M Pfaller

Summary

Affiliation: University of Iowa
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc In vitro activities of caspofungin compared with those of fluconazole and itraconazole against 3,959 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 157 fluconazole-resistant isolates
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1068-71. 2003
  2. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2176-9. 2003
  3. pmc Cross-resistance between fluconazole and ravuconazole and the use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to ravuconazole among 12,796 clinical isolates of Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3137-41. 2004
  4. pmc Unusual fungal and pseudofungal infections of humans
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1495-504. 2005
  5. doi request reprint Clinical breakpoints for voriconazole and Candida spp. revisited: review of microbiologic, molecular, pharmacodynamic, and clinical data as they pertain to the development of species-specific interpretive criteria
    Michael A Pfaller
    University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52246, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 70:330-43. 2011
  6. pmc In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology Epidemiology Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3518-21. 2002
  7. pmc Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the echinocandins and Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:52-6. 2010
  8. pmc Activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against 1,586 recent clinical isolates of Candida species determined by Broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest methods: report from the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Susceptibility Program, 2001
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1440-6. 2003
  9. pmc Wild-type MIC distribution and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus fumigatus and three triazoles as determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3142-6. 2009
  10. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location in the United States in 2001 to 2007
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3185-90. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications142 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc In vitro activities of caspofungin compared with those of fluconazole and itraconazole against 3,959 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 157 fluconazole-resistant isolates
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1068-71. 2003
    ..These results provide further evidence for the spectrum and potency of caspofungin activity against a large and geographically diverse collection of clinically important isolates of Candida spp...
  2. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2176-9. 2003
    ..S. Bureau of the Census). Isolates from pediatric patients were virtually all susceptible to fluconazole, whereas the highest frequency of resistance was observed in isolates from patients 16 to 64 years of age...
  3. pmc Cross-resistance between fluconazole and ravuconazole and the use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to ravuconazole among 12,796 clinical isolates of Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3137-41. 2004
    ..Fluconazole may serve as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to ravuconazole...
  4. pmc Unusual fungal and pseudofungal infections of humans
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1495-504. 2005
  5. doi request reprint Clinical breakpoints for voriconazole and Candida spp. revisited: review of microbiologic, molecular, pharmacodynamic, and clinical data as they pertain to the development of species-specific interpretive criteria
    Michael A Pfaller
    University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52246, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 70:330-43. 2011
    ..In the absence of CBPs for voriconazole and C. glabrata (and less common species), we recommend that their respective ECVs be used to detect the emergence of non-WT strains...
  6. pmc In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology Epidemiology Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3518-21. 2002
    ..5 to 4 h) and concentration-independent activity (optimized at 4x MIC), suggest that 5FC could be used in lower doses to reduce host toxicity while maintaining antifungal efficacy...
  7. pmc Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the echinocandins and Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:52-6. 2010
    ..9%) for C. guilliermondii. These WT MIC distributions and ECVs will be useful in surveillance for emerging reduced echinocandin susceptibility among Candida spp. and for determining the importance of various FKS1 or other mutations...
  8. pmc Activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against 1,586 recent clinical isolates of Candida species determined by Broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest methods: report from the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Susceptibility Program, 2001
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1440-6. 2003
    ..Continued surveillance and refinement of broth- and agar-based test methods will help to identify susceptibility trends and improve the laboratory capability for antifungal susceptibility testing...
  9. pmc Wild-type MIC distribution and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus fumigatus and three triazoles as determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3142-6. 2009
    ..The establishment of the WT MIC distribution and ECVs for the azoles and A. fumigatus will be useful in resistance surveillance and is an important step toward the development of clinical breakpoints...
  10. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location in the United States in 2001 to 2007
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3185-90. 2009
    ..The oldest age group (> or = 80 years) had the highest proportion of BSI isolates that were C. glabrata (32%) and the lowest rate of fluconazole resistance (5%)...
  11. pmc Effectiveness of anidulafungin in eradicating Candida species in invasive candidiasis
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, Roy J and A Carver College of Medicine, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4795-7. 2005
    ..The anidulafungin MIC distribution showed that Candida albicans and C. glabrata were the most susceptible species and C. parapsilosis was the least susceptible species...
  12. doi request reprint Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values
    Michael A Pfaller
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 77:37-40. 2013
    ..3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system remains comparable to the CLSI BMD reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp. when using the new (lower) CBPs and ECVs. ..
  13. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial susceptibility of inducible AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from the Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) Programme, Europe 1997-2000
    Michael A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 200 Hawikins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 19:383-8. 2002
    ..We suggest increased attention in Europe to: (1) the recognition of these resistant phenotypes, (2) infection control practices, and (3) limiting the overuse of certain selecting extended-spectrum beta-lactam agents (e.g. ceftazidime)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice: global trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 10:11-23. 2004
    ..These observations are generally encouraging relative to the sustained usefulness of fluconazole as a systemically active antifungal agent for the treatment of candida BSI...
  15. ncbi request reprint Antifungal susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Molecular Epidemiology and Fungus Testing Laboratory, Section of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IW 52242, USA
    Curr Drug Targets 6:929-43. 2005
    ..The ongoing efforts and international collaborations designed to address these issues will provide important information that will improve the management of serious fungal infections...
  16. ncbi request reprint Overview of the epidemiological profile and laboratory detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases
    Michael A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:S153-63. 2006
    ....
  17. pmc Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 antifungal susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole against Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:3522-8. 2007
    ..9 to 97.4% at the 48-h BMD time point. The VITEK 2 system reliably detected flucytosine and voriconazole resistance among Candida spp. and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method...
  18. pmc Evaluation of the Etest and disk diffusion methods for determining susceptibilities of 235 bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1875-80. 2003
    ..The agar-based methods performed well in identifying isolates with resistance to fluconazole and decreased susceptibility to voriconazole...
  19. ncbi request reprint Geographic variation in the frequency of isolation and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida glabrata: an assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program
    Michael A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67:162-71. 2010
    ..glabrata. Prompt species identification and fluconazole susceptibility testing are necessary to optimize therapy for invasive candidiasis...
  20. pmc Evaluation of Etest method for determining caspofungin (MK-0991) susceptibilities of 726 clinical isolates of Candida species
    M A Pfaller
    CAST Laboratories and Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:4387-9. 2001
    ..The Etest method using RPG appears to be useful for determining caspofungin susceptibilities of Candida species...
  21. pmc In vitro activity of anidulafungin and other agents against esophageal candidiasis-associated isolates from a phase 3 clinical trial
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:2613-4. 2010
    ..Isolates were identified and tested for susceptibility. Candida albicans represented >90% of baseline isolates. The MIC(90) of anidulafungin for all strains was 0.06 mg/liter...
  22. ncbi request reprint MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) results from the Americas: resistance implications in the treatment of serious infections. MYSTIC Study Group (Americas)
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 46:25-37. 2000
    ..Carbapenem resistance was observed rarely and at a prevalence similar to those reported in earlier studies. Carbapenems appear to be a continuing reliable option for the treatment of serious nosocomial infection...
  23. pmc Use of epidemiological cutoff values to examine 9-year trends in susceptibility of Candida species to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin
    M Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:624-9. 2011
    ..Although uncommon, decreased S among Candida isolates was observed for each of the echinocandins and varied by species. Using ECVs is important in determining R trends among echinocandins and Candida...
  24. ncbi request reprint Clinical evaluation of a dried commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of five antifungal agents against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 50:113-7. 2004
    ..6% for voriconazole to 99.4% for amphotericin B. The TREK dried microdilution panel appears to be a viable alternative to frozen-broth microdilution panels for testing of Candida spp. and C. neoformans...
  25. pmc In vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi: comparison of Etest and reference microdilution methods for determining itraconazole MICs
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3359-61. 2000
    ..The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining itraconazole susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi...
  26. doi request reprint Activity of MK-3118, a new oral glucan synthase inhibitor, tested against Candida spp. by two international methods (CLSI and EUCAST)
    Michael A Pfaller
    JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 68:858-63. 2013
    ..using CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution (BMD) methods...
  27. doi request reprint Antifungal drug resistance: mechanisms, epidemiology, and consequences for treatment
    Michael A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Am J Med 125:S3-13. 2012
    ..This situation requires continuing attention. Rates of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus are currently low, but there are reports of emerging resistance, including multi-azole resistant isolates in parts of Europe...
  28. ncbi request reprint Performance accuracy of antibacterial and antifungal susceptibility test methods: report from the College of American Pathologists Microbiology Surveys Program (2001-2003)
    Michael A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:767-78. 2006
    ..The College of American Pathologists Microbiology Surveys Program provides external proficiency samples that monitor the performance of nearly 3000 laboratories that perform and report antimicrobial susceptibility tests...
  29. pmc Interpretive breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida revisited: a blueprint for the future of antifungal susceptibility testing
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:435-47. 2006
    ..S, MIC <or= 8 microg/ml; susceptible-dose dependent (SDD), MIC = 16 to 32 microg/ml; R, MIC >or= 64 microg/ml. The corresponding disk test breakpoints are as follows: S, >or=19 mm; SDD, 15 to 18 mm; R, <or=14 mm...
  30. ncbi request reprint Review of in vitro activity of sertaconazole nitrate in the treatment of superficial fungal infections
    Michael A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56:147-52. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Anidulafungin: an echinocandin antifungal
    Michael A Pfaller
    Section of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 13:1183-97. 2004
    ..Clinically, anidulafungin has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of oesophageal candidiasis and candidemia. Further clinical application of this new antifungal agent is warranted...
  32. pmc Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against voriconazole: analysis and proposal for interpretive breakpoints
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:819-26. 2006
    ..The corresponding disk test breakpoints are as follows: S, > or = 17 mm; SDD, 14 to 16 mm; and R, < or = 13 mm...
  33. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin: four years of global surveillance
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, Epidemiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:760-3. 2006
    ..Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging caspofungin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida...
  34. pmc Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4419-31. 2004
  35. pmc Clinical evaluation of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal plate for antifungal susceptibility testing of the new triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole, and ravuconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4577-80. 2004
    ..0% with fluconazole. The YeastOne colorimetric method appears to be comparable to the NCCLS reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp to the new triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole, and ravuconazole...
  36. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study: a 6.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole by standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5848-59. 2005
    ....
  37. pmc In vitro activities of anidulafungin against more than 2,500 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 315 isolates resistant to fluconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5425-7. 2005
    ..These results provide further evidence for the spectrum and potency of anidulafungin activity against a large and geographically diverse collection of clinically important isolates of Candida spp...
  38. pmc Evaluation of the etest method using Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue for determining amphotericin B MICs for 4,936 clinical isolates of Candida species
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4977-9. 2004
    ..albicans, 95.1%; C. glabrata, 94.3%; C. krusei, 91.6%; C. parapsilosis, 86.6%; and C. tropicalis, 86.4%. The Etest method using MH-GMB appears to be a useful method for determining amphotericin B susceptibilities of Candida species...
  39. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus species to itraconazole: global survey of 9,359 isolates tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3807-10. 2005
    ..In light of the new intravenous formulation of itraconazole these data suggest that this agent remains a viable systemically active antifungal agent...
  40. pmc Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004)
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2163-7. 2005
    ..We conclude that in vitro resistance to antifungal agents used in the treatment of cryptococcosis remains uncommon among isolates of C. neoformans from five broad geographic regions and has not increased over a 15-year period...
  41. pmc Comparison of results of voriconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida species with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5208-13. 2005
    ....
  42. pmc Candida rugosa, an emerging fungal pathogen with resistance to azoles: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3578-82. 2006
    ..C. rugosa should be considered, along with the established pathogens Candida krusei and Candida glabrata, as a species of Candida with reduced susceptibility to the azole antifungal agents...
  43. pmc Activity of MGCD290, a Hos2 histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with azole antifungals against opportunistic fungal pathogens
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3797-804. 2009
    ..g., Mucor and Fusarium). Further evaluation of fungal HDAC inhibitor-azole combinations is indicated...
  44. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida Species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1366-77. 2010
    ..These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and underscore the importance of prompt and accurate species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing...
  45. pmc Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Etest methods with the CLSI broth microdilution method for echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida species
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1592-9. 2010
    ..All three test methods showed a high level of agreement and of ability to distinguish fks mutant strains of Candida species from WT strains using each of the echinocandins...
  46. pmc Comparison of the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-hour CLSI BMD method for testing susceptibility of Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole by use of ep
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:845-50. 2011
    ..These results provide additional data in favor of the harmonization of these two methods...
  47. doi request reprint Wild-type MIC distributions, epidemiological cutoff values and species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida: time for harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 13:180-95. 2010
    ..EUCAST CBPs are species-specific, and apply only to C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, while CLSI CBPs apply to all species. We reassessed the CLSI CBPs for FLU and Candida in light of recent data...
  48. pmc Use of epidemiological cutoff values to examine 9-year trends in susceptibility of Aspergillus species to the triazoles
    M Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:586-90. 2011
    ..fumigatus or A. flavus over time. Decreased susceptibility among Aspergillus spp. was observed for each of the extended-spectrum triazoles and varied by species over the 9-year study period...
  49. pmc Comparison of the broth microdilution methods of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for testing itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole against Aspergillus isolates
    M Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1110-2. 2011
    ..4% (posaconazole), and 99.6% (voriconazole) assessing EA at ±2 dilutions and 99.6% (itraconazole), 87.7% (posaconazole), and 96.3% (voriconazole) at ±1 dilution...
  50. pmc Validation of 24-hour posaconazole and voriconazole MIC readings versus the CLSI 48-hour broth microdilution reference method: application of epidemiological cutoff values to results from a global Candida antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1274-9. 2011
    ..to these important antifungal agents. The applications of ECVs to this large collection of Candida isolates suggests the potential to develop 24-h species-specific clinical breakpoints for both posaconazole and voriconazole...
  51. doi request reprint Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria
    M A Pfaller
    University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States
    Drug Resist Updat 14:164-76. 2011
    ..12 mcg/ml (I), and ≥ 0.25 mcg/ml (R). New, species-specific CBPs for Candida and the echinocandins are more sensitive to detect emerging resistance associated with fks mutations, and better able to predict risk for clinical failure...
  52. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:117-23. 2009
    ..These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and emphasize the importance of prompt and accurate species identification...
  53. pmc Validation of 24-hour fluconazole MIC readings versus the CLSI 48-hour broth microdilution reference method: results from a global Candida antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:3585-90. 2008
    ..4%, with 0.1% VME. Both the MIC and the disk diffusion results obtained for fluconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to this widely used antifungal agent...
  54. pmc Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin: analysis and proposal for interpretive MIC breakpoints
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, 200 Hawkins Drive, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2620-9. 2008
    ..Subsequently, the isolates should be submitted to a reference laboratory that will confirm the results by using a CLSI reference dilution method...
  55. pmc Use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to voriconazole among 13,338 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute-recommended broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:70-5. 2007
    ..Clinical laboratories performing antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole against Candida spp. can reliably use these results as surrogate markers until commercial FDA-approved voriconazole susceptibility tests become available...
  56. pmc Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 yeast susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing fluconazole against Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:796-802. 2007
    ..The VITEK 2 system reliably detected fluconazole resistance among Candida spp. and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method...
  57. pmc Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:133-63. 2007
    ..Further research to improve diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic strategies is necessary to reduce the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with IC...
  58. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance study, 1997 to 2005: an 8.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1735-45. 2007
    ..These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and emphasize the importance of prompt and accurate species identification...
  59. pmc In vitro susceptibility of invasive isolates of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: six years of global surveillance
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:150-6. 2008
    ..Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging echinocandin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida spp...
  60. pmc Candida krusei, a multidrug-resistant opportunistic fungal pathogen: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:515-21. 2008
    ..25 microg/ml). C. krusei is an uncommon but multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen. Among the systemically active antifungal agents, the echinocandins appear to be the most active against this important pathogen...
  61. pmc Selection of a surrogate agent (fluconazole or voriconazole) for initial susceptibility testing of posaconazole against Candida spp.: results from a global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:551-9. 2008
    ..0% M) when results for Candida krusei (not indicated for fluconazole testing) were omitted. Either fluconazole or voriconazole MIC results may serve as surrogate markers to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to posaconazole...
  62. pmc Geographic and temporal trends in isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:842-9. 2008
    ..parapsilosis to fluconazole and voriconazole may vary by geographic region and clinical service...
  63. pmc Clinical evaluation of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2155-9. 2008
    ..The YeastOne colorimetric method appears to be comparable to the CLSI reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp. to the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin...
  64. pmc Clinical evaluation of a frozen commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents, including the new triazoles posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1694-7. 2002
    ..The overall agreement for each antifungal agent ranged from 96% for ravuconazole to 100% for amphotericin B. The Trek microdilution panel appears to be a viable alternative to frozen microdilution panels prepared in-house...
  65. ncbi request reprint Integration of molecular characterization of microorganisms in a global antimicrobial resistance surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Deptartment of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:S156-67. 2001
    ..The ability to characterize organisms phenotypically and genotypically is extremely powerful and provides unique information that is important in a global antimicrobial surveillance program...
  66. pmc Evaluation of Etest method for determining posaconazole MICs for 314 clinical isolates of Candida species
    M A Pfaller
    CAST Laboratories and Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:3952-4. 2001
    ..The Etest method using RPG agar appears to be a useful method for determining posaconazole susceptibilities of Candida species...
  67. pmc Evaluation of the Etest method for determining fluconazole susceptibilities of 402 clinical yeast isolates by using three different agar media
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:2586-9. 1998
    ..Etest results were somewhat easier to read on CAS. The Etest method using either RPG or CAS, but not MHA, appears to be a viable alternative to the NCCLS reference method for determining fluconazole susceptibilities of yeasts...
  68. ncbi request reprint Antifungal susceptibility testing. New technology and clinical applications
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 15:1227-61. 2001
    ..Finally, procedures must be optimized for testing non-Candida yeasts (e.g., C. neoformans) and molds...
  69. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi: comparison of Etest and reference M38-A microdilution methods for determining posaconazole MICs
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 45:241-4. 2003
    ..The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining posaconazole susceptibilities of filamentous fungi...
  70. pmc In vitro activities of voriconazole, posaconazole, and four licensed systemic antifungal agents against Candida species infrequently isolated from blood
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:78-83. 2003
    ..Continued surveillance will be necessary to detect the emergence of these species as more prevalent, resistant pathogens. The new triazoles appear to offer acceptable coverage of uncommon Candida sp. bloodstream infections...
  71. ncbi request reprint Gatifloxacin phase IV surveillance trial (TeqCES study) utilizing 5000 primary care physician practices: report of pathogens isolated and susceptibility patterns in community-acquired respiratory tract infections
    Michael A Pfaller
    CAST Laboratories, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44:77-84. 2002
    ..catarrhalis in CARTI, and high fluoroquinolone potency/spectrum (>97% susceptible). beta-lactams and macrolides continue to be compromised by increasing resistances in pathogens isolated in these monitored primary care settings...
  72. pmc Antifungal activities of posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole compared to those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 239 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi: report from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1032-7. 2002
    ..Surveillance efforts should be expanded in order to monitor the spectrum of filamentous fungal pathogens and their in vitro susceptibility as these new antifungal agents are introduced into clinical use...
  73. pmc In vitro activities of ravuconazole and voriconazole compared with those of four approved systemic antifungal agents against 6,970 clinical isolates of Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1723-7. 2002
    ..krusei. These results provide further evidence for the spectrum and potency of ravuconazole and voriconazole against a large and geographically diverse collection of Candida spp...
  74. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibilities of rare Candida bloodstream isolates to ravuconazole and three comparative antifungal agents
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48:101-5. 2004
    ..Ravuconazole is clearly an "extended-spectrum" triazole with potent in vitro activity against these rare and potentially "emerging" opportunistic pathogens...
  75. pmc Molecular approaches to diagnosing and managing infectious diseases: practicality and costs
    M A Pfaller
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:312-8. 2001
    ..Molecular diagnosis is most appropriate for infectious agents that are difficult to detect, identify, or test for susceptibility in a timely fashion with conventional methods...
  76. pmc Geographic variation in the susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida glabrata to seven systemically active antifungal agents: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS Antifungal Surveillance Program conducted in 2001 and 2002
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3142-6. 2004
    ..06 microg/ml) and flucytosine (MIC(90), 0.12 microg/ml) and exhibited variable cross-resistance to posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole...
  77. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates to the new triazole antifungal agents BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:3242-4. 1998
    ..These results suggest that BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole all possess promising antifungal activity and that further in vitro and in vivo investigations are warranted to establish the clinical value of this improved potency...
  78. pmc Further standardization of broth microdilution methodology for in vitro susceptibility testing of caspofungin against Candida species by use of an international collection of more than 3,000 clinical isolates
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3117-9. 2004
    ..The MICs for >99% of isolates were </=1 microg/ml, and thus these isolates were differentiated from strains with reduced in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities to caspofungin...
  79. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida dubliniensis isolates tested against the new triazole and echinocandin antifungal agents
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:870-2. 1999
    ..The increased potencies of the new triazole and echinocandin antifungal agents may provide effective therapeutic options for the treatment of infections due to C. dubliniensis...
  80. pmc Candida guilliermondii, an opportunistic fungal pathogen with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3551-6. 2006
    ..5/1.0 microg/ml). C. guilliermondii, a species that exhibits reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, is the sixth most frequently isolated Candida species from this large survey and may be an emerging pathogen in Latin America...
  81. pmc Bloodstream infections due to Candida species: SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program in North America and Latin America, 1997-1998
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:747-51. 2000
    ..4 to 100% susceptible). Isolates from Canada and Latin America were generally more susceptible to both triazoles than U.S. isolates were. Continued surveillance appears necessary to detect these important changes...
  82. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of nosocomial candidiasis: the importance of molecular typing
    M A Pfaller
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, US
    Braz J Infect Dis 4:161-7. 2000
    ....
  83. pmc Determination of fungicidal activities against yeasts and molds: lessons learned from bactericidal testing and the need for standardization
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology and Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:268-80. 2004
    ..Proposed methods for fungal time-kill determinations and minimal fungicidal concentration determinations are also discussed...
  84. ncbi request reprint Antifungal susceptibility testing: progress and future developments
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Braz J Infect Dis 4:55-60. 2000
    ....
  85. pmc Evaluation of the Etest method for determining voriconazole susceptibilities of 312 clinical isolates of Candida species by using three different agar media
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3715-7. 2000
    ..lusitaniae. With AM3, agreement ranged from 58% for C. glabrata to 100% for C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. The Etest method using RPG appears to be a useful method for determining voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida species...
  86. pmc Quality control limits for voriconazole disk susceptibility tests on Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1716-8. 2004
    ..Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 was not useful for this purpose...
  87. pmc Evaluation of the NCCLS M44-P disk diffusion method for determining susceptibilities of 276 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:380-3. 2004
    ..The disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose and methylene blue appears to be a useful approach for determining the fluconazole susceptibility of C. neoformans...
  88. pmc Comparison of results of fluconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida species with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicin and College of Public Health, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3607-12. 2004
    ....
  89. pmc Global surveillance of in vitro activity of micafungin against Candida: a comparison with caspofungin by CLSI-recommended methods
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3533-8. 2006
    ..Micafungin has excellent in vitro activity against invasive clinical isolates of Candida from centers worldwide...
  90. pmc Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against Candida and Aspergillus species
    Frank C Odds
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3475-82. 2004
    ....
  91. pmc Trends in antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from pediatric and adult patients with bloodstream infections: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2000
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:852-6. 2002
    ..Ongoing surveillance will enhance efforts to limit the extent of antifungal resistance in individuals in various age groups...
  92. pmc Low prevalence of fks1 hot spot 1 mutations in a worldwide collection of Candida strains
    Mariana Castanheira
    JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA 52317, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2655-9. 2010
    ..Furthermore, results from this large, geographically diverse Candida spp. collection demonstrated that fks1 HS1 mutations remain uncommon among isolates with various echinocandin MIC levels...
  93. pmc Change in colony morphology of Candida lusitaniae in association with development of amphotericin B resistance
    Nancy B McClenny
    Clinical Microbiology Virology Laboratory, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1325-8. 2002
    ..lusitaniae infection. The presence of colony variants on CAC may signal the emergence of amphotericin B resistance in C. lusitaniae and should be investigated...
  94. pmc Analysis of ALS5 and ALS6 allelic variability in a geographically diverse collection of Candida albicans isolates
    Xiaomin Zhao
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
    Fungal Genet Biol 44:1298-309. 2007
    ..Natural deletion of ALS5 and the sequence variation within its coding region suggest relaxed selective pressure on this locus, and that Als5p function may be dispensable in C. albicans or redundant within the Als family...
  95. ncbi request reprint BMS284756 (formerly T-3811, a des-fluoroquinolone) potency and spectrum tested against over 10,000 bacterial bloodstream infection isolates from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance programme (2000)
    Kelley A Gordon
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:851-5. 2002
    ..03-1 mg/L). With a proposed breakpoint of < or =4 mg/L, BMS284756 may be a therapeutic alternative pending the results of clinical trials...
  96. pmc Caspofungin activity against clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida
    Michael A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5729-31. 2003
    ..All fluconazole-resistant isolates were inhibited by caspofungin at concentrations that can be exceeded by standard doses (MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited, 1 micro g/ml; 99% of the MICs were </=2 micro g/ml)...
  97. ncbi request reprint Geographic variations in garenoxacin (BMS284756) activity tested against pathogens associated with skin and soft tissue infections: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000)
    Jeffrey T Kirby
    The JONES Group JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 43:303-9. 2002
    ..pneumoniae) was documented in all three monitored regions (Latin America > Europe > North America). Continued development of garenoxacin as a treatment of pathogens that commonly cause SSTIs appears to be warranted...
  98. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the in vitro activity of daptomycin against 19615 clinical isolates of Gram-positive cocci collected in North American hospitals (2002-2005)
    Michael A Pfaller
    University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 57:459-65. 2007
    ..5, and 1 microg/mL for staphylococci, enterococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci, respectively, and no significant loss in potency was observed over the period studied...
  99. ncbi request reprint Antifungal activities of fluconazole, caspofungin (MK0991), and anidulafungin (LY 303366) alone and in combination against Candida spp. and Crytococcus neoformans via time-kill methods
    Ellen E Roling
    College of Pharmacy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 43:13-7. 2002
    ..Combinations of fluconazole and caspofungin or anidulafungin resulted in indifference. Azole-echinocandin combinations do not produce antagonistic effects; therefore, combinations of these agents may warrant future clinical evaluation...
  100. doi request reprint Initial treatment and outcome of Candida glabrata versus Candida albicans bloodstream infection
    Michael J Klevay
    Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 64:152-7. 2009
    ..The lack of difference in mortality between species may reflect the overriding importance of host variables and/or a difference in virulence by species: further study is needed to investigate these hypotheses...
  101. pmc Identification of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis in a large global collection of Candida glabrata isolates: comparison to the literature
    Shawn R Lockhart
    University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1216-7. 2009
    ..Both species were very rare in this collection (0.2% prevalence), despite the number of isolates analyzed and the global distribution of the isolates. We saw no associated antifungal resistance in C. nivariensis...