Mark Rieder

Summary

Affiliation: University of Washington
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Sequence variation in the human transcription factor gene POU5F1
    Shehnaz K Hussain
    University of California, Los Angeles, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Research, School of Public Health and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 6900, USA
    BMC Genet 9:15. 2008
  2. ncbi Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) tagSNPs have limited utility for predicting warfarin maintenance dose
    M J Rieder
    Department of Genome Sciences, Epidemiology, and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 5:2227-34. 2007
  3. pmc Automating the identification of DNA variations using quality-based fluorescence re-sequencing: analysis of the human mitochondrial genome
    M J Rieder
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Box 357730, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7730, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 26:967-73. 1998
  4. ncbi The environmental genome project: reference polymorphisms for drug metabolism genes and genome-wide association studies
    Mark J Rieder
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 40:241-61. 2008
  5. ncbi Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme
    M J Rieder
    University of Washington, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Seattle 98195, USA
    Nat Genet 22:59-62. 1999
  6. ncbi TagSNP analyses of the PON gene cluster: effects on PON1 activity, LDL oxidative susceptibility, and vascular disease
    Christopher S Carlson
    The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, The University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    J Lipid Res 47:1014-24. 2006
  7. pmc Population history and natural selection shape patterns of genetic variation in 132 genes
    Joshua M Akey
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:e286. 2004
  8. pmc Sequence-based linkage analysis
    Itay Furman
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 75:647-53. 2004
  9. ncbi In-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on warfarin metabolism and dose
    Guoying Tai
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:475-81. 2005
  10. ncbi Effect of VKORC1 haplotypes on transcriptional regulation and warfarin dose
    Mark J Rieder
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    N Engl J Med 352:2285-93. 2005

Research Grants

  1. Genetic Factors Influencing Warfarin Dose
    Mark Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. Genetic Factors Influencing Warfarin Dose
    Mark Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. pmc Sequence variation in the human transcription factor gene POU5F1
    Shehnaz K Hussain
    University of California, Los Angeles, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Research, School of Public Health and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 6900, USA
    BMC Genet 9:15. 2008
    ..3 kb region containing POU5F1, and to describe the linkage disequilibrium patterns, using DNA from individuals of African-descent (AD) and European-descent (ED)...
  2. ncbi Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) tagSNPs have limited utility for predicting warfarin maintenance dose
    M J Rieder
    Department of Genome Sciences, Epidemiology, and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 5:2227-34. 2007
    ..Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), in its role as a key component of the vitamin K cycle, is a potential candidate gene associated with warfarin treatment...
  3. pmc Automating the identification of DNA variations using quality-based fluorescence re-sequencing: analysis of the human mitochondrial genome
    M J Rieder
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Box 357730, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7730, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 26:967-73. 1998
    ....
  4. ncbi The environmental genome project: reference polymorphisms for drug metabolism genes and genome-wide association studies
    Mark J Rieder
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 40:241-61. 2008
    ..Herein, we review a subset of Phase I cytochrome P450 genes studied by the EGP, approaches to GWAS, and the sensitivity of available genotyping platforms to capture common sequence variation in this subset of drug metabolism genes...
  5. ncbi Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme
    M J Rieder
    University of Washington, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Seattle 98195, USA
    Nat Genet 22:59-62. 1999
    ..The highly correlated structure in DCP1 raises important issues for the determination of functional DNA variants within genes and genetic studies in humans based on marker association...
  6. ncbi TagSNP analyses of the PON gene cluster: effects on PON1 activity, LDL oxidative susceptibility, and vascular disease
    Christopher S Carlson
    The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, The University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    J Lipid Res 47:1014-24. 2006
    ....
  7. pmc Population history and natural selection shape patterns of genetic variation in 132 genes
    Joshua M Akey
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:e286. 2004
    ..More generally, our results have important implications for mapping genes underlying complex human diseases...
  8. pmc Sequence-based linkage analysis
    Itay Furman
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 75:647-53. 2004
    ..We validate these results experimentally by implementing the sequence-based linkage approach for chromosome 19 in CEPH pedigrees...
  9. ncbi In-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on warfarin metabolism and dose
    Guoying Tai
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:475-81. 2005
    ..To determine the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on (S)-warfarin metabolism...
  10. ncbi Effect of VKORC1 haplotypes on transcriptional regulation and warfarin dose
    Mark J Rieder
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    N Engl J Med 352:2285-93. 2005
    ..The management of warfarin therapy is complicated by a wide variation among patients in drug response. Variants in the gene encoding vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) may affect the response to warfarin...
  11. pmc A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose
    Gregory M Cooper
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA98195, USA
    Blood 112:1022-7. 2008
    ..Randomized clinical trials that account for these 2 genes should therefore produce results that are definitive and broadly applicable...
  12. ncbi CYP2C9 haplotype structure in European American warfarin patients and association with clinical outcomes
    David L Veenstra
    Department of Pharmacy, Environmental Health, Genome Sciences, and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:353-64. 2005
    ..The goal of this study was to define the haplotype structure of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 gene in a European American population and evaluate associations between CYP2C9 haplotypes and anticoagulation-related outcomes...
  13. ncbi Genetic variation is associated with C-reactive protein levels in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Dana C Crawford
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Circulation 114:2458-65. 2006
    ..Increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have suggested that genetic variation within the CRP gene is associated with serum CRP...
  14. pmc Human liver expression of CYP2C8: gender, age, and genotype effects
    Suresh Babu Naraharisetti
    Departments of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7610, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:889-93. 2010
    ..CYP2C8 mRNA or protein expression levels were not significantly affected by CYP2C8*3 or *4 genotype, gender, or age, and variation observed clinically in CYP2C8 activity warrants further investigation...
  15. pmc CYP4F2 is a vitamin K1 oxidase: An explanation for altered warfarin dose in carriers of the V433M variant
    Matthew G McDonald
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 75:1337-46. 2009
    ..Therefore, patients with the rs2108622 polymorphism are likely to have elevated hepatic levels of VK1, necessitating a higher warfarin dose to elicit the same anticoagulant response...
  16. ncbi An analysis of the relative effects of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants on anticoagulation related outcomes in warfarin-treated patients
    Lisa M Meckley
    University of Washington, Department of Pharmacy, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Thromb Haemost 100:229-39. 2008
    ..This difference may be due, in part, to pharmacokinetics factors (e.g. drug half-life), which are influenced primarily by CYP2C9; these findings should be confirmed in additional studies...
  17. ncbi Direct detection of null alleles in SNP genotyping data
    Christopher S Carlson
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7730, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 15:1931-7. 2006
    ..Detecting unexpected null alleles not only has benefits in QC of genotype data but may also be valuable in detecting rare, functional null alleles that would otherwise be missed...
  18. ncbi Efficient selection of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple populations
    Bryan N Howie
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Box 357730, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Hum Genet 120:58-68. 2006
    ..Using populations of African, Asian, and European ancestry, we also show that an optimal multi-population set of tagSNPs can be substantially smaller (up to 44%) than a typical set obtained through independent or sequential selection...
  19. pmc Polymorphisms within the C-reactive protein (CRP) promoter region are associated with plasma CRP levels
    Christopher S Carlson
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 77:64-77. 2005
    ..We also demonstrate the functional importance of these SNPs in vitro...
  20. ncbi Paraoxonase activity, but not haplotype utilizing the linkage disequilibrium structure, predicts vascular disease
    Gail P Jarvik
    Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:1465-71. 2003
    ..The effects of paraoxonase (PON1) activity and of genetic variation in the PON1 promoter and coding region on carotid artery disease (CAAD) were investigated...
  21. ncbi Renin-angiotensin system haplotypes and the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients
    Kristin D Marciante
    Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:19-27. 2007
    ..17). In this case-control study, RAS gene haplotypes were not significantly associated with increased risks of myocardial infarction or stroke...
  22. pmc Polymorphisms of the HNF1A gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha are associated with C-reactive protein
    Alexander P Reiner
    University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 82:1193-201. 2008
    ....
  23. pmc Polymorphisms of the IL1-receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) are associated with multiple markers of systemic inflammation
    Alexander P Reiner
    Department of Epidemiology, Box 357236, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:1407-12. 2008
    ..Circulating levels of acute phase reactant proteins such as plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are likely influenced by multiple genes regulating the innate immune response...
  24. ncbi TagSNP evaluation for the association of 42 inflammation loci and vascular disease: evidence of IL6, FGB, ALOX5, NFKBIA, and IL4R loci effects
    Christopher S Carlson
    Division of Public Health Sciences, The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Hum Genet 121:65-75. 2007
    ..The NFKBIA and IL10RA expression levels significantly differed between subjects with CAAD and controls. These results support a role for genetic variation related to inflammation in CAAD and a causal role for specific gene products...
  25. doi Estimating coverage and power for genetic association studies using near-complete variation data
    Tushar R Bhangale
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nat Genet 40:841-3. 2008
    ..We quantify the power offered by these arrays for a range of disease models...
  26. pmc Selecting a maximally informative set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association analyses using linkage disequilibrium
    Christopher S Carlson
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 74:106-20. 2004
    ..We demonstrate that, although common variation tends to be shared between populations, tagSNPs should be selected separately for populations with different ancestries...
  27. pmc Allele frequency matching between SNPs reveals an excess of linkage disequilibrium in genic regions of the human genome
    Michael A Eberle
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 2:e142. 2006
    ..The SNP pairs exhibiting perfect LD showed a significant bias for derived, nonancestral alleles, providing evidence for positive natural selection in the human genome...
  28. pmc A case study of acenocoumarol sensitivity and genotype-phenotype discordancy explained by combinations of polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9
    Allan E Rettie
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:617-20. 2006
    ..The study provides additional data in support of diminished CYP2C9 activity due to the presence of the rare *11 allele...
  29. ncbi Comprehensive identification and characterization of diallelic insertion-deletion polymorphisms in 330 human candidate genes
    Tushar R Bhangale
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7730, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 14:59-69. 2005
    ....
  30. ncbi Novel paraoxonase (PON1) nonsense and missense mutations predicted by functional genomic assay of PON1 status
    Gail P Jarvik
    Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, The University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7720, USA
    Pharmacogenetics 13:291-5. 2003
    ....
  31. ncbi Additional SNPs and linkage-disequilibrium analyses are necessary for whole-genome association studies in humans
    Christopher S Carlson
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, 1705 NE Pacific, Seattle, Washington 98195 7730, USA
    Nat Genet 33:518-21. 2003
    ....
  32. pmc Genomic regions exhibiting positive selection identified from dense genotype data
    Christopher S Carlson
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7730, USA
    Genome Res 15:1553-65. 2005
    ....
  33. ncbi Common genetic variation in the prothrombin gene, hormone therapy, and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women
    Lucia A Hindorff
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:600-7. 2006
    ..These preliminary results suggest that common genetic variants in the prothrombin gene or other variants in linkage disequilibrium are associated with myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women...
  34. pmc Allelic spectrum of the natural variation in CRP
    Dana C Crawford
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, 1705 NE Pacific, Seattle, WA 98195 7730, USA
    Hum Genet 119:496-504. 2006
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that several different types re-sequencing and genotyping approaches may be required to fully understand the complete spectrum of alleles that impact human phenotypes...
  35. pmc Haplotype diversity across 100 candidate genes for inflammation, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure regulation in two populations
    Dana C Crawford
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7730, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 74:610-22. 2004
    ....
  36. pmc Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphisms affect innate immune responses and outcomes in sepsis
    Mark M Wurfel
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:710-20. 2008
    ..Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses could predispose to excessive inflammation during an infection and contribute to an increased risk for poor outcomes in patients with sepsis...
  37. ncbi Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in TBX1 in individuals with and without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
    Carrie L Heike
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Craniofacial Medicine, University of Washington and Seattle Children s Hospital, Seattle, Washington 98105 5371, USA
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 88:54-63. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to further characterize the sequence variability in TBX1 by identifying all common SNPs in this gene...
  38. ncbi High-throughput genotyping of intermediate-size structural variation
    Tera L Newman
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 15:1159-67. 2006
    ..The approach we describe may be used to characterize a large number of individuals in a cost-effective manner once the sequence organization of ISVs is known...
  39. pmc Exome sequencing identifies MLL2 mutations as a cause of Kabuki syndrome
    Sarah B Ng
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Genet 42:790-3. 2010
    ..Our results strongly suggest that mutations in MLL2 are a major cause of Kabuki syndrome...
  40. doi Soluble P-selectin, SELP polymorphisms, and atherosclerotic risk in European-American and African-African young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
    Alexander P Reiner
    Departments of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:1549-55. 2008
    ..To characterize the genetic and clinical correlates of soluble P-selectin, and the relationship of P-selectin to atherosclerotic risk, in young European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) adults...
  41. ncbi Mitochondrial genetic variants and Alzheimer disease: a case-control study of the T4336C and G5460A variants
    Steven D Edland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 16:1-7. 2002
    ..Substantially larger samples than are currently available would be required to resolve this question. G5460(A/T) variants were also investigated and found not to be associated with Alzheimer disease...
  42. ncbi Evidence for substantial fine-scale variation in recombination rates across the human genome
    Dana C Crawford
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Box 354322, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nat Genet 36:700-6. 2004
    ..No primary sequence characteristics are consistently associated with precise hot-spot location, although G+C content and nucleotide diversity are correlated with local recombination rate...
  43. pmc Autosomal dominant familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia: single exome sequencing identifies a mutation in adenylyl cyclase 5
    Ying Zhang Chen
    Department of Medicine Medical Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Arch Neurol 69:630-5. 2012
    ..In a 5-generation family of German ancestry, we previously mapped FDFM to chromosome band 3p21-3q21. The 72.5-Mb linkage region was too large for traditional positional mutation identification...
  44. pmc Targeted enrichment of specific regions in the human genome by array hybridization
    Catherine Igartua
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Curr Protoc Hum Genet . 2010
    ....
  45. doi Variation in the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase gene is associated with racial differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to simvastatin treatment
    Ronald M Krauss
    Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Oakland, CA 94609, USA
    Circulation 117:1537-44. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding HMGCR, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis and the direct enzymatic target of statins, contribute to variation in statin response...
  46. ncbi Functional polymorphism in human CYP4F2 decreases 20-HETE production
    David E Stec
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216 4505, USA
    Physiol Genomics 30:74-81. 2007
    ..In contrast these variants had no effect on the omega-hydroxylation of LTB(4). These findings are the first to identify a functional variant in the human CYP4F2 gene that alters the production of 20-HETE...
  47. pmc Identifying the genotype behind the phenotype: a role model found in VKORC1 and its association with warfarin dosing
    Dana C Crawford
    Vanderbilt University, Center for Human Genetics Research, 519 Light Hall, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 8:487-96. 2007
    ..These future avenues will be best explored using diverse approaches encompassing clinical, statistical and genomic methods currently being developed for genotype-phenotype studies in human populations...
  48. ncbi A common VLDLR polymorphism interacts with APOE genotype in the prediction of carotid artery disease risk
    Dana C Crawford
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Lipid Res 49:588-96. 2008
    ..These findings may further our understanding of VLDLR function, its ligand APOE, and ultimately the pathogenesis of CAAD in the general population...
  49. pmc Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans
    Sekar Kathiresan
    Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nat Genet 40:189-97. 2008
    ..Understanding the molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of the newly identified loci may inform therapy and clinical care...
  50. pmc Novel CYP2C9 promoter variants and assessment of their impact on gene expression
    Melissa A Kramer
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI 53226, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 73:1751-60. 2008
    ..These data suggest that genetic variation within CYP2C9 regulatory sequences is likely to contribute to differences in CYP2C9 phenotype both within and among different populations...
  51. pmc LPA and PLG sequence variation and kringle IV-2 copy number in two populations
    Dana C Crawford
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Hum Hered 66:199-209. 2008
    ..African-descent populations have, on average, higher levels of Lp(a), suggesting other genetic factors contribute to Lp(a) level variability across populations...
  52. pmc Integrating host genomics with surveillance for invasive bacterial diseases
    Dana C Crawford
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1138-40. 2008
    ..Using nDBS specimens, we resequenced CD46, putative host gene receptor for Neisseria meningitidis, and identified variants associated with susceptibility to this disease...
  53. ncbi Association of Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) variants with warfarin dose in a Hong Kong Chinese patient population
    David L Veenstra
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:687-91. 2005
    ..To evaluate the association of VKORC1 genetic variants with warfarin dose requirements in a Hong Kong Chinese patient population...
  54. pmc Pattern of sequence variation across 213 environmental response genes
    Robert J Livingston
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7730, USA
    Genome Res 14:1821-31. 2004
    ..The implications for the use of these data in direct and indirect association studies of environmentally induced diseases are discussed...

Research Grants3

  1. Genetic Factors Influencing Warfarin Dose
    Mark Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The long-term aim of this proposal is to account for 100% of the inter-individual variability in warfarin dosing. ..
  2. Genetic Factors Influencing Warfarin Dose
    Mark Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long-term aim of this proposal is to account for 100% of the inter-individual variability in warfarin dosing. ..