- Ludwig M, Patel N, Kreitman M. Functional analysis of eve stripe 2 enhancer evolution in Drosophila: rules governing conservation and change. Development. 1998;125:949-58 pubmed..This view allows for a slow but continual turnover of functionally important changes in the stripe 2 enhancer. ..
- Ludwig M, Bergman C, Patel N, Kreitman M. Evidence for stabilizing selection in a eukaryotic enhancer element. Nature. 2000;403:564-7 pubmed..Sequence differences between species have functional consequences, therefore, but they are masked by other co-evolved differences. On the basis of these results, we present a model for the evolution of eukaryotic regulatory sequences. ..
- Ludwig M. Functional evolution of noncoding DNA. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:634-9 pubmed..Several experimentally characterized regulatory elements have failed to show sequence similarity even between closely related species. ..
- Ludwig M, Palsson A, Alekseeva E, Bergman C, Nathan J, Kreitman M. Functional evolution of a cis-regulatory module. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e93 pubmed..Our findings have implications for understanding enhancer structure-function, mechanisms of speciation and computational identification of regulatory modules. ..