Bita Moghaddam

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Targeting metabotropic glutamate receptors for treatment of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Penn, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:39-44. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Bringing order to the glutamate chaos in schizophrenia
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuron 40:881-4. 2003
  3. pmc Activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by NMDA receptor blockade
    Mark R Stefani
    Dept of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 639:26-32. 2010
  4. pmc Fine-tuning of awake prefrontal cortex neurons by clozapine: comparison with haloperidol and N-desmethylclozapine
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:679-87. 2007
  5. pmc Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors reverses N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonist-induced alteration of neuronal firing in prefrontal cortex
    Lucas Lecourtier
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:739-46. 2007
  6. pmc Interaction of N-methyl-D-aspartate and group 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors on behavioral flexibility using a novel operant set-shift paradigm
    Justin M Darrah
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:225-34. 2008
  7. pmc Differential representation of Pavlovian-instrumental transfer by prefrontal cortex subregions and striatum
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 29:1461-76. 2009
  8. pmc Impact of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor stimulation on activated dopamine release and locomotion
    Alan L Pehrson
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:443-55. 2010
  9. pmc The influence of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity on attention
    Alan L Pehrson
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:31-9. 2013
  10. pmc Preparatory attention relies on dynamic interactions between prelimbic cortex and anterior cingulate cortex
    Nelson K B Totah
    Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Cereb Cortex 23:729-38. 2013

Research Grants

  1. Glumate and Disorders of Cognition and Motivation
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. Translational Studies on Cognitive Flexibility
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. GLUTAMATE AND PREFRONTAL CORTEX FUNCTION
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi request reprint Targeting metabotropic glutamate receptors for treatment of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Penn, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:39-44. 2004
    ..Preclinical studies indicate that activation of these subtypes of mGlu receptors may be an effective strategy for reversing cognitive deficits resulting form reduced NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission...
  2. ncbi request reprint Bringing order to the glutamate chaos in schizophrenia
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuron 40:881-4. 2003
    ..This presents exciting opportunities for rational rather than serendipitous discovery of therapeutics for schizophrenia...
  3. pmc Activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by NMDA receptor blockade
    Mark R Stefani
    Dept of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 639:26-32. 2010
    ....
  4. pmc Fine-tuning of awake prefrontal cortex neurons by clozapine: comparison with haloperidol and N-desmethylclozapine
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:679-87. 2007
    ..The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated as a primary site for the therapeutic effects of clozapine; however, evidence for how clozapine influences the activity of PFC neurons in behaviorally relevant contexts is lacking...
  5. pmc Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors reverses N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonist-induced alteration of neuronal firing in prefrontal cortex
    Lucas Lecourtier
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:739-46. 2007
    ....
  6. pmc Interaction of N-methyl-D-aspartate and group 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors on behavioral flexibility using a novel operant set-shift paradigm
    Justin M Darrah
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:225-34. 2008
    ..These results suggest an interaction between NMDA and mGlu5 receptors in cognitive flexibility and may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating disorders associated with aberrant NMDA function...
  7. pmc Differential representation of Pavlovian-instrumental transfer by prefrontal cortex subregions and striatum
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 29:1461-76. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that parallel phasic activation of mPFC and OFC neuronal subsets participates in the transfer from Pavlovian incentives to instrumental actions...
  8. pmc Impact of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor stimulation on activated dopamine release and locomotion
    Alan L Pehrson
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:443-55. 2010
    ..These agonists, however, reduce amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion suggesting that they influence dopamine neurotransmission...
  9. pmc The influence of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity on attention
    Alan L Pehrson
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:31-9. 2013
    ....
  10. pmc Preparatory attention relies on dynamic interactions between prelimbic cortex and anterior cingulate cortex
    Nelson K B Totah
    Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Cereb Cortex 23:729-38. 2013
    ..Our results indicate that multiple PFC areas interact during attention and that the same neurons may participate in segregated assemblies that support both attention and action...
  11. pmc Orbitofrontal cortex neurons as a common target for classic and glutamatergic antipsychotic drugs
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18041-6. 2008
    ....
  12. pmc Anterior cingulate neurons represent errors and preparatory attention within the same behavioral sequence
    Nelson K B Totah
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Neurosci 29:6418-26. 2009
    ..The finding of substantial inhibitory activity during the preparatory period suggests a critical role for inhibition of pyramidal cells in PFC-mediated cognitive functions...
  13. pmc NMDA receptor hypofunction produces concomitant firing rate potentiation and burst activity reduction in the prefrontal cortex
    Mark E Jackson
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, 446 Crawford Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8467-72. 2004
    ..These findings provide a physiological basis for the NMDA receptor deficiency model of schizophrenia and may clarify the nature of cortical dysfunction in this disease...
  14. ncbi request reprint Bursting of prefrontal cortex neurons in awake rats is regulated by metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors: rate-dependent influence and interaction with NMDA receptors
    Houman Homayoun
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Neuroscience, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Cereb Cortex 16:93-105. 2006
    ..These mechanisms support the idea that modulation of mGlu5 receptors may provide a pharmacological strategy for fine-tuning the temporal pattern of firing of PFC neurons...
  15. doi request reprint Group 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors: role in modulating cortical activity and relevance to cognition
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 639:33-9. 2010
    ..These findings, in conjunction with behavioral evidence from preclinical studies of cognition, suggest a potential precognitive profile for the mGlu(5) receptor potentiators...
  16. ncbi request reprint Activation of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors reverses the effects of NMDA receptor hypofunction on prefrontal cortex unit activity in awake rats
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, 446 Crawford Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:1989-2001. 2005
    ..This mechanism may provide a physiological basis for reversal of NMDA antagonist-induced behaviors by mGlu2/3 agonists...
  17. pmc Distinct patterns of plasticity in prefrontal cortex neurons that encode slow and fast responses to stress
    Mark E Jackson
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Neuroscience, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:1702-10. 2006
    ..These neurons may be a substrate for adaptive responses that are necessary for behavioral modification...
  18. pmc NMDA receptor hypofunction produces opposite effects on prefrontal cortex interneurons and pyramidal neurons
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Neurosci 27:11496-500. 2007
    ..Reducing this effect may be critical for treatment of schizophrenia...
  19. pmc Capturing the angel in "angel dust": twenty years of translational neuroscience studies of NMDA receptor antagonists in animals and humans
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Schizophr Bull 38:942-9. 2012
    ....
  20. pmc Disruption of prefrontal cortex large scale neuronal activity by different classes of psychotomimetic drugs
    Jesse Wood
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Neurosci 32:3022-31. 2012
    ..These findings provide insight into mechanisms that may lead to cortical processing deficits in schizophrenia and provide a novel electrophysiological approach for phenotypic characterization of animal models of this disease...
  21. ncbi request reprint Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: convergence of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate alterations
    David A Lewis
    Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Arch Neurol 63:1372-6. 2006
    ..These findings suggest specific targets for therapeutic interventions to improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia...
  22. pmc Reduced neuronal inhibition and coordination of adolescent prefrontal cortex during motivated behavior
    David A Sturman
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Neurosci 31:1471-8. 2011
    ..Thus, these results suggest that reduced inhibitory responses of adolescent cortical neurons to salient events could be a critical mechanism for some of the increased vulnerabilities of this period...
  23. ncbi request reprint Systemic and prefrontal cortical NMDA receptor blockade differentially affect discrimination learning and set-shift ability in rats
    Mark R Stefani
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Behav Neurosci 119:420-8. 2005
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Transient N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in early development causes lasting cognitive deficits relevant to schizophrenia
    Mark Renato Stefani
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:433-6. 2005
    ..We studied whether transient inhibition of NMDA receptor activity during early postnatal development would produce a behavioral phenotype resembling that of individuals who are susceptible to develop schizophrenia...
  25. pmc Putative γ-aminobutyric acid neurons in the ventral tegmental area have a similar pattern of plasticity as dopamine neurons during appetitive and aversive learning
    Yun Bok Kim
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 32:1564-72. 2010
    ..This pattern of plasticity was not selective for putative dopamine neurons and generalized to other cells, suggesting that the temporally precise information transfer from the VTA may be mediated by faster acting GABA neurons...
  26. pmc Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning
    Yunbok Kim
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29766. 2012
    ..These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning...
  27. pmc Striatum processes reward differently in adolescents versus adults
    David A Sturman
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1719-24. 2012
    ..It thus suggests a mechanism for how rewards might shape adolescent behavior differently, and for their increased vulnerabilities to affective disorders...
  28. pmc Divergent plasticity of prefrontal cortex networks
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:42-55. 2008
    ....
  29. pmc Differential tonic influence of lateral habenula on prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens dopamine release
    Lucas Lecourtier
    Center for Neuroscience, A210 Langley Hall, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 27:1755-62. 2008
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Differences in response initiation and behavioral flexibility between adolescent and adult rats
    Nicholas W Simon
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Behav Neurosci 127:23-32. 2013
    ..Furthermore, this study characterizes a task that is well suited for future pharmacological and electrophysiological investigations for assessing neuronal processing differences between adolescents and adults...
  31. pmc Adolescents exhibit behavioral differences from adults during instrumental learning and extinction
    David A Sturman
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburg, PA 15260, USA
    Behav Neurosci 124:16-25. 2010
    ..Understanding how such factors differently affect adolescents may shed light on mechanisms that lead to the development of disorders that are manifested during this period...
  32. ncbi request reprint Stimulus-specific plasticity of prefrontal cortex dopamine neurotransmission
    Mark E Jackson
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    J Neurochem 88:1327-34. 2004
    ..These findings demonstrate that prefrontal cortical dopamine output adapts after a single exposure to stimuli with emotional salience. The direction of this adaptation, however, is not uniform and depends on the nature of the stimulus...
  33. ncbi request reprint Distinct contributions of glutamate receptor subtypes to cognitive set-shifting abilities in the rat
    Mark R Stefani
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, VA Medical Center, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1003:464-7. 2003
  34. ncbi request reprint Glutamatergic animal models of schizophrenia
    Corina Bondi
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 18:1593-604. 2012
    ..Here we review some of the pertinent literature related to pharmacological and genetic animal models of glutamate dysfunction in schizophrenia...
  35. ncbi request reprint Functional Interaction Between NMDA and mGlu5 Receptors: Effects on Working Memory, Instrumental Learning, Motor Behaviors, and Dopamine Release
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1259-69. 2004
    ..By extension, these results suggest that pharmacological potentiation of mGlu5 receptors may ameliorate the cognitive and other behavioral abnormalities associated with NMDA receptor deficiency...
  36. pmc Progression of cellular adaptations in medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex in response to repeated amphetamine
    Houman Homayoun
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8025-39. 2006
    ..These rapid-onset and sustained cellular adaptations suggest that even limited exposure to psychostimulants may reduce the influence of mPFC neurons on behavior while at the same time exaggerating information encoded by OFC neurons...
  37. pmc Reduced presynaptic dopamine activity in adolescent dorsal striatum
    Marguerite Matthews
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 38:1344-51. 2013
    ....
  38. pmc Distinct prestimulus and poststimulus activation of VTA neurons correlates with stimulus detection
    Nelson K B Totah
    Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Neurophysiol 110:75-85. 2013
    ....
  39. pmc From revolution to evolution: the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia and its implication for treatment
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:4-15. 2012
    ..To date, most studies have been done with orthosteric agonists and/or antagonists at specific sites. However, allosteric modulators, both positive and negative, may offer superior efficacy with less danger of downregulation...
  40. pmc The neurobiology of adolescence: changes in brain architecture, functional dynamics, and behavioral tendencies
    David A Sturman
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1704-12. 2011
    ..A more comprehensive understanding of these processes will further our knowledge of adolescent behavioral vulnerabilities and the pathophysiology of mental illnesses that manifest during this period...
  41. pmc Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation
    Rajesh Narendran
    Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e46832. 2012
    ..However, the lack of change in [(11)C]DBTZ BP(ND) indicates that striatal VMAT2 regulation is not the mechanism of action by which n-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance...
  42. ncbi request reprint Effect of stress on prefrontal cortex function
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, 446 Crawford Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neurotox Res 6:73-8. 2004
    ..This paper will review recent mechanistic information about the effects of stress on dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in the PFC...
  43. ncbi request reprint Glutamatergic animal models of schizophrenia
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1003:131-7. 2003
    ..The present chapter includes a brief review of the utility of these models and the search for new medications that have the potential of normalizing glutamate neurotransmission in schizophrenia...
  44. ncbi request reprint Analysis and design of behavioral experiments to characterize population learning
    Anne C Smith
    Neuroscience Statistics Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Clinics 3, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:1776-92. 2005
    ..The SSRE model offers a practical approach to dynamic analysis of population learning and a theoretical framework for optimal design of learning experiments...
  45. ncbi request reprint Stress activation of glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex: implications for dopamine-associated psychiatric disorders
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, VA Medical Center 116A 2, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 51:775-87. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Neonatal damage of the ventral hippocampus impairs working memory in the rat
    Barbara K Lipska
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, NIMH IRP, Building 10, Room 4N306, Bethesda, MD 20892 1385, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:47-54. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists: implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia
    John H Krystal
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:663-4. 2002
  48. ncbi request reprint Effects of repeated treatment with amphetamine or phencyclidine on working memory in the rat
    Mark Renato Stefani
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, VA Medical Center, Mail Slot 116A 2, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
    Behav Brain Res 134:267-74. 2002
    ..The present data suggest that psychostimulant treatment regimens that are reported to produce long-lasting changes in neural morphology and locomotor behavior may not produce equally durable changes in working memory...
  49. ncbi request reprint Glutamate receptors in the rat medial prefrontal cortex regulate set-shifting ability
    Mark R Stefani
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Veterans Administration Medical Center, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:728-37. 2003
    ....
  50. pmc Rule learning and reward contingency are associated with dissociable patterns of dopamine activation in the rat prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum
    Mark R Stefani
    Psychology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8810-8. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint NMDA antagonist effects on striatal dopamine release: microdialysis studies in awake monkeys
    Barbara W Adams
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Veterans Administration Medical Center, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA
    Synapse 43:12-8. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that in the primate, ketamine and PCP are not effective dopamine releasers, as has been suggested by previous imaging studies...
  52. ncbi request reprint Activation of glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex sustains the motoric and dopaminergic effects of phencyclidine
    Ryuichi Takahata
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1117-24. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that the PFC may be a principal site for the regulation of PCP-induced stereotypy and hyperlocomotion, and that this regulation is independent of accumbal dopamine activity...

Research Grants5

  1. Glumate and Disorders of Cognition and Motivation
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The meeting will close with a session on glutamate-based pharmacotherapies for disorders ranging from schizophrenia to addiction. In addition to the plenary sessions, poster sessions will be held on two afternoons. ..
  2. Translational Studies on Cognitive Flexibility
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Specific aims are designed to characterize the structural and neurochemical homology between these tasks. ..
  3. GLUTAMATE AND PREFRONTAL CORTEX FUNCTION
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
    Bita Moghaddam; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..