J A Levy

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Is HIV superinfection worrisome?
    Jay A Levy
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 361:98-9. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Controlling HIV pathogenesis: the role of the noncytotoxic anti-HIV response of CD8+ T cells
    J A Levy
    Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco 94143 0128, USA
    Immunol Today 17:217-24. 1996
  3. ncbi request reprint HIV-1: hitching a ride on erythrocytes
    Jay A Levy
    Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 359:2212-3. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint The importance of the innate immune system in controlling HIV infection and disease
    J A Levy
    Dept of Medicine, University of California, 513 Parnassus, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Trends Immunol 22:312-6. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint The search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor (CAF)
    Jay A Levy
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, 513 Parnassus, S1280, Box 1270, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Trends Immunol 24:628-32. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Protection from HIV/AIDS: the importance of innate immunity
    Jay A Levy
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Immunol 108:167-74. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint HIV pathogenesis: knowledge gained after two decades of research
    J A Levy
    Laboratory for Tumor and AIDS Research, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Suite S1280, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Adv Dent Res 19:10-6. 2006
  8. pmc Reduction in CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy during primary infection
    S A Stranford
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143; Blood Centers of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:597-602. 2001
  9. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef associates with a cellular serine kinase in T lymphocytes
    E T Sawai
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0128
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1539-43. 1994
  10. ncbi request reprint Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by a soluble factor produced by CD8+ lymphocytes from HIV-2-infected baboons
    C P Locher
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1270, USA
    Immunol Lett 66:151-7. 1999

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi request reprint Is HIV superinfection worrisome?
    Jay A Levy
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 361:98-9. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Controlling HIV pathogenesis: the role of the noncytotoxic anti-HIV response of CD8+ T cells
    J A Levy
    Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco 94143 0128, USA
    Immunol Today 17:217-24. 1996
    ..Here, Jay Levy and colleagues propose that this antiviral activity represents a natural cellular immune reaction that controls HIV production and protects the host from potential harmful effects of cytotoxic T lymphocytes...
  3. ncbi request reprint HIV-1: hitching a ride on erythrocytes
    Jay A Levy
    Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 359:2212-3. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint The importance of the innate immune system in controlling HIV infection and disease
    J A Levy
    Dept of Medicine, University of California, 513 Parnassus, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Trends Immunol 22:312-6. 2001
    ..Novel approaches should be developed to elicit this rapidly responding immune activity in HIV infection...
  5. ncbi request reprint The search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor (CAF)
    Jay A Levy
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, 513 Parnassus, S1280, Box 1270, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Trends Immunol 24:628-32. 2003
    ..These studies have uncovered several potentially important natural anti-HIV factors and their relationship to the originally described CAF is considered...
  6. ncbi request reprint Protection from HIV/AIDS: the importance of innate immunity
    Jay A Levy
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Immunol 108:167-74. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint HIV pathogenesis: knowledge gained after two decades of research
    J A Levy
    Laboratory for Tumor and AIDS Research, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Suite S1280, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Adv Dent Res 19:10-6. 2006
    ..The past 20 years have yielded important information on HIV/AIDS that should lead to effective anti-HIV therapies and a vaccine...
  8. pmc Reduction in CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy during primary infection
    S A Stranford
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143; Blood Centers of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:597-602. 2001
    ....
  9. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef associates with a cellular serine kinase in T lymphocytes
    E T Sawai
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0128
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1539-43. 1994
    ..These findings present evidence that a serine kinase activity is associated with Nef expressed in human T lymphocytes...
  10. ncbi request reprint Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by a soluble factor produced by CD8+ lymphocytes from HIV-2-infected baboons
    C P Locher
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1270, USA
    Immunol Lett 66:151-7. 1999
    ..Therefore, the soluble suppressing activity of CD8+ cells in HIV-2-infected baboons may be analogous to the CD8+ cell antiviral factor described in human HIV-infected asymptomatic people...
  11. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 is cleaved after incubation with recombinant soluble CD4
    A Werner
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0128
    J Virol 67:2566-74. 1993
    ..The origin of the proteolytic activity in the virus preparations remains unclear. The results support the hypothesis that cleavage of gp120 is required for HIV infection of cells...
  12. ncbi request reprint The nuclear factor kappa B and Spl binding sites do not appear to be involved in virus suppression by CD8 T lymphocytes
    C P Locher
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-1270, USA
    AIDS 15:2455-7. 2001
    ..The results strongly suggest that the NF-B and Spl binding sites are not involved in virus suppression by CD8 T lymphocytes...
  13. ncbi request reprint Baboons as an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis and vaccine development
    C P Locher
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Immunol Rev 183:127-40. 2001
    ..The results demonstrate the value of using baboons as an animal model of AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine development...
  14. ncbi request reprint Biologic features of HIV-1 that correlate with virulence in the host
    C Cheng Mayer
    Department of Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, San Francisco 94143
    Science 240:80-2. 1988
    ..The biologic properties of HIV-1 in vitro thus appear to reflect its virulence in the host. Further studies of such sequentially isolated viruses may lead to the identification of viral genes that govern pathogenesis...
  15. pmc Serum enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection correlates with disease in HIV-infected individuals
    J Homsy
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0128
    J Virol 64:1437-40. 1990
    ..They emphasize the necessity of studying further the association of enhancing antibodies and disease progression in infected individuals...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effect of IL-2 therapy on CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response during primary HIV-1 infection
    B Martinez-Marino
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Clin Immunol 24:135-44. 2004
    ..The first cycle of IL-2 enhanced CNAR; later cycles showed no substantial effect. This study suggests that HAART combined with IL-2 could provide an immunologic benefit in the treatment of early HIV infection...
  17. pmc Functional role of the V1/V2 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in infection of primary macrophages and soluble CD4 neutralization
    A Koito
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0128
    J Virol 68:2253-9. 1994
    ..The conformation of the envelope gp120 appears to be strain specific and plays an important role in determining HIV-1 tissue tropism and sensitivity to soluble CD4 neutralization...
  18. pmc Virus-host interactions in HIV pathogenesis: directions for therapy
    J A Levy
    Director, Laboratory for Tumor and AIDS Virus Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Adv Dent Res 23:13-8. 2011
    ..All these parameters in HIV pathogenesis underline the information needed to develop optimal anti-HIV therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine...
  19. ncbi request reprint Detection of HIV in enterochromaffin cells in the rectal mucosa of an AIDS patient
    J A Levy
    Department of Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, San Francisco
    Am J Gastroenterol 84:787-9. 1989
    ..More infected cells were noted in the crypts than the lamina propria. The enterochromaffin cell was one cell type showing the presence of virus. HIV may play an important role in some gastrointestinal disorders in infected individuals...
  20. ncbi request reprint A conserved domain and membrane targeting of Nef from HIV and SIV are required for association with a cellular serine kinase activity
    E T Sawai
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0128, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:15307-14. 1995
    ..Moreover, point mutations within the central region that abrogate the Nef-associated kinase activity in HIV-1SF2 Nef have the same effect when introduced into SIVmac239open Nef...
  21. ncbi request reprint Potential herpesvirus interaction during HIV type 1 primary infection
    Evelyne T Lennette
    Nectandra Institute, San Ramon, Costa Rica
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:869-75. 2005
    ..uninfected individuals. Notably, lower HIV-1 viremia (7,313 vs. 55,548 geometric mean RNA copies/ml) at baseline was significantly associated with HHV-8 seropositivity (p < 0.004)...
  22. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation
    Christopher P Locher
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Gen Virol 86:1171-9. 2005
    ..02). Taken together, these results indicate that CD4+ cells infected with R5 virus isolates may have a selective advantage over X4 virus-infected CD4+ T cells for survival and, hence, virus spread...
  23. ncbi request reprint Variations in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) and myeloid dendritic cell (MDC) levels in HIV-infected subjects on and off antiretroviral therapy
    Barbara Schmidt
    Division Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1270, USA
    J Clin Immunol 26:55-64. 2006
    ..Circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells may provide important additional information about immune function in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving antiretroviral therapy...
  24. ncbi request reprint VCAM-1 expression on CD8+ cells correlates with enhanced anti-HIV suppressing activity
    Leyla S Diaz
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Immunol 174:1574-9. 2005
    ..Moreover, the CD8(+)VCAM-1(+) cells show enhanced CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic antiviral response activity that could have clinical importance in HIV infection...
  25. ncbi request reprint A screening assay for detecting CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses
    M Scott Killian
    AIDS Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States
    J Immunol Methods 304:137-50. 2005
    ..Use of the CNAR screening assay should facilitate the evaluation of this important immune parameter in studies of HIV pathogenesis, resistance to infection, and vaccine development...
  26. ncbi request reprint Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection
    C Bradley Hare
    Positive Health Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:700-8. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Similar changes in plasmacytoid dendritic cell and CD4 T-cell counts during primary HIV-1 infection and treatment
    M Scott Killian
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    AIDS 20:1247-52. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response
    M Scott Killian
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94143, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:640-7. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate that early ART prevents the typical evolution of the HIV-1-specific antibody response and can alter the expected kinetics of this response in subjects discontinuing therapy...
  29. pmc Differential gene expression in CD8(+) cells from HIV-1-infected subjects showing suppression of HIV replication
    Beatriz Martinez-Mariño
    Department of Medicine, Division Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Virology 362:217-25. 2007
    ..Stringent selection criteria narrowed down the list to 52 up-regulated 'high confidence genes' (> or = 75% concordance). These genes function in a wide variety of cellular processes and include 13 associated with immunologic activity...
  30. pmc Synergy or independence? Deciphering the interaction of HLA Class I and NK cell KIR alleles in early HIV-1 disease progression
    Jason D Barbour
    HIV AIDS Division, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e43. 2007
  31. ncbi request reprint Quantitative longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor repertoire expression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral and interleukin-2 therapy
    Uma Sriram
    Department of Neurology University of California at San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:741-7. 2007
    ..These results suggest that homeostasis in the T cell receptor repertoire is more robust in those patients who stay on HAART for a long time and confirm the polyclonal stimulating capacity of IL-2...
  32. ncbi request reprint Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response
    Kyle R Bonneau
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Virology 373:30-8. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that other regions in the viral LTR or other host cell processes are involved in the transcriptional block elicited by CNAR/CAF...
  33. ncbi request reprint HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration
    Barbara Schmidt
    Department of Medicine, Division Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0128, USA
    Virology 343:256-66. 2005
    ..Stimulated CD4+ cells induced PDC activation and maturation; markers for PDC migration (CCR7) were enhanced by HIV-infected CD4+ cells only. This latter finding could explain the decline in circulating PDC in HIV-infected individuals...
  34. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-2 therapy restores CD8 cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses in primary infection subjects receiving HAART
    Beatriz Martinez-Mariño
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    AIDS 18:1991-9. 2004
    ..To determine the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy on immunologic and virologic responses in subjects with acute or recent HIV infection already receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  35. ncbi request reprint Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation
    Barbara Schmidt
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0128, USA
    Virology 329:280-8. 2004
    ..On maturation, the infected PDC showed multinuclear cell syncytia formation and death. These findings indicate that PDC can be reservoirs for HIV dissemination and that HIV infection of PDC can contribute to their decline...
  36. pmc Increased virus replication and virulence after serial passage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in baboons
    Christopher P Locher
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    J Virol 77:77-83. 2003
    ..This study suggests that the HIV-2 isolate recovered after several serial passages in baboons will be useful in future studies of AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine development by using this animal model...
  37. ncbi request reprint Expression patterns of phenotypic markers on lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected baboons
    Christopher P Locher
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:31-40. 2003
    ..These and other phenotypic markers of immune activation may facilitate characterization of the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in nonhuman primate animal models...
  38. pmc The CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response can be blocked by protease inhibitors
    Carl E Mackewicz
    Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3433-8. 2003
    ..Proteolysis of a CD8+ cell product(s) may be involved. This observation offers a promising approach for identifying the mechanism of CNARCAF activity...
  39. ncbi request reprint Relationship of CD8(+) T cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response to CD4(+) T cell number in untreated asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals
    JoAnn C Castelli
    Department of Medicine and Department of Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1270, USA
    Blood 99:4225-7. 2002
    ..These data on CNAR in untreated, healthy, HIV-infected individuals support the current recommendation for when to initiate antiretroviral therapy...
  40. ncbi request reprint alpha-Defensins can have anti-HIV activity but are not CD8 cell anti-HIV factors
    Carl E Mackewicz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    AIDS 17:F23-32. 2003
    ..Recently, the antimicrobial peptides, alpha-defensins, were reported to constitute CAF...
  41. ncbi request reprint Lack of the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor in CD8+ cell granules
    Carl E Mackewicz
    Rheumatology Research Laboratory, Women s Hospital, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Evanston, IL, USA
    Blood 102:180-3. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that CAF does not reside at appreciable levels in the exocytic granules of antiviral CD8+ T cells...
  42. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA vaccine provides partial protection from acute baboon infection
    Christopher P Locher
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, 514 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Vaccine 22:2261-72. 2004
    ..1). These data demonstrate that partial protection against HIV-2 vaginal challenge, as measured by reduced viral load, can be achieved using only a DNA vaccine formulation...
  43. ncbi request reprint Mature dendritic cells can enhance CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV responses: the role of IL-15
    JoAnn Castelli
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1270, USA
    Blood 103:2699-704. 2004
    ..These studies provide another potential approach by which the immune system in HIV infection could be restored by cytokine therapy, particularly IL-15 administration...
  44. ncbi request reprint Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection
    Marcus Altfeld
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    AIDS 17:2581-91. 2003
    ..However, their impact on viral replication during acute HIV-1 infection is not known...
  45. pmc The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic
    Myron S Cohen
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:1244-54. 2008
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Enhancement of antibody responses to an HIV-2 DNA envelope vaccine using an expression vector containing a constitutive transport element
    Christopher P Locher
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    DNA Cell Biol 21:581-6. 2002
    ..We conclude that expression vectors for DNA vaccines should contain TPA and CTE sequences to facilitate immune responses...
  47. pmc Potential screening assay for undetectable viruses on the basis of their capacity to induce alpha interferon production
    Barbara Schmidt
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4300-2. 2004
    ..This release of interferon was not observed with uninfected normal CD4(+) cells. Induction of PDC interferon production could help screen for covert virus infections...
  48. pmc A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas
    Haihan Song
    Department of Viral Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Virol 81:7280-5. 2007
    ..Mutagenesis studies indicated that the single amino acid at the 120th position indeed affected the sensitivity of the virus to CM TRIM5alpha...
  49. pmc Virucidal efficacy of soap and water against human immunodeficiency virus in genital secretions
    Jonathan Z Li
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 1270, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3321-2. 2003
    ..These observations indicate that soap and water might be used to inactivate HIV and HIV-infected cells in genital secretions...
  50. ncbi request reprint Enhancement of a human immunodeficiency virus env DNA vaccine using a novel polycationic nanoparticle formulation
    Christopher P Locher
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Immunol Lett 90:67-70. 2003
    ..These results suggest that nanoparticles may be an important adjuvant formulation to improve the effectiveness of genetic immunization and rationalize its use in the evaluation of vaccine candidates in non-human primate models for AIDS...
  51. ncbi request reprint Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase
    Jay A Levy
    AIDS 17:1119. 2003
  52. ncbi request reprint Differential gene expression in CD8+ cells exhibiting noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity
    Leyla S Diaz
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1270, USA
    Virology 311:400-9. 2003
    ..Three genes, including one unknown, were found to have significantly increased expression in antiviral CD8+ cells...

Research Grants3

  1. 20Years of HIV Research: From Discovery to Understanding
    Jay Levy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The presentations will permit attendees to appreciate and to understand what approaches need to be done to control HIV infection itself as well as its consequences. ..
  2. IMMUNOLOGIC & VIROLOGIC FEATURES OF EARLY HIV INFECTION
    Jay Levy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results should provide useful approaches for both industrialized and developing countries to improve the clinical outcome of infection and block HIV transmission. ..