V S Ramachandran

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Broken mirrors: a theory of autism
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Congnition, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Sci Am 295:62-9. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Behavioural evidence for vestibular stimulation as a treatment for central post-stroke pain
    P D McGeoch
    Centre for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:1298-301. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Sexual and food preference in apotemnophilia and anorexia: interactions between 'beliefs' and 'needs' regulated by two-way connections between body image and limbic structures
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 38:775-7. 2009
  4. pmc Colored halos around faces and emotion-evoked colors: a new form of synesthesia
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    University of CA, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neurocase 18:352-8. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary biology of self-deception, laughter, dreaming and depression: some clues from anosognosia
    V S Ramachandran
    Brain and Perception Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Med Hypotheses 47:347-62. 1996
  6. ncbi request reprint Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Clin Med 5:368-73. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint The phantom head
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California at San Diego, McGill Hall, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 40:367-70. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Synesthetically induced colors evoke apparent-motion perception
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 35:1557-60. 2006
  9. doi request reprint Size reduction using Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF) reduces phantom pain
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neurocase 15:357-60. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint The use of visual feedback, in particular mirror visual feedback, in restoring brain function
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0109, La Jolla, California 92093 0109, USA
    Brain 132:1693-710. 2009

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint Broken mirrors: a theory of autism
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Congnition, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Sci Am 295:62-9. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Behavioural evidence for vestibular stimulation as a treatment for central post-stroke pain
    P D McGeoch
    Centre for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:1298-301. 2008
    ..Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is often resistant to treatment. We have previously proposed that caloric vestibular stimulation might alleviate it...
  3. ncbi request reprint Sexual and food preference in apotemnophilia and anorexia: interactions between 'beliefs' and 'needs' regulated by two-way connections between body image and limbic structures
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 38:775-7. 2009
    ..We postulate that sexual 'aesthetic preference' for certain body morphology is dictated in all individuals in part by the cortical representation of one's body image...
  4. pmc Colored halos around faces and emotion-evoked colors: a new form of synesthesia
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    University of CA, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neurocase 18:352-8. 2012
    ..Additionally, we investigate TK's claim that emotions evoke highly specific colors, allowing him, despite his Asperger's, to introspect on emotions and recognize them in others...
  5. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary biology of self-deception, laughter, dreaming and depression: some clues from anosognosia
    V S Ramachandran
    Brain and Perception Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Med Hypotheses 47:347-62. 1996
    ..And, finally, I use anosognosia as a launching-off point to speculate on a number of other aspects of human nature such as Freudian defense mechanisms, laughter, dreams and the mnemonic functions of the hippocampus...
  6. ncbi request reprint Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Clin Med 5:368-73. 2005
    ..Both principles can be potentially exploited in a clinical context to facilitate recovery of function...
  7. ncbi request reprint The phantom head
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California at San Diego, McGill Hall, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 40:367-70. 2011
    ..The fact that sensory referral here occurs to a part of the body that is not normally visually accessible challenges the leading Hebbian explanation of the well-studied rubber-hand illusion...
  8. ncbi request reprint Synesthetically induced colors evoke apparent-motion perception
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 35:1557-60. 2006
    ..We conclude that, in at least some subjects, a synesthetically induced color that does not exist on the retina can nonetheless influence motion perception...
  9. doi request reprint Size reduction using Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF) reduces phantom pain
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neurocase 15:357-60. 2009
    ..Remarkably we find that optically 'resurrecting' the phantom with a mirror and using a lens to make the phantom appear to shrink caused the pain to 'shrink' as well...
  10. ncbi request reprint The use of visual feedback, in particular mirror visual feedback, in restoring brain function
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0109, La Jolla, California 92093 0109, USA
    Brain 132:1693-710. 2009
    ..If so, relatively simple therapies can be devised--of which mirror visual feedback is an example--to restore function...
  11. doi request reprint Tactile-emotion synesthesia
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neurocase 14:390-9. 2008
    ..It may represent an enhancement of pre-existing evolutionarily primitive interactions between touch and emotions...
  12. doi request reprint Using mirror visual feedback and virtual reality to treat fibromyalgia
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Med Hypotheses 75:495-6. 2010
    ..This would furnish us with a better understanding of the mechanism by which external visual feedback interacts with the internal physical manifestation of pain...
  13. ncbi request reprint Dynamic reorganization of referred sensations by movements of phantom limbs
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0109, USA
    Neuroreport 21:727-30. 2010
    ..This finding further highlights the dynamic nature of the brain on remarkably short-time scales...
  14. ncbi request reprint Sensations evoked in patients with amputation from watching an individual whose corresponding intact limb is being touched
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr 0109, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Arch Neurol 66:1281-4. 2009
    ..While these neurons cannot by themselves discriminate between the two, the mind is aware of the difference between feeling and watching; one does not confuse empathy with actual experience...
  15. ncbi request reprint Can mirrors alleviate visual hemineglect?
    V S Ramachandran
    Brain and Perception Laboratory, Center for Research on Brain and Cognition, UCSD La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Med Hypotheses 52:303-5. 1999
    ..Quite apart from its obvious theoretical implications, we believe this technique might provide a new approach for the treatment of visual hemineglect...
  16. pmc Consciousness and body image: lessons from phantom limbs, Capgras syndrome and pain asymbolia
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353:1851-9. 1998
    ..We consider three neurological syndromes (phantom limbs, Capgras delusion and pain asymbolia) to illustrate this idea...
  17. ncbi request reprint The perception of phantom limbs. The D. O. Hebb lecture
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Brain 121:1603-30. 1998
    ..We conclude with a theory of phantom limbs, some striking demonstrations of phantoms induced in normal subjects, and some remarks about the relevance of these phenomena to the question of how the brain constructs a 'body image.'..
  18. ncbi request reprint Phantom limbs and neural plasticity
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Arch Neurol 57:317-20. 2000
    ..Finally, phantom limbs also allow us to explore intersensory effects and the manner in which the brain constructs and updates a "body image" throughout life...
  19. pmc Mirror agnosia
    V S Ramachandran
    Brain and Perception Laboratory, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 264:645-7. 1997
    ..The finding may have implications for understanding how the brain creates representations of mirror reflections...
  20. pmc Psychophysical investigations into the neural basis of synaesthesia
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 268:979-83. 2001
    ..We also suggest a similar explanation for the representation of metaphors in the brain: hence, the higher incidence of synaesthesia among artists and poets...
  21. ncbi request reprint Graphemes evoke synesthetic colors even before they are consciously recognized
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 40:490-2. 2011
    ..Intriguingly the subject saw the appropriate colors accurately long before the graphemes became consciously visible--a novel form of blindsight...
  22. ncbi request reprint The neurology and evolution of humor, laughter, and smiling: the false alarm theory
    V S Ramachandran
    Brain and Perception Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Med Hypotheses 51:351-4. 1998
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia
    D Brang
    University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neuroimage 53:268-74. 2010
    ..Results are discussed in the context of an updated version of the cross-activation model, the cascaded cross-tuning model of grapheme-color synesthesia...
  24. doi request reprint Visual field heterogeneity, laterality, and eidetic imagery in synesthesia
    David Brang
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Neurocase 16:169-74. 2010
    ..The implications of these findings for the level at which synesthesia occurs, the 'enhanced cross-activation' model, and the mechanisms of visual memory are discussed...
  25. doi request reprint Post-stroke tactile allodynia and its modulation by vestibular stimulation: a MEG case study
    P D McGeoch
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Acta Neurol Scand 119:404-9. 2009
    ..There is behavioural evidence that caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) can alleviate central pain. Several such patients have also noted that it reduces tactile allodynia, an especially ill-understood phenomenon in these patients...
  26. doi request reprint Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome
    Paul D McGeoch
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 82:1314-9. 2011
    ..The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction...
  27. doi request reprint Temporal sequences, synesthetic mappings, and cultural biases: the geography of time
    David Brang
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Conscious Cogn 19:311-20. 2010
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Vestibular stimulation can relieve central pain of spinal origin
    P D McGeoch
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Spinal Cord 46:756-7. 2008
    ..Single-blind, placebo-controlled case report...
  29. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia
    Edward M Hubbard
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Neuron 48:509-20. 2005
    ..We propose that some, but probably not all, of these differences can be accounted for by differences in the synesthetes studied and discuss some methodological implications of these individual differences...
  30. doi request reprint Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia
    David Brang
    University of CA, San Diego, CA, USA
    Neuropsychologia 49:1355-8. 2011
    ....
  31. pmc Survival of the synesthesia gene: why do people hear colors and taste words?
    David Brang
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001205. 2011
    ..Progress in uncovering the genetic basis of synesthesia will help us understand why synesthesia has been conserved in the population...
  32. doi request reprint Is the sky 2? Contextual priming in grapheme-color synaesthesia
    D Brang
    Cognitive Science Department, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0515, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA
    Psychol Sci 19:421-8. 2008
    ..The results suggest that grapheme-color synaesthesia is automatic and perceptual in nature and also suggest that the connections between colors and numbers are bidirectional...
  33. ncbi request reprint Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat apotemnophilia?
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 9209, United States
    Med Hypotheses 69:250-2. 2007
    ..If correct our hypothesis not only suggests why BIID arises, but also, in caloric stimulation a therapeutic avenue for this chronic and essentially untreatable condition...
  34. ncbi request reprint Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome?
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0109, Mandler Hall, La Jolla, CA 9209, United States
    Med Hypotheses 69:486-8. 2007
    ..If our hypothesis is correct this will be the first time in clinical neurology that a chronic disorder, long considered refractory to treatment, is relieved by a simple non-invasive procedure...
  35. ncbi request reprint EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders
    Lindsay M Oberman
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 24:190-8. 2005
    ..The ASD group showed significant mu suppression to self-performed hand movements but not to observed hand movements. These results support the hypothesis of a dysfunctional mirror neuron system in high-functioning individuals with ASD...
  36. ncbi request reprint The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders
    Lindsay M Oberman
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Psychol Bull 133:310-27. 2007
    ..Additionally, the authors suggest that dysfunctional simulation mechanisms may underlie the social and communicative deficits seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders...
  37. doi request reprint Preliminary evidence for deficits in multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorders: the mirror neuron hypothesis
    Lindsay M Oberman
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Soc Neurosci 3:348-55. 2008
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Spatial cueing in time-space synesthetes: An event-related brain potential study
    Ursina Teuscher
    Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0515, United States
    Brain Cogn 74:35-46. 2010
    ..The findings suggest that in these time-space synesthetes cue validity influenced post-perceptual processes, such as stimulus evaluation and categorization, with no evidence for enhanced visual processing...
  39. doi request reprint Face to face: blocking facial mimicry can selectively impair recognition of emotional expressions
    Lindsay M Oberman
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Soc Neurosci 2:167-78. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that facial mimicry differentially contributes to recognition of specific facial expressions, thus allowing for more refined predictions from embodied cognition theories...
  40. doi request reprint Modulation of mu suppression in children with autism spectrum disorders in response to familiar or unfamiliar stimuli: the mirror neuron hypothesis
    Lindsay M Oberman
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, United States
    Neuropsychologia 46:1558-65. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that the MNS responds to observed actions in individuals with ASD, but only when individuals can identify in some personal way with the stimuli...
  41. ncbi request reprint Apotemnophilia: a neurological disorder
    David Brang
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Neuroreport 19:1305-6. 2008
    ..We found heightened skin conductance response to pinprick below the desired line of amputation. We propose apotemnophilia arises from congenital dysfunction of the right superior parietal lobule and its connection with the insula...
  42. doi request reprint The appearance of new phantom fingers post-amputation in a phocomelus
    Paul D McGeoch
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Neurocase 18:95-7. 2012
    ..The case powerfully demonstrates the interaction of nature and nurture in creating and sustaining body image...
  43. ncbi request reprint Occurrence of phantom genitalia after gender reassignment surgery
    V S Ramachandran
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Med Hypotheses 69:1001-3. 2007
    ..We would emphasise here that transsexuality should not be regarded as "abnormal" but instead as part of the spectrum of human behaviour...
  44. pmc Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response
    K Carrie Armel
    Psychology Department, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 270:1499-506. 2003
    ..These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain's remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input...
  45. ncbi request reprint Slow echo: facial EMG evidence for the delay of spontaneous, but not voluntary, emotional mimicry in children with autism spectrum disorders
    Lindsay M Oberman
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UC San Diego, USA
    Dev Sci 12:510-20. 2009
    ..This delay occurred across different expressions and presentation durations. We relate these findings to the literature on mirroring and temporal dynamics of social interaction...
  46. pmc Reduced multisensory integration in patients with schizophrenia on a target detection task
    Lisa E Williams
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States
    Neuropsychologia 48:3128-36. 2010
    ....
  47. doi request reprint Olfactory bulb dysgenesis, mirror neuron system dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation as the neural basis for autism
    David Brang
    Center for Brain and Cognition, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Med Hypotheses 74:919-21. 2010
    ..This causes deranged autonomic feedback, resulting in additional deficiencies in MNS with loss of emotional empathy and introspection...
  48. ncbi request reprint Attending to a misoriented word causes the eyeball to rotate in the head
    Harold Pashler
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0109, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 13:954-7. 2006
    ..Apparent-motion displays confirming that the eye rotated in the head may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive...
  49. ncbi request reprint Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: brain-behavior correlations
    Edward M Hubbard
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Systems Neurobiology Laboratory B, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Neuron 45:975-85. 2005
    ..The correlation between the behavioral and fMRI results suggests that grapheme-color synesthetes may constitute a heterogeneous group...
  50. ncbi request reprint Contrast affects the strength of synesthetic colors
    Edward M Hubbard
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Cortex 42:184-94. 2006
    ..However, whether this is true for all grapheme-color synesthetes or is only true of the group we refer to as lower synesthetes, remains to be seen...
  51. pmc Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation
    David Brang
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 2710, USA
    Neuroimage 78:396-401. 2013
    ....
  52. pmc Autonomic responses of autistic children to people and objects
    W Hirstein
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 268:1883-8. 2001
    ....
  53. doi request reprint Immediate interpersonal and intermanual referral of sensations following anesthetic block of one arm
    Laura K Case
    Center for Brain and Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0109, USA
    Arch Neurol 67:1521-3. 2010
    ..To explore whether interpersonal and intermanual sensory referral occurs following anesthetic block of a limb and to test theories of disinhibition of mirror neuron activity and transcallosal referral...
  54. ncbi request reprint A simple method to stand outside oneself
    Eric Lewin Altschuler
    Brain and Perception Laboratory, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0109, USA
    Perception 36:632-4. 2007
    ..This method demonstrates that registration of vision with touch and proprioception is crucial for the perception of the corporeal self. Our method may also allow the disassociation of taste from touch, proprioception, and movement...
  55. pmc Superior size-weight illusion performance in patients with schizophrenia: evidence for deficits in forward models
    Lisa E Williams
    Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0109, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Schizophr Res 121:101-6. 2010
    ..The current findings are consistent with a dysfunctional forward model mechanism in this population. Future studies to elucidate the locus of this impairment using variations on the current study are also proposed...
  56. doi request reprint Sensations referred to a patient's phantom arm from another subjects intact arm: perceptual correlates of mirror neurons
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Med Hypotheses 70:1233-4. 2008
  57. ncbi request reprint Can you do this? Extremely difficult interbodypart coordination tasks and implications for central limitations on control of coordination
    Eric Lewin Altschuler
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
    Perception 35:281-3. 2006
    ..The inability to perform these tasks indicates an intriguing central processing limitation on movement control, and study of these tasks should be helpful in understanding the neural mechanisms of motor control...
  58. ncbi request reprint Hearing colors, tasting shapes
    Vilayanur S Ramachandran
    Sci Am 288:52-9. 2003