STEPHEN A MAREN

Summary

Affiliation: University of Michigan
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Single-unit activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during immediate and delayed extinction of fear in rats
    Chun hui Chang
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11971. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Retrograde abolition of conditional fear after excitotoxic lesions in the basolateral amygdala of rats: absence of a temporal gradient
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Behav Neurosci 110:718-26. 1996
  3. pmc Seeking a spotless mind: extinction, deconsolidation, and erasure of fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Neuron 70:830-45. 2011
  4. ncbi request reprint What the amygdala does and doesn't do in aversive learning
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Learn Mem 10:306-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Protein synthesis in the amygdala, but not the auditory thalamus, is required for consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 E University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 18:3080-8. 2003
  6. doi request reprint Pavlovian fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampus and amygdala function: cautions and caveats
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 28:1661-6. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Hippocampus and Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats: muscimol infusions into the ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus impair the acquisition of conditional freezing to an auditory conditional stimulus
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:97-110. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Neuroscience. The threatened brain
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Science 317:1043-4. 2007
  9. pmc Hippocampal regulation of context-dependent neuronal activity in the lateral amygdala
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 14:318-24. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Neuronal signalling of fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:844-52. 2004

Research Grants

  1. Neural Substrates of Contextual Memory in Fear Extinction
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Neural Substrates of Contextual Memory
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2002
  5. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. Neural Substrates of Contextual Memory in Fear Extinction
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2011

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. pmc Single-unit activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during immediate and delayed extinction of fear in rats
    Chun hui Chang
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11971. 2010
    ..There were no group differences in PrL activity during extinction or retention testing. Alterations in both spontaneous and CS-evoked neuronal activity in the IL may contribute to the immediate extinction deficit...
  2. ncbi request reprint Retrograde abolition of conditional fear after excitotoxic lesions in the basolateral amygdala of rats: absence of a temporal gradient
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Behav Neurosci 110:718-26. 1996
    ..These results reveal that neurons in the BLA have an enduring role in the expression of conditional fear...
  3. pmc Seeking a spotless mind: extinction, deconsolidation, and erasure of fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Neuron 70:830-45. 2011
    ..Here, I review recent work employing sophisticated behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular tools to target fear memories, placing these memories firmly behind the crosshairs of neurobiologically informed interventions...
  4. ncbi request reprint What the amygdala does and doesn't do in aversive learning
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Learn Mem 10:306-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Protein synthesis in the amygdala, but not the auditory thalamus, is required for consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 E University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 18:3080-8. 2003
    ..Forms of synaptic plasticity that depend on protein synthesis, such as long-term potentiation, are likely candidates for the encoding and long-term storage of fear memories in the amygdala...
  6. doi request reprint Pavlovian fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampus and amygdala function: cautions and caveats
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 28:1661-6. 2008
    ..Caution must therefore be exercised when using fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent learning...
  7. ncbi request reprint Hippocampus and Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats: muscimol infusions into the ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus impair the acquisition of conditional freezing to an auditory conditional stimulus
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:97-110. 2004
    ..Hence, neurons in the VH are importantly involved in the acquisition of auditory fear conditioning and the expression of auditory and contextual fear under some conditions...
  8. ncbi request reprint Neuroscience. The threatened brain
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Science 317:1043-4. 2007
  9. pmc Hippocampal regulation of context-dependent neuronal activity in the lateral amygdala
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 14:318-24. 2007
    ..These data reveal a novel role for the hippocampus in regulating the context-specific firing of lateral amygdala neurons after fear memory extinction...
  10. ncbi request reprint Neuronal signalling of fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:844-52. 2004
    ..Understanding the signalling of aversive memory by amygdala neurons opens new avenues for research into the neural systems that support fear behaviour...
  11. ncbi request reprint Building and burying fear memories in the brain
    Stephen Maren
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Neuroscientist 11:89-99. 2005
    ..The discovery of the neural architecture for fear memory highlights the powerful interplay between animal and human research and the promise for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of other complex cognitive phenomena...
  12. pmc Recent fear is resistant to extinction
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18020-5. 2006
    ..Importantly, our work suggests that early intervention may not yield optimal outcomes in reducing posttraumatic stress, particularly after severe trauma...
  13. ncbi request reprint Synaptic mechanisms of associative memory in the amygdala
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Neuron 47:783-6. 2005
    ..Novel forms of presynaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus may also contribute to fear memory formation, bolstering the connection between synaptic plasticity mechanisms and associative learning and memory...
  14. ncbi request reprint Central and basolateral amygdala neurons crash the aversive conditioning party: Theoretical comment on Rorick-Kehn and Steinmetz (2005)
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, 48109 1043 MI, US
    Behav Neurosci 119:1406-10. 2005
  15. ncbi request reprint The amygdala, synaptic plasticity, and fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 985:106-13. 2003
    ..Nonetheless, rats with BLA lesions acquire and express conditional fear under some conditions. A neuroanatomical model that accounts for these data is presented...
  16. ncbi request reprint N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the basolateral amygdala are required for both acquisition and expression of conditional fear in rats
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles
    Behav Neurosci 110:1365-74. 1996
    ..These results indicate that NMDA receptors in the BLA are necessary for both the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning to contextual cues in rats...
  17. ncbi request reprint Electrolytic lesions of the fimbria/fornix, dorsal hippocampus, or entorhinal cortex produce anterograde deficits in contextual fear conditioning in rats
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 1109, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 67:142-9. 1997
    ..The relationship of freezing deficits and locomotor hyperactivity in rats with hippocampal formation lesions is discussed...
  18. ncbi request reprint Neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus and Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 1109, USA
    Behav Brain Res 88:261-74. 1997
    ..The normal acquisition and expression of context fear in rats with neurotoxic DH lesions made before training may be mediated by conditioning to unimodal cues in the context, a process that may rely less on the hippocampal memory system...
  19. ncbi request reprint Effects of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, on locomotor activity and contextual fear conditioning in rats
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, 525 E University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Brain Res 804:155-8. 1998
    ..It is concluded that nNOS activity is not required for either the acquisition or expression of contextual fear conditioning...
  20. ncbi request reprint Neurotoxic or electrolytic lesions of the ventral subiculum produce deficits in the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 1109, USA
    Behav Neurosci 113:283-90. 1999
    ..These results reveal that neurons in the vSUB have an important role in both the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning to contextual and acoustic CSs...
  21. ncbi request reprint The hippocampus and contextual memory retrieval in Pavlovian conditioning
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, 525 E University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Behav Brain Res 110:97-108. 2000
    ..The nature of the hippocampal role in retrieval processes is discussed in the light of these data...
  22. ncbi request reprint Auditory fear conditioning increases CS-elicited spike firing in lateral amygdala neurons even after extensive overtraining
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, 525 E University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 12:4047-54. 2000
    ..g. Maren, S. (1999a) J. Neurosci., 19, 8696-8703] and support the view that the basolateral complex of the amygdala is involved in the encoding and storage of fear memories even after extensive overtraining...
  23. ncbi request reprint The amygdala is essential for the development of neuronal plasticity in the medial geniculate nucleus during auditory fear conditioning in rats
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    J Neurosci 21:RC135. 2001
    ..Unpaired training did not yield increases in either CS-elicited spike firing or freezing to the tone CS. These results reveal that the BLA is essential to the development of plasticity in the auditory thalamus during fear conditioning...
  24. ncbi request reprint Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:897-931. 2001
    ..These advances represent an important step in understanding the neural substrates of a rapidly acquired and adaptive form of associative learning and memory in mammals...
  25. ncbi request reprint Is there savings for pavlovian fear conditioning after neurotoxic basolateral amygdala lesions in rats?
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, 525 E University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 76:268-83. 2001
    ..These results reiterate the conclusion that fear memory, as it is expressed in freezing behavior, requires neurons in the BLA...
  26. doi request reprint An acid-sensing channel sows fear and panic
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Cell 139:867-9. 2009
    ..2009) now show that acid-sensing channels in the amygdala mediate fear responses that accompany inhalation of carbon dioxide, suggesting that aberrant chemosensation may underlie anxiety disorders associated with a fear of suffocation...
  27. pmc The central nucleus of the amygdala is essential for acquiring and expressing conditional fear after overtraining
    Joshua M Zimmerman
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 14:634-44. 2007
    ..These results suggest that the CEA is essential for conditional freezing after Pavlovian fear conditioning. Moreover, overtraining may engage a compensatory fear conditioning circuit involving the CEA in animals with damage to the BLA...
  28. pmc Reciprocal patterns of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala after extinction and renewal of conditioned fear
    Ewelina Knapska
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 16:486-93. 2009
    ..These data suggest that the context specificity of extinction is mediated by prefrontal modulation of amygdala activity, and that the hippocampus has a fundamental role in contextual memory retrieval...
  29. pmc Associative structure of fear memory after basolateral amygdala lesions in rats
    Christine A Rabinak
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Behav Neurosci 122:1284-94. 2008
    ....
  30. pmc Nuclear disconnection within the amygdala reveals a direct pathway to fear
    Stephanie A Jimenez
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 16:766-8. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that neural projections from the BLA to CEA are essential for the expression of learned fear responses...
  31. ncbi request reprint Hippocampal inactivation disrupts the acquisition and contextual encoding of fear extinction
    Kevin A Corcoran
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    J Neurosci 25:8978-87. 2005
    ..Learning and remembering when and where aversive events occur is essential for adaptive emotional regulation...
  32. pmc Context-dependent neuronal activity in the lateral amygdala represents fear memories after extinction
    Jennifer A Hobin
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    J Neurosci 23:8410-6. 2003
    ..Context-dependent neuronal activity in the LA may be an important mechanism for disambiguating the meaning of fear signals, thereby enabling appropriate behavioral responses to such stimuli...
  33. pmc Strain difference in the effect of infralimbic cortex lesions on fear extinction in rats
    Chun hui Chang
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Behav Neurosci 124:391-7. 2010
    ..Thus, we conclude that rat strain is an important variable that influences the role of infralimbic cortex in fear extinction...
  34. doi request reprint NMDA receptor antagonism in the basolateral but not central amygdala blocks the extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats
    Joshua M Zimmerman
    Neuorscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 31:1664-70. 2010
    ..Together with previous work, these results reveal that NMDA receptors in the CEA have a selective role acquisition of fear memory...
  35. doi request reprint Social modulation of learning in rats
    Ewelina Knapska
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 17:35-42. 2010
    ..We argue that socially transferred fear is an adaptation that promotes defensive behavior to potentially dangerous situations in the environment...
  36. ncbi request reprint Hitting Ras where it counts: Ras antagonism in the basolateral amygdala inhibits long-term fear memory
    Stephen M Merino
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Michigan, 525 E University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 23:196-204. 2006
    ..Finally, intra-amygdala infusions of FTS inhibited MAPK activation in BLA. Collectively, these results provide further evidence for the involvement of amygdaloid Ras in the acquisition of long-term conditional fear memory...
  37. ncbi request reprint Long-term potentiation as a substrate for memory: evidence from studies of amygdaloid plasticity and Pavlovian fear conditioning
    Ki A Goosens
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 1109, USA
    Hippocampus 12:592-9. 2002
    ..We conclude that LTP remains a viable substrate for memory...
  38. ncbi request reprint Ventral hippocampal muscimol disrupts context-specific fear memory retrieval after extinction in rats
    Jennifer A Hobin
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Hippocampus 16:174-82. 2006
    ..These data are consistent with a role for the ventral hippocampus in mediating context-specific fear memory retrieval...
  39. pmc Glutamate receptors in the medial geniculate nucleus are necessary for expression and extinction of conditioned fear in rats
    Caitlin A Orsini
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 92:581-9. 2009
    ..These results suggest that the MGN is a critical sensory relay for auditory information during extinction training, but is not itself a site of plasticity underlying the formation of the extinction memory...
  40. pmc Factors regulating the effects of hippocampal inactivation on renewal of conditional fear after extinction
    Kevin A Corcoran
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 11:598-603. 2004
    ..These results are discussed in terms of theories regarding the role of the hippocampus in contextual memory retrieval...
  41. pmc The amygdala is not necessary for unconditioned stimulus inflation after Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats
    Christine A Rabinak
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 16:645-54. 2009
    ..Together, these results suggest that the amygdala is not required for revaluing an aversive US despite being required for the acquisition of fear to that US...
  42. ncbi request reprint Pretraining NMDA receptor blockade in the basolateral complex, but not the central nucleus, of the amygdala prevents savings of conditional fear
    Ki A Goosens
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 1109, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:738-50. 2003
    ..These results suggest that both the BLA and CEA play a critical role in the acquisition of conditional fear but that the BLA is able to process and retain some aspects of aversive memories in the absence of the CEA...
  43. ncbi request reprint Auditory-evoked spike firing in the lateral amygdala and Pavlovian fear conditioning: mnemonic code or fear bias?
    Ki A Goosens
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Neuron 40:1013-22. 2003
    ..Thus, our data support a model in which associative activity in the LA encodes fear memory and contributes to the expression of learned fear behaviors...
  44. pmc Lesions of the entorhinal cortex or fornix disrupt the context-dependence of fear extinction in rats
    Jinzhao Ji
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, United States
    Behav Brain Res 194:201-6. 2008
    ..Thus, contextual memory retrieval requires not only the hippocampus proper, but also its cortical and subcortical interfaces...
  45. ncbi request reprint Changes in anxiety-related behaviors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in mice lacking the 5-HT-3A receptor
    Seema Bhatnagar
    Department of Psychology and the Neuroscience Program, Box 1109, University of Michigan, 525 East University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Physiol Behav 81:545-55. 2004
    ..Together, these data suggest that the 5-HT-3A receptor does not have a unitary role in the regulation of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors but has a potentially substantial role in the regulation of HPA activity...
  46. pmc Overexpression of hAPPswe impairs rewarded alternation and contextual fear conditioning in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Kevin A Corcoran
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 9:243-52. 2002
    ..Hence, learning and memory deficits in old Tg2576 mice are limited to hippocampus-dependent tasks, despite widespread amyloid deposition in cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala...
  47. pmc Electrolytic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus disrupt renewal of conditional fear after extinction
    Jinzhao Ji
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 12:270-6. 2005
    ..These results are consistent with those using pharmacological inactivation of the DH and suggest that the DH is required for using contextual stimuli to regulate the expression of fear to a Pavlovian CS after extinction...
  48. ncbi request reprint NMDA receptors are essential for the acquisition, but not expression, of conditional fear and associative spike firing in the lateral amygdala
    Ki A Goosens
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:537-48. 2004
    ....
  49. pmc Early extinction after fear conditioning yields a context-independent and short-term suppression of conditional freezing in rats
    Chun hui Chang
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 16:62-8. 2009
    ..Long-term extinction memory only develops when extinction training occurs at least six hours after conditioning...
  50. ncbi request reprint Enhancement of auditory fear conditioning after housing in a complex environment is attenuated by prior treatment with amphetamine
    Lisa A Briand
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 12:553-6. 2005
    ..Prior treatment with amphetamine eliminated this effect. These results indicate that living in a complex environment facilitates conditional freezing to an auditory CS, and that this effect is abolished by pretreatment with amphetamine...
  51. pmc Differential roles for hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3 in the contextual encoding and retrieval of extinguished fear
    Jinzhao Ji
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Learn Mem 15:244-51. 2008
    ..Collectively, these results reveal that both hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3 contribute to the acquisition of context-dependent extinction, but that only area CA1 is required for contextual memory retrieval...
  52. ncbi request reprint Hippocampal involvement in contextual modulation of fear extinction
    Jinzhao Ji
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Hippocampus 17:749-58. 2007
    ..In the second part, the review will focus on the brain mechanisms for the contextual control of extinction...
  53. pmc Fear extinction in rodents
    Chun hui Chang
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Curr Protoc Neurosci . 2009
    ..This unit describes detailed behavioral protocols for examining the nature and properties of fear extinction in laboratory rodents...
  54. ncbi request reprint Dynamic amino acid increases in the basolateral amygdala during acquisition and expression of conditioned fear
    B Jill Venton
    Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 N University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1055, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 23:3391-8. 2006
    ..These experiments demonstrate glutamate and GABA levels in the amygdala are differentially modulated during auditory and contextual fear learning, and are transiently increased during the expression of fear memories...
  55. ncbi request reprint Contextual and temporal modulation of extinction: behavioral and biological mechanisms
    Mark E Bouton
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 0134, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:352-60. 2006
    ..This interaction may be mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and adrenergic mechanisms...

Research Grants16

  1. Neural Substrates of Contextual Memory in Fear Extinction
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, this work will have far-reaching implications for the design of therapeutic interventions for disorders of fear and anxiety in humans. ..
  2. Neural Substrates of Contextual Memory
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These experiments will provide essential information regarding the neural substrates of contextual memory and have broad implications for our understanding of normal and pathological memory more generally. ..
  3. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The outcome of these experiments will have an important impact on current conceptions of both amygdaloid function and on clinical disorders of fear that depend on emotional learning and memory. ..
  4. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The outcome of these experiments will have an important impact on current conceptions of both amygdaloid function and emotional learning and memory. ..
  5. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The outcome of these experiments will have an important impact on current conceptions of both amygdaloid function and on clinical disorders of fear that depend on emotional learning and memory. ..
  6. Neural Substrates of Contextual Memory in Fear Extinction
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Moreover, this work will have far-reaching implications for the design of therapeutic interventions for disorders of fear and anxiety in humans. ..