Genomes and Genes
J J Loor
Affiliation: University of Illinois
- Dong X, Zhou Z, Wang L, Saremi B, Helmbrecht A, Wang Z, et al. Increasing the availability of threonine, isoleucine, valine, and leucine relative to lysine while maintaining an ideal ratio of lysine:methionine alters mammary cellular metabolites, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, and gene transcription. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:5502-5514 pubmed publisher
- Xu T, Alharthi A, Batistel F, Helmbrecht A, Parys C, Trevisi E, et al. Hepatic phosphorylation status of serine/threonine kinase 1, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling proteins, and growth rate in Holstein heifer calves in response to maternal supply of methionine. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:8476-8491 pubmed publisher..Thus, the data suggest that molecular mechanisms in the liver might be programmed by supply of methionine during late pregnancy. The exact mechanisms coordinating the observed responses remain to be determined. ..
- Jacometo C, Osorio J, Socha M, CorrÃªa M, Piccioli Cappelli F, Trevisi E, et al. Maternal consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:7717-29 pubmed publisher..Further studies involving inflammatory challenges during the neonatal period should be performed to determine the functional benefit of maternal organic trace minerals on the neonatal immune response. ..
- Minuti A, Zhou Z, Graugnard D, RODRIGUEZ ZAS S, Palladino A, Cardoso F, et al. Acute mammary and liver transcriptome responses after an intramammary Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge in postpartal dairy cows. Physiol Rep. 2015;3: pubmed publisher..However, in the liver the response likely depends on mediators originating from the udder that affect liver functionality and specifically fatty acid metabolism (Î²-oxidation, ketogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis). ..
- Zhou Z, Bu D, Vailati Riboni M, Khan M, Graugnard D, Luo J, et al. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:5492-505 pubmed publisher..These adaptations observed in PMNL did not seem to be detrimental for production. ..
- Han L, Batistel F, Ma Y, Alharthi A, Parys C, Loor J. Methionine supply alters mammary gland antioxidant gene networks via phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) protein in dairy cows during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:8505-8512 pubmed publisher..The exact mechanisms for these responses merit further study. ..
- Ma Y, Wu Z, Gao M, Loor J. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element pathways protect bovine mammary epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in vitro. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:5329-5344 pubmed publisher..Overall, results indicate that NFE2L2 plays an important role in the NFE2L2-ARE pathway via the control of HMOX-1. The relevant mechanisms in vivo merit further study. ..
- Han L, Zhou Z, Ma Y, Batistel F, Osorio J, Loor J. Phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) in mammary tissue of Holstein cows during the periparturient period is associated with mRNA abundance of antioxidant gene networks. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:6511-6522 pubmed publisher..The actual cues coordinating these molecular responses remain to be determined. ..
- Ma Y, Wu Z, Gao M, Loor J. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant activation through the action of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated serine/threonine kinase is essential to counteract oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:5317-5328 pubmed publisher..The relevance of this kinase in vivo merits further study. ..
- Minuti A, Palladino A, Khan M, Alqarni S, Agrawal A, Piccioli Capelli F, et al. Abundance of ruminal bacteria, epithelial gene expression, and systemic biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation are altered during the peripartal period in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:8940-51 pubmed publisher..Understanding causes and mechanisms driving the interaction among ruminal bacteria and host immunometabolic responses merits further study. ..
- Zhao W, Hu S, Yu K, Wang H, Wang W, Loor J, et al. Lipoprotein lipase, tissue expression and effects on genes related to fatty acid synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:22757-71 pubmed publisher..The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis. ..
- Yao D, Luo J, He Q, Li J, Wang H, Shi H, et al. Characterization of the liver X receptor-dependent regulatory mechanism of goat stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene by linoleic acid. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:3945-3957 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrated that linoleic acid can regulate SCD1 expression at the transcriptional level through SRE and NF-Y in a liver X receptor-dependent fashion in the goat mammary gland. ..
- Vailati Riboni M, Meier S, Burke C, Kay J, Mitchell M, Walker C, et al. Prepartum body condition score and plane of nutrition affect the hepatic transcriptome during the transition period in grazing dairy cows. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:854 pubmed..Overall, the data support the hypothesis that overfeeding in late-pregnancy should be limited to underconditioned cows, while cows with optimal degree of body condition should be maintained on an energy-restricted diet. ..
- Shi H, Zhang C, Xu Z, Lou G, Liu J, Luo J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta regulates lipid droplet formation and transport in goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:2641-2649 pubmed publisher..Hence, PPARD activity may contribute to fatty acid transport and LD formation during lactation. ..
- Vailati Riboni M, Farina G, Batistel F, Heiser A, Mitchell M, Crookenden M, et al. Far-off and close-up dry matter intake modulate indicators of immunometabolic adaptations to lactation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture-based transition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:2334-2350 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, to ensure a favorable transition, cows should be subjected to a small feed restriction in the close-up period, irrespective of far-off nutritional management. ..
- Shi H, Du Y, Zhang C, Sun C, He Y, Wu Y, et al. Fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) alters the synthesis of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:4586-4594 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these are the first in vitro results highlighting an important role of ELOVL5 in the elongation of 16-carbon to 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant mammary cells. ..
- Zhou Z, Vailati Riboni M, Luchini D, Loor J. Methionine and Choline Supply during the Periparturient Period Alter Plasma Amino Acid and One-Carbon Metabolism Profiles to Various Extents: Potential Role in Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Status. Nutrients. 2016;9: pubmed publisher..Overall, the data revealed that enhanced periparturient supply of MET has positive effects on plasma AA profiles and overall antioxidant status. ..
- Osorio J, Jacometo C, Zhou Z, Luchini D, Cardoso F, Loor J. Hepatic global DNA and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha promoter methylation are altered in peripartal dairy cows fed rumen-protected methionine. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:234-44 pubmed publisher..Further research is needed to study more closely the mechanistic connections between global DNA and promoter region-specific PPARA methylation with PPARA expression and functional outcomes in liver. ..
- Vailati Riboni M, Kanwal M, Bulgari O, Meier S, Priest N, Burke C, et al. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:758-70 pubmed publisher..Data support the use of a controlled feed restriction prepartum in optimally conditioned cows, as well as the use of a higher level of dietary energy in under-conditioned cows. ..
- Xu H, Luo J, Wang H, Wang H, Zhang T, Tian H, et al. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)c promoter: Characterization and transcriptional regulation by mature SREBP-1 and liver X receptor Î± in goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:1595-1604 pubmed publisher..Results suggest that goat SREBP-1c gene is transcriptionally regulated by mature SREBP-1 (auto-loop circuit regulation) and LXRÎ± in goat mammary epithelial cells. ..
- Zhou Z, Bulgari O, Vailati Riboni M, Trevisi E, Ballou M, Cardoso F, et al. Rumen-protected methionine compared with rumen-protected choline improves immunometabolic status in dairy cows during the peripartal period. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:8956-8969 pubmed publisher..Overall, liver and blood biomarker analyses revealed favorable changes in liver function, inflammation status, and immune response in Met-supplemented cows. ..
- Akbar H, Grala T, Vailati Riboni M, Cardoso F, Verkerk G, McGowan J, et al. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:1019-32 pubmed publisher..5 or 5.5 relative to BCS 4.5. ..
- Zhou Z, Vailati Riboni M, Trevisi E, Drackley J, Luchini D, Loor J. Better postpartal performance in dairy cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine compared with choline during the peripartal period. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:8716-8732 pubmed publisher..Results from the present study indicate that peripartal supplementation of rumen-protected Met but not CHOL has positive effects on cow performance. ..
- Zhou Z, Loor J, Piccioli Cappelli F, Librandi F, Lobley G, Trevisi E. Circulating amino acids in blood plasma during the peripartal period in dairy cows with different liver functionality index. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:2257-2267 pubmed publisher..Whether these AA played a direct role in the greater milk production remains to be determined. ..
- Yao D, Luo J, He Q, Xu H, Li J, Shi H, et al. Liver X receptor ? promotes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in goat mammary epithelial cells via the control of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 in an SREBP-1-dependent manner. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:6391-6402 pubmed publisher..The present study provides evidence that LXR? is involved in the synthesis of MUFA in the goat mammary gland through an indirect mechanism. ..
- Bionaz M, Loor J. Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:366 pubmed publisher..g., SCD). Longitudinal mRNA expression allowed development of transcriptional regulation networks and an updated model of milk fat synthesis regulation. ..
- Shi H, Wu M, Zhu J, Zhang C, Yao D, Luo J, et al. Fatty acid elongase 6 plays a role in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:4987-4995 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, these are the first results highlighting an important role of ELOVL6 in long-chain fatty elongation and TAG synthesis in ruminant mammary cells. ..
- Batistel F, Alharthi A, Wang L, Parys C, Pan Y, Cardoso F, et al. Placentome Nutrient Transporters and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Proteins Are Altered by the Methionine Supply during Late Gestation in Dairy Cows and Are Associated with Newborn Birth Weight. J Nutr. 2017;147:1640-1647 pubmed publisher
- Arroyo J, Hosseini A, Zhou Z, Alharthi A, Trevisi E, Osorio J, et al. Reticulo-rumen mass, epithelium gene expression, and systemic biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation in Holstein dairy cows fed a high-energy diet. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:9352-9360 pubmed publisher..The relevance of these findings to the nutritional management of pregnant dry cows merits further research. ..
- Chen Z, Shi H, Sun S, Luo J, Zhang W, Hou Y, et al. MiR-183 regulates milk fat metabolism via MST1 in goat mammary epithelial cells. Gene. 2018;646:12-19 pubmed publisher..Immunofluorescence assays revealed that miR-183 targets MST1 in the cytoplasm. In summary, data indicate that miR-183 inhibits the metabolism of milk fat by targeting the MST1 gene in the cytoplasm in goat mammary epithelial cells. ..
- Dong X, Zhou Z, Saremi B, Helmbrecht A, Wang Z, Loor J. Varying the ratio of Lys:Met while maintaining the ratios of Thr:Phe, Lys:Thr, Lys:His, and Lys:Val alters mammary cellular metabolites, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, and gene transcription. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:1708-1718 pubmed publisher
- Chen Z, Qiu H, Ma L, Luo J, Sun S, Kang K, et al. miR-30e-5p and miR-15a Synergistically Regulate Fatty Acid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells via LRP6 and YAP1. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed..The data expanded our knowledge on the function of miRNAs in milk fat metabolism and synthesis in ruminant mammary cells. ..
- Zhang M, Li C, Li F, Li H, Liu X, Loor J, et al. Estrogen Promotes Hepatic Synthesis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Regulating ELOVL5 at Post-Transcriptional Level in Laying Hens. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher..This study provides a novel model for the use of estrogen in the poultry industry as an inducer of ELOVL5 expression to enhance hepatic n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. ..
- Osorio J, Trevisi E, Ji P, Drackley J, Luchini D, Bertoni G, et al. Biomarkers of inflammation, metabolism, and oxidative stress in blood, liver, and milk reveal a better immunometabolic status in peripartal cows supplemented with Smartamine M or MetaSmart. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97:7437-50 pubmed publisher..Overall, biomarker analyses in blood and tissue indicate that the beneficial effect of feeding SM and MS on postpartal cow performance is due in part to a better immunometabolic status. ..
- Jacometo C, Zhou Z, Luchini D, Corrêa M, Loor J. Maternal supplementation with rumen-protected methionine increases prepartal plasma methionine concentration and alters hepatic mRNA abundance of 1-carbon, methionine, and transsulfuration pathways in neonatal Holstein calves. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:3209-3219 pubmed publisher..Whether the effects in MET calves were directly related to increased Met supply in utero remains to be determined. ..
- Akbar H, Bionaz M, Carlson D, Rodriguez Zas S, Everts R, Lewin H, et al. Feed restriction, but not l-carnitine infusion, alters the liver transcriptome by inhibiting sterol synthesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increasing gluconeogenesis in mid-lactation dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:2201-2213 pubmed publisher..The data also indicated an increase of flux toward gluconeogenesis. We interpreted those results as a likely response of the liver to spare energy and provide glucose for the lactating mammary gland during feed deprivation. ..
- Seo J, Osorio J, Schmitt E, Corrêa M, Bertoni G, Trevisi E, et al. Hepatic purinergic signaling gene network expression and its relationship with inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood from peripartal dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97:861-73 pubmed publisher..The correlation analysis provided evidence of a link between purinergic signaling genes and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. ..
- Yao D, Luo J, He Q, Wu M, Shi H, Wang H, et al. Thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) promotes the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:3124-3133 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results highlight an important role of THRSP in regulating lipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. ..
- Vailati Riboni M, Zhou Z, Jacometo C, Minuti A, Trevisi E, Luchini D, et al. Supplementation with rumen-protected methionine or choline during the transition period influences whole-blood immune response in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:3958-3968 pubmed publisher..These results provide insights on potential differences in the immunomodulatory action of methionine and choline in dairy cows. As such, the effects observed could have implications for ration formulation and dietary strategies. ..
- Osorio J, Batistel F, Garrett E, Elhanafy M, Tariq M, Socha M, et al. Corium molecular biomarkers reveal a beneficial effect on hoof transcriptomics in peripartal dairy cows supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from amino acid complexes and cobalt from cobalt glucoheptonate. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:9974-9982 pubmed publisher..The hoof biopsy procedure used in the present study should be further perfected and implemented in future lameness research to expand our understanding of hoof biology in dairy cows. ..
- Xu T, Cardoso F, Pineda A, Trevisi E, Shen X, Rosa F, et al. Grain challenge affects systemic and hepatic molecular biomarkers of inflammation, stress, and metabolic responses to a greater extent in Holstein than Jersey cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:9153-9162 pubmed publisher..It remains to be determined if these acute responses to a grain challenge can elicit long-term liver dysfunction, which could negatively affect welfare of the cow. ..
- Batistel F, Arroyo J, Bellingeri A, Wang L, Saremi B, Parys C, et al. Ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine enhances performance during the periparturient period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:7455-7467 pubmed publisher..8:1 in metabolizable protein improved dairy cow performance from parturition through 60 DIM. The greater milk production was, at least in part, driven by the greater voluntary DMI and better liver function. ..
- Zhu J, Luo J, Xu H, Wang H, Loor J. Short communication: Altered expression of specificity protein 1 impairs milk fat synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:4893-4898 pubmed publisher..5%, respectively, after adenoviral overexpression of SP1 or its silencing via siRNA. Overall, the results underscored a potentially important role of SP1 in maintaining milk-fat droplet synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. ..
- Zhou Z, Trevisi E, Luchini D, Loor J. Differences in liver functionality indexes in peripartal dairy cows fed rumen-protected methionine or choline are associated with performance, oxidative stress status, and plasma amino acid profiles. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:6720-6732 pubmed publisher..Further studies on the applicability of these biomarkers to monitor transition success appears warranted. ..
- Abdelmegeid M, Vailati Riboni M, Alharthi A, Batistel F, Loor J. Supplemental methionine, choline, or taurine alter in vitro gene network expression of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from neonatal Holstein calves. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:3155-3165 pubmed publisher..These data underscore an important role of these compounds in pre-weaning calf nutritional management. ..
- Shi H, Zhang C, Zhao W, Luo J, Loor J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta facilitates lipid secretion and catabolism of fatty acids in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:797-806 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these results highlight an important role for PPARD in the homeostasis of ruminant mammary cells by facilitating fatty acid activation and lipid droplet formation and secretion. ..
- Zhou Z, Garrow T, Dong X, Luchini D, Loor J. Hepatic Activity and Transcription of Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase, Methionine Synthase, and Cystathionine Synthase in Periparturient Dairy Cows Are Altered to Different Extents by Supply of Methionine and Choline. J Nutr. 2017;147:11-19 pubmed publisher..Failure to generate a comparable amount of endogenous Met from choline could be one reason that choline-fed cows fail to achieve comparable performance and health benefits during the periparturient period. ..
- Shi H, Zhang C, Xu Z, Xu X, Lv Z, Luo J, et al. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 2 (LXRB) is the predominant liver X receptor subtype regulating transcription of 2 major lipogenic genes in goat primary mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:6743-6752 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these results highlight an important role for LXRB in the transcriptional regulation of SREBP1c and FASN in goat mammary epithelial cells. Activation of this nuclear receptor controls lipogenesis via different mechanisms. ..
- Batistel F, Arroyo J, Garces C, Trevisi E, Parys C, Ballou M, et al. Ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress and improves neutrophil function during the periparturient period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:480-490 pubmed publisher..8:1 in the metabolizable protein during the periparturient period and early lactation is an effective approach to help mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation as well as enhance liver and neutrophil function in dairy cows. ..
- McCann J, Elolimy A, Loor J. Rumen Microbiome, Probiotics, and Fermentation Additives. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2017;33:539-553 pubmed publisher..These efforts align with a growing number of products designed to improve ruminal fermentation to benefit the overall efficiency of ruminant livestock production and health. ..