D D Richman

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Conjugation of protein to immunostimulatory DNA results in a rapid, long-lasting and potent induction of cell-mediated and humoral immunity
    H Tighe
    Department of Medicine, The Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research of Aging, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0663, USA
    Eur J Immunol 30:1939-47. 2000
  2. ncbi request reprint HIV chemotherapy
    D D Richman
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, Departments of Pathology and Medicine 0679, La Jolla, California 92093 0679, USA
    Nature 410:995-1001. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint The prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in the United States
    Douglas D Richman
    VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, The University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Santa Monica, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS 18:1393-401. 2004
  4. pmc Introduction: challenges to finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Pathology, Center for AIDS Research, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:1-3. 2011
  5. ncbi request reprint Benefits and limitations of testing for resistance to HIV drugs
    Douglas D Richman
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, Departments of Pathology and Medicine, 0679, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:555-7. 2004
  6. doi request reprint The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Principles of HIV resistance testing and overview of assay performance characteristics
    D D Richman
    Department of Pathology, San Diego VA Medical Center and University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92037 0679, USA
    Antivir Ther 5:27-31. 2000
  8. pmc Rapid evolution of the neutralizing antibody response to HIV type 1 infection
    Douglas D Richman
    Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and the University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4144-9. 2003
  9. pmc HIV evolution and escape
    Douglas D Richman
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161 0679, USA
    Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 115:289-303. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Antiviral drug resistance
    Douglas D Richman
    University of California San Diego, Department of Pathology, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, United States
    Antiviral Res 71:117-21. 2006

Research Grants

  1. BIOMATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF VIRAL DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Southern California Primary Infection Program
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. AIDS TRAINING GRANT
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. BIOMATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF VIRAL DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. Meeting support for HIV Evolution and Dynamics
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. Biomathematical analysis of viral dynamics/evolution
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
  8. 9th Annual International Mtg on HIV Dynamics & Evolution
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2002
  9. BIOMATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF VIRAL DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION
    Douglas D Richman; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications124 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Conjugation of protein to immunostimulatory DNA results in a rapid, long-lasting and potent induction of cell-mediated and humoral immunity
    H Tighe
    Department of Medicine, The Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research of Aging, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0663, USA
    Eur J Immunol 30:1939-47. 2000
    ..The data suggest that this procedure generates a novel and unique vaccine that rapidly triggers strong humoral and cell-mediated immunity...
  2. ncbi request reprint HIV chemotherapy
    D D Richman
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, Departments of Pathology and Medicine 0679, La Jolla, California 92093 0679, USA
    Nature 410:995-1001. 2001
    ..Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication...
  3. ncbi request reprint The prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in the United States
    Douglas D Richman
    VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, The University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Santa Monica, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS 18:1393-401. 2004
    ..Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality of infection due to HIV. The emergence of drug-resistant virus has limited the usefulness of many drugs...
  4. pmc Introduction: challenges to finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Pathology, Center for AIDS Research, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:1-3. 2011
    ..Renewed interest has emerged to address the latent reservoir of HIV to achieve a cure...
  5. ncbi request reprint Benefits and limitations of testing for resistance to HIV drugs
    Douglas D Richman
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, Departments of Pathology and Medicine, 0679, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:555-7. 2004
    ..The types of drug resistance tests and their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. How and when these tests should be used to inform HIV clinical practice and their place in anti-HIV drug development are considered...
  6. doi request reprint The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
    ..This review discusses our current understanding of suppressive antiretroviral therapy, the latent viral reservoir, and the needs for and challenges of attacking this reservoir to achieve a cure...
  7. ncbi request reprint Principles of HIV resistance testing and overview of assay performance characteristics
    D D Richman
    Department of Pathology, San Diego VA Medical Center and University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92037 0679, USA
    Antivir Ther 5:27-31. 2000
    ..Several principles and biological factors impacting drug resistance testing are summarized. Considerations regarding quality control and validation of the performance of genotypic and phenotypic assays are also addressed...
  8. pmc Rapid evolution of the neutralizing antibody response to HIV type 1 infection
    Douglas D Richman
    Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and the University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4144-9. 2003
    ..These data argue that neutralizing antibody responses account for the extensive variation in the envelope gene that is observed in the early months after primary HIV infection...
  9. pmc HIV evolution and escape
    Douglas D Richman
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161 0679, USA
    Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 115:289-303. 2004
    ..Certain selective pressures that drive the evolution of HIV include chemotherapy, anatomic compartmentalization and the immune response. Examples of these selective forces on HIV evolution are described...
  10. ncbi request reprint Antiviral drug resistance
    Douglas D Richman
    University of California San Diego, Department of Pathology, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, United States
    Antiviral Res 71:117-21. 2006
    ..For HIV and increasingly for other viruses drug resistance testing has become standard-of-care in clinical practice. A few selected examples are provided to illustrate each of these points...
  11. ncbi request reprint Drug susceptibility in HIV infection after viral rebound in patients receiving indinavir-containing regimens
    D V Havlir
    University of California, San Diego 92103, USA
    JAMA 283:229-34. 2000
    ....
  12. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus replication and genotypic resistance in blood and lymph nodes after a year of potent antiretroviral therapy
    H F Gunthard
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 72:2422-8. 1998
    ..These findings argue that HIV replication differs significantly between patients on potent antiretroviral therapy with low but detectable viral loads and those with undetectable viral loads...
  13. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and predictive value of intermittent viremia with combination hiv therapy
    D V Havlir
    University of California, San Diego, 150 W Washington, Suite 100, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    JAMA 286:171-9. 2001
    ....
  14. pmc Reduction of HIV-1 in blood and lymph nodes following potent antiretroviral therapy and the virologic correlates of treatment failure
    J K Wong
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:12574-9. 1997
    ..Conversely, the persistence of even modest levels of plasma virus after 1 year of treatment reflects ongoing viral replication, the emergence of drug resistance, and the maintenance of high burdens of virus in the lymph nodes...
  15. pmc In vivo compartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus: evidence from the examination of pol sequences from autopsy tissues
    J K Wong
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 71:2059-71. 1997
    ..These observations support the concept of anatomically distinct, independently evolving quasispecies (virodemes)...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effect of influenza vaccination on viral replication and immune response in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus receiving potent antiretroviral therapy
    H F Gunthard
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:522-31. 2000
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Higher selection pressure from antiretroviral drugs in vivo results in increased evolutionary distance in HIV-1 pol
    H F Gunthard
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Virology 259:154-65. 1999
    ..A disproportionally high number of synonymous substitutions accounted for the observed divergence and indicated that such genetic changes may not be completely silent...
  18. pmc Maintenance of Nef-mediated modulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4 after sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    C M Noviello
    Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Virol 81:4776-86. 2007
    ..These data suggest that both functions are important for the successful establishment of infection in a new host...
  19. pmc Failure of dideoxynucleosides to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus replication in cultured human macrophages
    D D Richman
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego 92161
    J Exp Med 166:1144-9. 1987
    ..New therapeutic approaches to inhibit the replication of HIV in MDM may be needed...
  20. ncbi request reprint A phase II randomized study of HIV-specific T-cell gene therapy in subjects with undetectable plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy
    Steven G Deeks
    University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Mol Ther 5:788-97. 2002
    ..Both groups experienced a treatment-related increase in CD4(+) T-cell counts...
  21. pmc Genetic composition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cerebrospinal fluid and blood without treatment and during failing antiretroviral therapy
    M C Strain
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Virol 79:1772-88. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint In vivo antagonism with zidovudine plus stavudine combination therapy
    D V Havlir
    1University of California, San Diego, 2San Diego VA Medical Center, San Diego, California, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:321-5. 2000
    ..Analysis of these data suggests that zidovudine and d4T should not be prescribed in combination and that ddI provides greater antiviral activity than d4T in zidovudine-treated patients...
  23. ncbi request reprint Lipid prodrugs of phosphonoacids: greatly enhanced antiviral activity of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphonoformate in HIV-1, HSV-1 and HCMV-infected cells, in vitro
    K Y Hostetler
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0676, USA
    Antiviral Res 31:59-67. 1996
    ..In view of its greatly increased in vitro potency and selectivity, 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphonoformate may be useful in treating viral diseases...
  24. ncbi request reprint Quality of life in a placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex
    A W Wu
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 3:683-90. 1990
    ..Whether existing measures can detect real differences among survivors will require testing in patients with less advanced disease...
  25. pmc Nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus: kinetics of replication and estimated prevalence in untreated patients
    D V Havlir
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego 92103, USA
    J Virol 70:7894-9. 1996
    ..In two subjects, the calculated prevalence of the 181 mutant virus prior to treatment was 7 and 133 per 10,000 copies of plasma HIV RNA...
  26. pmc Viral dynamics of acute HIV-1 infection
    S J Little
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92103, USA
    J Exp Med 190:841-50. 1999
    ..These measurements provide a basis for comparison of vaccine and other strategies and support the validity of the simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model of acute HIV infection...
  27. ncbi request reprint The antiviral effect of zidovudine and ribavirin in clinical trials and the use of p24 antigen levels as a virologic marker
    S A Spector
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
    J Infect Dis 159:822-8. 1989
    ..These data indicate that decline in p24 antigenemia can be a useful virologic marker in evaluation of new antiretroviral drugs...
  28. ncbi request reprint Genetic attributes of cerebrospinal fluid-derived HIV-1 env
    Satish K Pillai
    University of California San Diego, Department of Medicine NCIRE, La Jolla, CA 94121, USA
    Brain 129:1872-83. 2006
    ..Furthermore, neurological impairment may be influenced by mutations within the viral V3 loop sequence...
  29. ncbi request reprint Incidence of AIDS dementia in a two-year follow-up of AIDS and ARC patients on an initial phase II AZT placebo-controlled study: San Diego cohort
    J J Day
    School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 4:15-20. 1992
    ..The results suggest that patients at CDC Stage IV who do not receive antiretroviral treatment earlier in their illness may develop clinical dementia at an annual rate of about 14%...
  30. pmc Estimating selection pressures on HIV-1 using phylogenetic likelihood models
    S L Kosakovsky Pond
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
    Stat Med 27:4779-89. 2008
    ..To illustrate our methods, we present an analysis of compartment-specific evolution of HIV-1 env in blood and cerebrospinal fluid and of site-to-site variation in the gag gene of subtype C HIV-1...
  31. ncbi request reprint Effect of stage of disease and drug dose on zidovudine susceptibilities of isolates of human immunodeficiency virus
    D D Richman
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 3:743-6. 1990
    ..Patients receiving lower doses of zidovudine at both early and late stages of disease did not develop resistance more readily than patients receiving higher doses of drug...
  32. pmc Temporal gene regulation during HIV-1 infection of human CD4+ T cells
    J Corbeil
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92023, USA
    Genome Res 11:1198-204. 2001
    ..This choreographed host gene response indicated that the subversion of the cell transcriptional machinery for the purpose of HIV-1 replication is akin to genotoxic stress and represents a major factor leading to HIV-induced apoptosis...
  33. pmc Phosphatidylazidothymidine and phosphatidyl-ddC: assessment of uptake in mouse lymphoid tissues and antiviral activities in human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells and in Rauscher leukemia virus-infected mice
    K Y Hostetler
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0676, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:2792-7. 1994
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus replication in AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia: a case control study. California Collaborative Treatment Group
    D V Havlir
    University of California, San Diego, USA
    J Infect Dis 177:595-9. 1998
    ..01). In AIDS patients, the onset of MAC bacteremia is associated with a modest but significant increase in serum HIV RNA levels. Increased HIV replication may contribute to the higher mortality associated with MAC bacteremia...
  35. ncbi request reprint Predictors of self-reported adherence and plasma HIV concentrations in patients on multidrug antiretroviral regimens
    A L Gifford
    Health Services Research and Development, VA San Diego Healthcare System, California 92161, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 23:386-95. 2000
    ..Adherence to prescribed medications is a central feature of good clinical HIV care, but little is known about the factors associated with multidrug antiretroviral adherence, or about how such adherence is related to plasma HIV suppression...
  36. doi request reprint Dynamics of total, linear nonintegrated, and integrated HIV-1 DNA in vivo and in vitro
    Kersten K Koelsch
    University of California, San Diego, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:411-9. 2008
    ..Recent studies report an association between HIV-1 DNA levels, disease progression, and treatment outcome. However, HIV-1 DNA exists as distinct molecular forms that are not distinguished by conventional assays...
  37. pmc Comparison of algorithms that interpret genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance
    Lin Liu
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS 22:835-9. 2008
    ..We compared eight genotypic interpretation methods to determine whether the method used would affect the rates of reported transmitted drug resistance...
  38. ncbi request reprint Combination therapy with recombinant human soluble CD4-immunoglobulin G and zidovudine in patients with HIV infection: a phase I study
    T C Meng
    University of California, San Diego
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 8:152-60. 1995
    ..Mean hemoglobin and neutrophil counts decreased, and mean platelet counts increased in all regimens, but there were no significant differences among regimens, rCD4-IgG dose, or ZDV dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  39. ncbi request reprint Detecting human immunodeficiency virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by nucleic acid hybridization
    D D Richman
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego
    J Infect Dis 156:823-7. 1987
    ..Nucleic acid hybridization offers a more rapid, simple, and inexpensive alternative to culture for detecting HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
  40. ncbi request reprint Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection with drug-resistant clade B virus
    Kersten K Koelsch
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    AIDS 17:F11-6. 2003
    ....
  41. pmc The origins of sexually transmitted HIV among men who have sex with men
    David M Butler
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Sci Transl Med 2:18re1. 2010
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Multiple measures of HIV burden in blood and tissue are correlated with each other but not with clinical parameters in aviremic subjects
    Peter A Anton
    University of California, Los Angeles, the San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 17:53-63. 2003
    ..To determine the levels of residual HIV DNA and RNA in blood and gut reservoirs in aviremic patients, assess correlations among compartmental measurements of HIV burden, and evaluate association with clinical parameters...
  43. pmc Heterogeneous clearance rates of long-lived lymphocytes infected with HIV: intrinsic stability predicts lifelong persistence
    M C Strain
    Department of Medicine and Pathology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 90293, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4819-24. 2003
    ..Eradication will not be achieved with complete inhibition of viral replication alone...
  44. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection. Los Angeles County Primary HIV Infection Recruitment Network
    E S Daar
    Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:25-9. 2001
    ..The optimal approach for diagnosing primary HIV-1 infection has not been defined...
  45. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 preintegration complexes preferentially integrate into longer target DNA molecules in solution as detected by a sensitive, polymerase chain reaction-based integration assay
    A Brooun
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:46946-52. 2001
    ....
  46. pmc Preferential replication of HIV-1 in the CD45RO memory cell subset of primary CD4 lymphocytes in vitro
    C A Spina
    The Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Clin Invest 99:1774-85. 1997
    ..Our results indicate that HIV replication is enhanced selectively in CD45RO memory phenotype cells through the probable contribution of specialized cellular factors which are produced during CD3-initiated signal transduction...
  47. ncbi request reprint Transmission fitness of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus and the prevalence of resistance in the antiretroviral-treated population
    Andrew J Leigh Brown
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:683-6. 2003
    ..It revealed that resistant virus was transmitted only approximately 20% as frequently as expected from these patients. Individuals with primary resistance may become a significant source of resistant strains...
  48. ncbi request reprint A computer-based, image-analysis method to quantify HIV-1 infection in a single-cycle infectious center assay
    John R Day
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol Methods 137:125-33. 2006
    ..The results indicate that the described method allows for the rapid quantitation of infected cells over a wide range of viral inocula with reproducibility, accuracy and relatively low cost...
  49. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 infection and expression in human colonic cells: infection and expression in CD4+ and CD4- cell lines
    M B Omary
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0623
    AIDS 5:275-81. 1991
    ..These studies provide further evidence that HIV-1 can infect cells by mechanisms other than those mediated by the CD4 receptor and describe complementary models for analyzing HIV-1 infection and expression in colonic epithelial cells...
  50. ncbi request reprint HIV induces lymphocyte apoptosis by a p53-initiated, mitochondrial-mediated mechanism
    D Genini
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0663, USA
    FASEB J 15:5-6. 2001
    ..Our results suggest that HIV activates the p53 pathway, leading to cytochrome c and AIF release with ensuing caspase activation...
  51. ncbi request reprint In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of sn-2-substituted 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphonoformate analogues and synergy with zidovudine
    K Y Hostetler
    Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Antivir Chem Chemother 11:213-9. 2000
    ..1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol analogues of PFA have selective antiviral properties and warrant further evaluation as potential antiretroviral drugs...
  52. ncbi request reprint Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV propagation
    M C Strain
    Physics Department, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive UH 220, La Jolla, CA 92093 0319, USA
    J Theor Biol 218:85-96. 2002
    ..The geometry-limited regime can be modulated by downregulation of CD4. These different properties are analysed quantitatively and compared with previous experimental results...
  53. ncbi request reprint Reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility among patients with primary HIV infection
    S J Little
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, USA
    JAMA 282:1142-9. 1999
    ..The transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented, but the prevalence of such transmission is unknown...
  54. ncbi request reprint Immunostimulatory DNA-based vaccines elicit multifaceted immune responses against HIV at systemic and mucosal sites
    A A Horner
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Immunol 167:1584-91. 2001
    ..Based on these results, ISS-based immunization holds promise for the development of an effective preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccine...
  55. ncbi request reprint Evidence for positive selection driving the evolution of HIV-1 env under potent antiviral therapy
    S D Frost
    Centre for HIV Research, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Virology 284:250-8. 2001
    ....
  56. pmc Evolution of the interferon alpha gene family in eutherian mammals
    Christopher H Woelk
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Gene 397:38-50. 2007
    ..Gene conversion, similar to duplication, provides a mechanism by which the protein product of a specific IFNA gene can be increased...
  57. pmc Adaptation to human populations is revealed by within-host polymorphisms in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus
    Art F Y Poon
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e45. 2007
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection does not influence viral dynamics during early HIV-1 infection
    Edward R Cachay
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92103, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:1270-7. 2007
    ..We sought to compare baseline and longitudinal plasma HIV-1 loads between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-seropositive and -seronegative individuals who are enrolled in a primary HIV-1 infection cohort in San Diego, California...
  59. pmc Pooled nucleic acid testing to detect antiretroviral treatment failure in Mexico
    Myres W Tilghman
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0711, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:e70-4. 2011
    ..We evaluated if a pooling method could improve efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy...
  60. ncbi request reprint Lack of neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 predisposes to superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Virology 355:1-5. 2006
    ..These data have considerable implications for vaccine development...
  61. pmc Neutralizing antibody responses drive the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope during recent HIV infection
    Simon D W Frost
    Department of Pathology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18514-9. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that autologous neutralizing antibody responses may play a pivotal role in the diversification of HIV-1 envelope during the early stages of infection...
  62. ncbi request reprint Long-term persistence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in male genital tract secretions: implications for secondary transmission
    Davey M Smith
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:356-60. 2007
    ..Transmitted drug-resistant HIV slowly reverts in the blood to drug-sensitive virus. The environment of the male genital tract (MGT) may result in even slower rates of reversion to drug susceptibility...
  63. pmc Mapping protease inhibitor resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequence polymorphisms within patients
    Art F Y Poon
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Virol 81:13598-607. 2007
    ..These positions are under strong positive selection in the PI-naive patient population, implying that other factors can produce spurious associations with resistance, e.g., mutational escape from the immune response...
  64. pmc Herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition during recent HIV infection does not influence plasma HIV levels
    Edward R Cachay
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92103 8681, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:592-6. 2008
    ..5 log10 copies/mL over 11 days). The HSV-2 incidence rate was high in our cohort of recently HIV-infected individuals; however, HSV-2 acquisition did not significantly change the plasma HIV dynamics and CD4 cell levels...
  65. pmc A novel codon insert in protease of clade B HIV type 1
    Parris S Jordan
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:547-50. 2009
    ..A one codon insert was observed in the protease region between codon 40 and 41 simultaneously with a two codon insert present in the reverse transcriptase region at codon 69...
  66. pmc The use of pooled viral load testing to identify antiretroviral treatment failure
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS 23:2151-8. 2009
    ....
  67. pmc Select resistance-associated mutations in blood are associated with lower CSF viral loads and better neuropsychological performance
    George K Hightower
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Virology 394:243-8. 2009
    ..Our study evaluated whether antiretroviral resistance was associated with viral loads in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and better neuropsychological (NP) performance...
  68. pmc Gene expression before HAART initiation predicts HIV-infected individuals at risk of poor CD4+ T-cell recovery
    Christopher H Woelk
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    AIDS 24:217-22. 2010
    ..To identify a pre-HAART gene expression signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) predictive of CD4 T-cell recovery during HAART in HIV-infected individuals...
  69. pmc Pleocytosis is associated with disruption of HIV compartmentalization between blood and cerebral spinal fluid viral populations
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA
    Virology 385:204-8. 2009
    ....
  70. pmc A public health model for the molecular surveillance of HIV transmission in San Diego, California
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS 23:225-32. 2009
    ..Here, we investigate how molecular epidemiology can be used to identify highly related HIV networks within a population and how voluntary contact tracing of sexual partners can be used to selectively target these networks...
  71. pmc Herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and viral loads of HIV-1 in blood and semen as risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men
    David M Butler
    University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    AIDS 22:1667-71. 2008
    ..We compared the relationships of HIV-1 transmission risk with blood plasma viral load, seminal plasma viral load, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and other factors...
  72. pmc Evaluation of an HIV nucleic acid testing program with automated Internet and voicemail systems to deliver results
    Sheldon R Morris
    Antiviral Research Center, University of California San Diego, 200 Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    Ann Intern Med 152:778-85. 2010
    ..Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in routine HIV testing programs can increase the detection of infected individuals, but the most effective implementation of NAT remains unclear...
  73. pmc Minority variants of drug-resistant HIV
    Sara Gianella
    Departments of Pathology and Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:657-66. 2010
    ..In this review, we summarize the attributes and limitations of the currently available detection assays and review the existing information about both acquired and transmitted drug-resistant minority variants...
  74. pmc Persistence of transmitted drug resistance among subjects with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Susan J Little
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    J Virol 82:5510-8. 2008
    ..The prolonged persistence of transmitted drug resistance strongly supports the routine use of HIV resistance genotyping for all newly diagnosed individuals...
  75. pmc The efficiency of single genome amplification and sequencing is improved by quantitation and use of a bioinformatics tool
    David M Butler
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0679, La Jolla, CA 92039, USA
    J Virol Methods 162:280-3. 2009
    ..Standard methods of SGA sequencing can be costly and both time- and labor-intensive. By choosing a terminal dilution concentration with the proposed method, the number of PCRs required is decreased and efficiency improved...
  76. ncbi request reprint HIV superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California, San Diego, 92093, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:438-44. 2005
    ..Here, we review the current understanding of HIV superinfection...
  77. ncbi request reprint A randomized, prospective study of phenotype susceptibility testing versus standard of care to manage antiretroviral therapy: CCTG 575
    Richard H Haubrich
    University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    AIDS 19:295-302. 2005
    ..To assess phenotype susceptibility testing (PHENO) with standard of care (SOC) to improve antiretroviral therapy...
  78. ncbi request reprint HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, USA
    AIDS 19:1251-6. 2005
    ..We report an individual initially infected with a drug-sensitive clade B strain of HIV who was superinfected with another clade B strain resistant to two classes of antiretroviral drugs...
  79. ncbi request reprint Interferon gene expression following HIV type 1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages
    Christopher H Woelk
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:1210-22. 2004
    ..The nuclear factor in activated T cells (NFAT) and members of the interferon family of transcription factors appeared to be responsible for the upregulation of this set of interferon-stimulated genes following HIV-1 exposure...
  80. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV
    Susan J Little
    Antiviral Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego 92103, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:385-94. 2002
    ..Among persons in North America who are newly infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the prevalence of transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs has been estimated at 1 to 11 percent...
  81. pmc Semen-specific genetic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env
    Satish K Pillai
    University of California, San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, 9500 Gilman Dr, MC 0679, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Virol 79:1734-42. 2005
    ..Our analysis suggests that the male genital tract represents a distinct selective environment that contributes to the apparent genetic bottlenecks associated with the sexual transmission of HIV-1...
  82. pmc Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope variation and neutralizing antibody responses during transmission of HIV-1 subtype B
    Simon D W Frost
    UCSD Antiviral Research Center, 150 W Washington St, Suite 100, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    J Virol 79:6523-7. 2005
    ..We suggest that limited genetic variation within the infecting host reduces the likelihood of selective transmission of neutralization-sensitive HIV...
  83. ncbi request reprint Effects of treatment intensification with hydroxyurea in HIV-infected patients with virologic suppression
    D V Havlir
    University of California at San Diego and the San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92103, USA
    AIDS 15:1379-88. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Switching to IDV + ddI + d4T + HU in patients treated with IDV + ZDV + 3TC was associated with a worse outcome, principally because of drug toxicity...
  84. ncbi request reprint Productive infection and subsequent interaction of CD4-gp120 at the cellular membrane is required for HIV-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells
    J Corbeil
    Department of Medicine and Pathology, University of California, San Diego
    J Gen Virol 76:681-90. 1995
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint In vitro evaluation of experimental agents for anti-HIV activity
    D D Richman
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Curr Protoc Immunol . 2001
    ..Calculation of the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) is also presented...
  86. pmc CD40 ligand (CD154) stimulation of macrophages to produce HIV-1-suppressive beta-chemokines
    R S Kornbluth
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:5205-10. 1998
    ..This pathway may play a role in anti-HIV-1 immunity and the development of immunologic reactions or lesions...
  87. ncbi request reprint The prostate as a reservoir for HIV-1
    Davey M Smith
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    AIDS 18:1600-2. 2004
    ..Six of the nine participants had undetectable seminal plasma(SP) HIV RNA in all samples without previous PM, but had detectable SP HIV RNA (> 25 copies/ml) in one to three samples collected after PM...
  88. pmc Evaluation of a highly sensitive qualitative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA assay for detection of HIV-1 suppression
    C Thomas Nugent
    Gen Probe, Incorporated, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:833-6. 2009
    ....
  89. pmc Adaptation to different human populations by HIV-1 revealed by codon-based analyses
    Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS Comput Biol 2:e62. 2006
    ..Additionally, we have identified seven amino acid sites in protease and reverse transcriptase that are selected differentially in the two samples, demonstrating specific population-level adaptation of HIV to human populations...
  90. ncbi request reprint Broadly increased sensitivity to cytotoxic T lymphocytes resulting from Nef epitope escape mutations
    Ayub Ali
    Department of Medicine and AIDS Institute, Center for Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 171:3999-4005. 2003
    ..Given the rarity of nef frameshifts in vivo, these data support the concept that the ability to down-regulate MHC-I could be a key constraint for preservation of Nef in vivo...
  91. pmc Dissecting the neutralizing antibody specificities of broadly neutralizing sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected donors
    Amandeep K Dhillon
    The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Immunology IMM 2, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 81:6548-62. 2007
    ..The most likely epitope recognized by the monomeric gp120 binding neutralizing fraction is the CD4 binding site, although other epitopes, such as the glycan shield, cannot be excluded...
  92. ncbi request reprint Codon volatility does not reflect selective pressure on the HIV-1 genome
    Satish K Pillai
    University of California, San Diego, Stein Clinical Research Building, Room 325, 9500 Gilman Drive 0679, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Virology 336:137-43. 2005
    ..Volatility failed to correlate with the results of any of the comparative methods demonstrating that it is not a reliable indicator of selection pressure...
  93. pmc Antibody elicited against the gp41 N-heptad repeat (NHR) coiled-coil can neutralize HIV-1 with modest potency but non-neutralizing antibodies also bind to NHR mimetics
    Josh D Nelson
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Virology 377:170-83. 2008
    ..Nevertheless, the mAb panel may be useful as tools for elucidating access restrictions to the NHR of gp41 and in designing potential improvements to mimetics of receptor-activated Env...
  94. ncbi request reprint Effect of treatment, during primary infection, on establishment and clearance of cellular reservoirs of HIV-1
    Matthew C Strain
    Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1410-8. 2005
    ..1 IUPM; P<.0005). These results suggest that treatment <6 months after seroconversion may facilitate long-term control of cellular reservoirs that maintain HIV-1 infection during treatment...
  95. doi request reprint A case cluster demonstrating the relationship between HLA concordance and virologic and disease outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus infection
    A Chaillon
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Inserm UMR U966, Tours, France Electronic address
    Virology 449:104-8. 2014
    ..We suggest that non-viral factors, which might be related to differences in the HLA profile, played a role in determining different CD4+ T-cells dynamics for these two recipients. ..
  96. pmc Viral evolution in response to the broad-based retroviral protease inhibitor TL-3
    B Buhler
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 75:9502-8. 2001
    ..These results suggest that deficient protease enzymatic activity is sufficient for function, and the observed protease restoration might imply a selective advantage, at least in vitro, for increased protease activity...
  97. ncbi request reprint Questions to and answers from the International AIDS Society-USA Resistance Testing Guidelines Panel
    Martin S Hirsch
    Top HIV Med 11:150-4. 2003
    ..We are happy to feature the latest edition in this issue of Topics in HIV Medicine. It is our hope that addressing these issues will help guide your treatment strategy decisions regarding resistance testing...
  98. ncbi request reprint Drug resistance mutations in HIV-1
    RICHARD T D'AQUILA
    Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    Top HIV Med 11:92-6. 2003
  99. doi request reprint Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2008 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel
    Scott M Hammer
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032, USA
    JAMA 300:555-70. 2008
    ....
  100. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: 2003 recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel
    Martin S Hirsch
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:113-28. 2003
    ..Limitations of resistance testing remain, and more study is needed to refine optimal use and interpretation...
  101. ncbi request reprint Baseline predictors of CD4 T-lymphocyte recovery with combination antiretroviral therapy
    Kara K Bennett
    SDAC, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31:20-6. 2002
    ..01) had higher increases in phase I changes. Phase II CD4 cell counts did not depend solely on baseline HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts but on their interaction (p =.0001) as well as on achieving virologic suppression (p =.0009)...

Research Grants18

  1. BIOMATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF VIRAL DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..HIV in the central nervous system is associated with HIV dementia; we will investigate genetic changes in the virus associated with a neurotropic phenotype. ..
  2. Southern California Primary Infection Program
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will develop a set of on-line resources and communications technologies that facilitate scholarly exchange, distance-independent collaboration, information dissemination, education and training. ..
  3. AIDS TRAINING GRANT
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..D. and Ph.D. trainees and to provide the environment and opportunities that will result in young independent investigators in the areas of medically relevant basic research and scientifically oriented clinical research. ..
  4. BIOMATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF VIRAL DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..HIV in the central nervous system is associated with HIV dementia; we will investigate genetic changes in the virus associated with a neurotropic phenotype. ..
  5. Meeting support for HIV Evolution and Dynamics
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  6. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  7. Biomathematical analysis of viral dynamics/evolution
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  8. 9th Annual International Mtg on HIV Dynamics & Evolution
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Participants in the 9th Meeting will include leading figures in virology, biomathematics, and evolution, as well as junior workers actively involved in research in these areas. ..
  9. BIOMATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF VIRAL DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION
    Douglas D Richman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV in the central nervous system is associated with HIV dementia;we will investigate genetic changes in the virus associated with a neurotropic phenotype. ..