Ludwig M, Patel N, Kreitman M. Functional analysis of eve stripe 2 enhancer evolution in Drosophila: rules governing conservation and change. Development. 1998;125:949-58 pubmed
..This view allows for a slow but continual turnover of functionally important changes in the stripe 2 enhancer. ..
Ludwig M, Bergman C, Patel N, Kreitman M. Evidence for stabilizing selection in a eukaryotic enhancer element. Nature. 2000;403:564-7 pubmed
..Sequence differences between species have functional consequences, therefore, but they are masked by other co-evolved differences. On the basis of these results, we present a model for the evolution of eukaryotic regulatory sequences. ..
Ludwig M. Functional evolution of noncoding DNA. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:634-9 pubmed
..Several experimentally characterized regulatory elements have failed to show sequence similarity even between closely related species. ..
Ludwig M, Palsson A, Alekseeva E, Bergman C, Nathan J, Kreitman M. Functional evolution of a cis-regulatory module. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e93 pubmed
..Our findings have implications for understanding enhancer structure-function, mechanisms of speciation and computational identification of regulatory modules. ..