgkin's lymphoma...
  3. ncbi request reprint ICOS costimulation requires IL-2 and can be prevented by CTLA-4 engagement
    J L Riley
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 166:4943-8. 2001
    ..These results indicate that stringent control of ICOS costimulation is maintained initially by CTLA-4 engagement and later by a requirement for exogenous IL-2...
  4. pmc Mode of transmission affects the sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to restriction by rhesus TRIM5alpha
    Max W Richardson
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    J Virol 82:11117-28. 2008
    ..These studies further define the role of rhTRIM5alpha in cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission and delineate the utility of rhTRIM5alpha in anti-HIV therapy...
  5. ncbi request reprint The CD28 family: a T-cell rheostat for therapeutic control of T-cell activation
    James L Riley
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Blood 105:13-21. 2005
    ....
  6. pmc Modulation of TCR-induced transcriptional profiles by ligation of CD28, ICOS, and CTLA-4 receptors
    James L Riley
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11790-5. 2002
    ..Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) engagement selectively blocked augmentation of gene regulations by CD28-mediated costimulation, but did not ablate gene regulation induced by TCR triggering alone...
  7. pmc CTLA-4 and PD-1 receptors inhibit T-cell activation by distinct mechanisms
    Richard V Parry
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, 556 BRB II III, 421 Curie Blvd, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:9543-53. 2005
    ..Together, these data suggest that CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibit T-cell activation through distinct and potentially synergistic mechanisms...
  8. pmc CD28 costimulation is essential for human T regulatory expansion and function
    Tatiana N Golovina
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 181:2855-68. 2008
    ....
  9. pmc HIV sequence variation associated with env antisense adoptive T-cell therapy in the hNSG mouse model
    Rithun Mukherjee
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Mol Ther 18:803-11. 2010
    ..Unexpectedly, this enrichment was only detected after the challenge with HIV-1(BaL), where the viral genome would form an imperfect duplex with envAS, and not HIV-1(NL4-3), where a perfectly matched duplex would form...
  10. ncbi request reprint Cutting edge: Regulatory T cells from lung cancer patients directly inhibit autologous T cell proliferation
    Edward Y Woo
    Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 168:4272-6. 2002
    ..Together these results suggest that the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells found in lung tumors selectively inhibit the host immune response and therefore could contribute to the progression of lung cancer...
  11. ncbi request reprint Ex vivo expansion of polyclonal and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by artificial APCs expressing ligands for the T-cell receptor, CD28 and 4-1BB
    Marcela V Maus
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 20:143-8. 2002
    ..Furthermore, apoptosis of cultured CD8(+) T cells was diminished by this approach. This approach may have important therapeutic implications for adoptive immunotherapy...
  12. doi request reprint The inducible costimulator (ICOS) is critical for the development of human T(H)17 cells
    Chrystal M Paulos
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Sci Transl Med 2:55ra78. 2010
    ..These findings have provided the rationale for designing new clinical trials for tumor immunotherapy...
  13. pmc PD-1 signaling in primary T cells
    James L Riley
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Immunol Rev 229:114-25. 2009
    ..Lastly, we describe models to dissect the function of the PD-1 cytoplasmic tail using primary cells in the absence of agonist antibodies...
  14. pmc Chimeric receptors containing CD137 signal transduction domains mediate enhanced survival of T cells and increased antileukemic efficacy in vivo
    Michael C Milone
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 5160, USA
    Mol Ther 17:1453-64. 2009
    ..Together these results suggest that incorporation of the CD137 signaling domain in CARs should improve the persistence of CARs in the hematologic malignancies and hence maximize their antitumor activity...
  15. pmc Human T regulatory cell therapy: take a billion or so and call me in the morning
    James L Riley
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Immunity 30:656-65. 2009
    ..This review will focus on the preclinical models that provide the rationale for current trials and it will address both the challenges and opportunities in human Treg cell therapy...
  16. pmc Engineering lymphocyte subsets: tools, trials and tribulations
    Carl H June
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:704-16. 2009
    ....
  17. pmc Distinct effects of IL-18 on the engraftment and function of human effector CD8 T cells and regulatory T cells
    Richard G Carroll
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3289. 2008
    ..These preclinical data suggest that human IL-18 may have use as an adjuvant for immune reconstitution after cytotoxic therapies, and to augment adoptive immunotherapy, donor leukocyte infusions, and vaccine strategies...
  18. ncbi request reprint Engineering artificial antigen-presenting cells to express a diverse array of co-stimulatory molecules
    Megan M Suhoski
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 5160, USA
    Mol Ther 15:981-8. 2007
    ..Finally, the aAPCs provide an efficient platform to expand genetically modified T cells and to maintain CD28 expression on CD8 T cells. Therefore, K562-based aAPCs have therapeutic potential for adoptive immunotherapies and vaccinations...
  19. ncbi request reprint Ligation of CD28 by its natural ligand CD86 in the absence of TCR stimulation induces lipid raft polarization in human CD4 T cells
    Birgit Kovacs
    Division of Rheumatology, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 175:7848-54. 2005
    ..This result has implications for mechanisms of T cell activation. Abnormalities in this process may alter T and B cell tolerance and susceptibility to infection...
  20. pmc Genetic engineering of T cells for adoptive immunotherapy
    Angel Varela-Rohena
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Blvd 556 BRB II III, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
    Immunol Res 42:166-81. 2008
    ..In this article, we focus on strategies to (1) dissect the signals controlling T cell proliferation; (2) render CD4 T cells resistant to HIV-1 infection; and (3) redirect CD8 T cell antigen specificity...
  21. ncbi request reprint SHP-1 and SHP-2 associate with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif of programmed death 1 upon primary human T cell stimulation, but only receptor ligation prevents T cell activation
    Jens M Chemnitz
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 173:945-54. 2004
    ..Despite this interaction, the ability of PD-1 to block T cell activation required receptor ligation, suggesting that colocalization of PD-1 with CD3 and/or CD28 may be necessary for inhibition of T cell activation...
  22. pmc Control of large, established tumor xenografts with genetically retargeted human T cells containing CD28 and CD137 domains
    Carmine Carpenito
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3360-5. 2009
    ..Genetically redirected T cells have promise of targeting T lymphocytes to tumor antigens, confer resistance to the tumor microenvironment, and providing immunosurveillance...
  23. pmc Establishment of HIV-1 resistance in CD4+ T cells by genome editing using zinc-finger nucleases
    Elena E Perez
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 421 Curie Blvd, Room 554, BRB II III, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6160, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 26:808-16. 2008
    ..Thus adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded CCR5 ZFN-modified autologous CD4(+) T cells in HIV patients is an attractive approach for the treatment of HIV-1 infection...
  24. pmc The paracaspase MALT1 controls caspase-8 activation during lymphocyte proliferation
    Holli Kawadler
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Cell 31:415-21. 2008
    ..Our results reveal a mechanism that utilizes a protease potentially deadly to the cell for proliferative signaling and demonstrate a functional connection between the caspase and paracaspase families to enable nonapoptotic processes...
  25. doi request reprint Adoptive immunotherapy: good habits instilled at youth have long-term benefits
    Chrystal M Paulos
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, BRB II III, Room 554, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 6160, USA
    Immunol Res 42:182-96. 2008
    ..We also describe how aAPCs can be used to broaden ACT to treat patients with a wide variety of cancers, chronic infectious diseases, and autoimmune manifestations...
  26. ncbi request reprint Umbilical cord blood xenografts in immunodeficient mice reveal that T cells enhance hematopoietic engraftment beyond overcoming immune barriers by stimulating stem cell differentiation
    Elizabeth O Hexner
    Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 13:1135-44. 2007
    ..CD3/CD28 costimulation of UCB T cells represents a potential strategy for enhancing the engraftment of UCB...
  27. ncbi request reprint The CD28 signaling pathway regulates glucose metabolism
    Kenneth A Frauwirth
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Immunity 16:769-77. 2002
    ..These data suggest that CD28 costimulation functions to increase glycolytic flux, allowing T cells to anticipate energetic and biosynthetic needs associated with a sustained response...
  28. ncbi request reprint B and T lymphocyte attenuator-mediated signal transduction provides a potent inhibitory signal to primary human CD4 T cells that can be initiated by multiple phosphotyrosine motifs
    Jens M Chemnitz
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 176:6603-14. 2006
    ..These studies question whether SHP-1 or SHP-2 have any role in BTLA function and caution against the use of pervanadate as means to initiate signal transduction cascades in primary cells...
  29. ncbi request reprint The road to recovery: translating PD-1 biology into clinical benefit
    James L Riley
    Abramson Family Research Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Immunol 28:48-50. 2007
    ..Here, we discuss impending issues in the translation to clinical studies in light of recent adverse events with costimulatory antibody therapy...
  30. pmc Human CD8+ T cells do not require the polarization of lipid rafts for activation and proliferation
    Birgit Kovacs
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:15006-11. 2002
    ..It is possible that the lower stringency of CD8(+) T cell activation obviates a requirement for raft polarization...
  31. ncbi request reprint FOXP3 is a homo-oligomer and a component of a supramolecular regulatory complex disabled in the human XLAAD/IPEX autoimmune disease
    Bin Li
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 252 John Morgan Building, 36th and Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6082, USA
    Int Immunol 19:825-35. 2007
    ..This study explains some features of the pathogenesis of a disease syndrome that arises as a consequence of specific assembly failure of a transcriptional repressor due to certain mutations within the FOXP3 leucine zipper...
  32. ncbi request reprint CD28 and inducible costimulatory protein Src homology 2 binding domains show distinct regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Bcl-xL, and IL-2 expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes
    Richard V Parry
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 171:166-74. 2003
    ..Thus, differences within their respective SH2 binding domains explain, at least in part, the distinct regulation of IL-2 and Bcl-x(L) expression following ICOS- or CD28-mediated costimulation...
  33. pmc Addition of deoxynucleosides enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration and 2LTR formation in resting CD4+ T cells
    Gabriela Plesa
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Transfusion Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 81:13938-42. 2007
    ..Thus, deoxynucleoside addition partially overcomes the restriction to HIV infection in resting CD4+ T cells...
  34. ncbi request reprint Extensive replicative capacity of human central memory T cells
    Marcela V Maus
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 172:6675-83. 2004
    ..In conclusion, aAPCs expand T(CM) that have extensive replicative capacity, and have potential applications in adoptive immunotherapy as well as for studying the biology of human MHC class II-restricted T cells...
  35. ncbi request reprint HLA tetramer-based artificial antigen-presenting cells for stimulation of CD4+ T cells
    Marcela V Maus
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, 557 BRB II III, 421 Curie Boulevard, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Clin Immunol 106:16-22. 2003
    ..We find that an indirect coating of HLA-peptide tetramers on beads via an anti-Class II antibody provides specific stimulation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells...
  36. pmc Histone/protein deacetylase inhibitors increase suppressive functions of human FOXP3+ Tregs
    Tatiana Akimova
    Division of Transplant Immunology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4318, USA
    Clin Immunol 136:348-63. 2010
    ..Hence, HDACi compounds are promising pharmacologic tools to increase Treg suppressive functions, and this action may potentially be of use in patients with autoimmunity or post-transplantation...
  37. ncbi request reprint TRANCE- and CD40 ligand-matured dendritic cells reveal MHC class I-restricted T cells specific for autologous tumor in late-stage ovarian cancer patients
    Katia Schlienger
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 9:1517-27. 2003
    ..We also sought to measure preexisting antitumor immunity in patients with advanced ovarian cancer...
  38. pmc Folate receptor alpha and caveolae are not required for Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection
    Graham Simmons
    Department of Microbiology Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6076, USA
    J Virol 77:13433-8. 2003
    ..Finally, a panel of ligands to and soluble analogues of FRalpha were unable to inhibit infection on a range of cell lines, questioning the role of FRalpha as an important factor for Ebola virus entry...
  39. pmc Control of HIV-1 immune escape by CD8 T cells expressing enhanced T-cell receptor
    Angel Varela-Rohena
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6160, USA
    Nat Med 14:1390-5. 2008
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Cytokine stimulation of aerobic glycolysis in hematopoietic cells exceeds proliferative demand
    Daniel E Bauer
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    FASEB J 18:1303-5. 2004
    ..These data suggest that the high rate of glycolysis observed in response to growth factor stimulation is a primary effect rather than a homeostatic response to increased cell growth...
  41. pmc FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression
    Bin Li
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 36th and Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6082, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4571-6. 2007
    ..These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression...
  42. ncbi request reprint RNA fingerprints provide direct evidence for the inhibitory role of TGFbeta and PD-1 on CD4+ T cells in Hodgkin lymphoma
    Jens M Chemnitz
    Molecular Tumor Biology and Tumor Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50924 Cologne, Germany
    Blood 110:3226-33. 2007
    ..This approach can be easily generalized to provide direct evidence of the impact of any given soluble or cell-bound factor on any cell type within diseased tissue...
  43. ncbi request reprint Signalling to suit function: tailoring phosphoinositide 3-kinase during T-cell activation
    Richard V Parry
    Inflammatory Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
    Trends Immunol 28:161-8. 2007
    ..This article examines how differential positive or negative regulation of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway by CD28 family receptors enables functional differences between the receptors...

Research Grants13

  1. Lentiviral Redirected T Cells for B Cancer Immunotherapy
    James Riley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  2. Development of tumor based antigen presenting cells
    James Riley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, these studies will provide the foundation for conducting a clinical trial. ..
  3. Regulation of human T cell activation by the CD28 family
    James Riley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The data generated from these studies will better define the relationship between antigen dependent and independent signals and enable new strategies to modulate T cell activation for therapeutic applications. ..
  4. Expansion of HIV infected T cells for immunotherapy
    James Riley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Successful completion of these aims will pave the way for second generation autologous transfusion trials in which the ability of selected subsets of expanded T cells to fight opportunistic and HIV infection(s) can be measured. ..
  5. Restoring HIV-1 Specific T cell Immunity
    James L Riley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will provide the basis and rationale to test this approach in humans and hopefully lead to clinical tools that successfully control of HIV-1 replication in the absence of HAART. ..