H A Orr

Summary

Affiliation: University of Rochester
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Absolute fitness, relative fitness, and utility
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 61:2997-3000. 2007
  2. pmc The developmental genetics of hybrid inviability: a mitotic defect in Drosophila hybrids
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genetics 145:1031-40. 1997
  3. pmc Genetic analysis of the hybrid male rescue locus of Drosophila
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 155:225-31. 2000
  4. pmc The population genetics of beneficial mutations
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:1195-201. 2010
  5. pmc Segregation distortion in hybrids between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 169:671-82. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint The genetic theory of adaptation: a brief history
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 6:119-27. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint The probability of parallel evolution
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 59:216-20. 2005
  8. pmc The genetic basis of reproductive isolation: insights from Drosophila
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6522-6. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Theories of adaptation: what they do and don't say
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genetica 123:3-13. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint The distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations in Fisher's geometric model of adaptation
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    J Theor Biol 238:279-85. 2006

Detail Information

Publications36

  1. ncbi request reprint Absolute fitness, relative fitness, and utility
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 61:2997-3000. 2007
    ..Although my answer is essentially identical to one offered previously, my path to it differs somewhat from previous approaches. Some may find this new approach easier to intuit...
  2. pmc The developmental genetics of hybrid inviability: a mitotic defect in Drosophila hybrids
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genetics 145:1031-40. 1997
    ..melanogaster and autosomal gene(s) from D. melanogaster's sister species...
  3. pmc Genetic analysis of the hybrid male rescue locus of Drosophila
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 155:225-31. 2000
    ..These findings support previous claims that hybrid embryonic and larval lethalities are genetically distinct and suggest that Hmr(mel) is at least one of the proximate causes of hybrid larval inviability...
  4. pmc The population genetics of beneficial mutations
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:1195-201. 2010
    ....
  5. pmc Segregation distortion in hybrids between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 169:671-82. 2005
    ..We discuss the possibility that hybrid sterility in this paradigmatic case of incipient speciation is caused by segregation distortion...
  6. ncbi request reprint The genetic theory of adaptation: a brief history
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 6:119-27. 2005
    ..I also discuss the challenges that face contemporary theories of adaptation...
  7. ncbi request reprint The probability of parallel evolution
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 59:216-20. 2005
    ..I conclude that the probability of parallel evolution under natural selection is nearly twice as large as that under neutrality...
  8. pmc The genetic basis of reproductive isolation: insights from Drosophila
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6522-6. 2005
    ..Finally, I review recent work in Drosophila pseudoobscura on the possible role of meiotic drive in the evolution of the genes that cause postzygotic isolation...
  9. ncbi request reprint Theories of adaptation: what they do and don't say
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genetica 123:3-13. 2005
    ..I consider possible reasons for this congruence. I also emphasize what predictions do and, as important, do not follow from these models...
  10. ncbi request reprint The distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations in Fisher's geometric model of adaptation
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    J Theor Biol 238:279-85. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint The population genetics of adaptation on correlated fitness landscapes: the block model
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 60:1113-24. 2006
    ..I show that all previous results characterizing single steps in adaptation in the mutational landscape model hold at least approximately on correlated landscapes in the block model; many entire-walk results, however, do not...
  12. ncbi request reprint Speciation in Drosophila: from phenotypes to molecules
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    J Hered 98:103-10. 2007
    ..These surprises, and others like them, suggest that evolutionary biologists may understand less about the genetic basis of speciation than seemed likely a few years ago...
  13. doi request reprint Population extinction and the genetics of adaptation
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Am Nat 172:160-9. 2008
    ..Our results show that adaptation to such environmental challenges can be difficult when relying on new mutations at one or a few loci, and populations will often decline to extinction...
  14. pmc Fitness and its role in evolutionary genetics
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, River Campus Box 270211, Rochester, New York 14627 0211, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 10:531-9. 2009
    ..I also review the empirical study of fitness, emphasizing approaches that take advantage of recent genetic and genomic data, and I highlight important unresolved problems in understanding fitness...
  15. ncbi request reprint Speciation genes
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:675-9. 2004
    ..Molecular evolutionary study of the genes causing reproductive isolation may represent an important new phase in the study of speciation...
  16. pmc Haldane's sieve and adaptation from the standing genetic variation
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genetics 157:875-84. 2001
    ..autosomal loci. Last, we suggest a test to determine whether adaptation used new mutations or previously deleterious alleles from the standing genetic variation...
  17. pmc The distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 163:1519-26. 2003
    ..I show that these findings are reasonably robust to deviations from several assumptions. I further show that one can back calculate the mean size of new beneficial mutations from the observed mean size of fixed beneficial mutations...
  18. ncbi request reprint A minimum on the mean number of steps taken in adaptive walks
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, U S A
    J Theor Biol 220:241-7. 2003
    ..Put differently, evolution must try out at least e wild-type sequences during an average bout of adaptation...
  19. ncbi request reprint The population genetics of adaptation: the adaptation of DNA sequences
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 56:1317-30. 2002
    ..Last, I show that adaptation by natural selection behaves in several respects as the average of two idealized forms of adaptation, perfect and random...
  20. ncbi request reprint The evolution of postzygotic isolation: accumulating Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 55:1085-94. 2001
    ..Our analyses of data from Drosophila and Bombina suggest that p is generally very small, on the order of 10(-6) or less...
  21. pmc Complex epistasis and the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA hybridization
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 158:1089-100. 2001
    ..Indeed, a maximum likelihood analysis suggests that roughly 15 hybrid male steriles separate the Bogota and USA subspecies. Only a subset of these would act in F1 hybrids...
  22. pmc The rate of adaptation in asexuals
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 155:961-8. 2000
    ..In the course of this work, I derive an approximation to the probability of fixation of a favorable mutation in an asexual genome or nonrecombining chromosome region in which both favorable and deleterious mutations occur...
  23. pmc Testing natural selection vs. genetic drift in phenotypic evolution using quantitative trait locus data
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 149:2099-104. 1998
    ..Rejection of the null hypothesis implies a role for directional natural selection. This test is applicable to any character in any organism in which QTL analysis can be performed...
  24. pmc Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities and adaptation to a shared environment
    R L Unckless
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:214-7. 2009
    ..This precludes the development of a DMI, which requires different substitutions in the two populations...
  25. ncbi request reprint The unexpected recovery of hybrids in a Drosophila species cross: a genetic analysis
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genet Res 67:11-8. 1996
    ..melanogaster males. Genetic analysis of the difference between D. simulans strains that produce many versus few hybrid females shows that recovery of hybrid females depends on autosomal, maternally acting gene(s)...
  26. pmc The population genetics of adaptation: multiple substitutions on a smooth fitness landscape
    Robert L Unckless
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 183:1079-86. 2009
    ..We also consider the probability of parallel adaptation and the proportion of the total increase in fitness caused by the first substitution. Our key assumption is that there is no epistasis among beneficial mutations...
  27. pmc Darwin and Darwinism: the (alleged) social implications of the origin of species
    H Allen Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 183:767-72. 2009
    ..Indeed, it is reasonably clear that the chain of implication sometimes primarily ran in the opposite direction-from, for instance, economics and political theory to Darwinism...
  28. pmc A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids
    Nitin Phadnis
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 0211, USA
    Science 323:376-9. 2009
    ..This segregation distorter gene is essential for hybrid sterility, a strong reproductive barrier between these young taxa. Our results suggest that genetic conflict may be an important evolutionary force in speciation...
  29. ncbi request reprint Gene transposition as a cause of hybrid sterility in Drosophila
    John P Masly
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Science 313:1448-50. 2006
    ..simulans lineage. Because of this transposition, a fraction of hybrids completely lack JYAlpha and are sterile, representing reproductive isolation without sequence evolution...
  30. pmc Adaptation in sexuals vs. asexuals: clonal interference and the Fisher-Muller model
    Yuseob Kim
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 171:1377-86. 2005
    ..We find that some of these statistics are surprisingly similar between sexuals and asexuals. These results highlight the importance of the choice of substitution model in assessing the Fisher-Muller advantage of sex...
  31. pmc A pseudohitchhiking model of X vs. autosomal diversity
    Andrea J Betancourt
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Genetics 168:2261-9. 2004
    ..autosomal diversity is reduced by hitchhiking under a broad range of conditions, but when there is no recombination in males, as in Drosophila, the required conditions are considerably more restrictive...
  32. ncbi request reprint Adaptive evolution drives divergence of a hybrid inviability gene between two species of Drosophila
    Daven C Presgraves
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Nature 423:715-9. 2003
    ..These results show that a lethal hybrid incompatibility has evolved as a by-product of adaptive protein evolution...
  33. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary genetics of adaptation: a simulation study
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Genet Res 74:207-14. 1999
    ..The results show that adaptation towards a fixed optimum is generally characterized by an exponential effects trend...
  34. ncbi request reprint Adaptation and the cost of complexity
    H A Orr
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Evolution 54:13-20. 2000
    ..The present results also suggest that one can define an effective number of dimensions characterizing an adapting species...
  35. ncbi request reprint A religion for Darwinians?
    H Allen Orr
    University of Rochester
    New York Rev Books 54:33-5. 2007
    ..A review of Philip Kitcher's book, Living with Darwinism: evolution, design, and the future of faith...
  36. ncbi request reprint A mission to convert
    H Allen Orr
    University of Rochester
    New York Rev Books 54:21-4. 2007
    ..Primarily a review of Richard Dawkins' book, The God delusion (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006)...

Research Grants10

  1. The genetic basis of speciation in Drosophila
    H Orr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  2. The genetic basis of speciation in Drosphila
    H Orr; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our long-term goal is to understand how animal species, including humans, arise by uncovering the genetic causes of speciation. ..
  3. The genetic basis of speciation in Drosophila
    H Orr; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. The genetic basis of speciation in Drosophila
    H Allen Orr; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....