Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA


  1. Ferrari L, Araldi D, Bogen O, Green P, Levine J. Systemic Morphine Produces Dose-dependent Nociceptor-mediated Biphasic Changes in Nociceptive Threshold and Neuroplasticity. Neuroscience. 2019;398:64-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, induction of both hyperalgesia and priming by high-dose morphine is MOR-dependent. The receptor at which low-dose morphine acts to produce priming remains to be established. ..
  2. Araldi D, Ferrari L, Levine J. Mu-opioid Receptor (MOR) Biased Agonists Induce Biphasic Dose-dependent Hyperalgesia and Analgesia, and Hyperalgesic Priming in the Rat. Neuroscience. 2018;394:60-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, maintenance of priming induced by biased MOR agonists, in the peripheral terminal of nociceptors, has a novel mechanism. ..
  3. Gear R, Bogen O, Ferrari L, Green P, Levine J. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids. Neuroscience. 2014;257:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. ..
  4. Ferrari L, Levine J. Plasma membrane mechanisms in a preclinical rat model of chronic pain. J Pain. 2015;16:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study contributes to a further understanding of mechanisms involved in the organization of messengers at the plasma membrane that participate in the transition from acute to chronic pain. ..
  5. Ferrari L, Bogen O, Reichling D, Levine J. Accounting for the delay in the transition from acute to chronic pain: axonal and nuclear mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2015;35:495-507 pubmed publisher
  6. Alvarez P, Levine J, Green P. Neonatal handling (resilience) attenuates water-avoidance stress induced enhancement of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2015;591:207-11 pubmed publisher
  7. Green P, Alvarez P, Levine J. Topical Tetrodotoxin Attenuates Photophobia Induced by Corneal Injury in the Rat. J Pain. 2015;16:881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although corneal toxicity limits use of local anesthetics, TTX may be a safer therapeutic option to reduce the symptom of photophobia associated with corneal injury. ..
  8. Araldi D, Ferrari L, Levine J. Repeated Mu-Opioid Exposure Induces a Novel Form of the Hyperalgesic Priming Model for Transition to Chronic Pain. J Neurosci. 2015;35:12502-17 pubmed publisher
  9. Ferrari L, Bogen O, Green P, Levine J. Contribution of Piezo2 to endothelium-dependent pain. Mol Pain. 2015;11:65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that Piezo2 is a mechano-transducer in the endothelial cell where it contributes to stimulus-dependent hyperalgesia, and a model of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. ..

More Information


  1. Alvarez P, Bogen O, Levine J. Role of nociceptor estrogen receptor GPR30 in a rat model of endometriosis pain. Pain. 2014;155:2680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GPR30 expressed by nociceptors innervating ectopic uterine lesions might play a major role in endometriosis pain. ..
  2. Joseph E, Green P, Ferrari L, Levine J. Homocysteine-induced attenuation of vascular endothelium-dependent hyperalgesia in the rat. Neuroscience. 2015;284:678-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides independent support for a role of the endothelial cell in pain syndromes thought to have a vascular basis, and suggests that substances that are endothelial cell toxins can enhance vascular pain. ..
  3. Ferrari L, Araldi D, Levine J. Distinct terminal and cell body mechanisms in the nociceptor mediate hyperalgesic priming. J Neurosci. 2015;35:6107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate different mechanisms in the soma and terminal in the transition to chronic pain. ..
  4. Alvarez P, Levine J. Antihyperalgesic effect of tetrodotoxin in rat models of persistent muscle pain. Neuroscience. 2015;311:499-507 pubmed publisher
  5. Ferrari L, Levine J, Green P. Mechanisms mediating nitroglycerin-induced delayed-onset hyperalgesia in the rat. Neuroscience. 2016;317:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A role of the mast and endothelial cell in GTN-induced hyperalgesia suggests potential novel risk factors and targets for the treatment of migraine. ..
  6. Alvarez P, Green P, Levine J. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats. J Pain. 2018;19:670-677 pubmed publisher
    ..NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. ..
  7. Khomula E, Ferrari L, Araldi D, Levine J. Sexual Dimorphism in a Reciprocal Interaction of Ryanodine and IP3 Receptors in the Induction of Hyperalgesic Priming. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2032-2044 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of this signaling pathway modulating the susceptibility of nociceptors to develop plasticity may contribute to our understanding of sex differences observed clinically in chronic pain syndromes. ..
  8. Araldi D, Ferrari L, Green P, Levine J. Marked sexual dimorphism in 5-HT1 receptors mediating pronociceptive effects of sumatriptan. Neuroscience. 2017;344:394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the complex dose dependence for triptan hyperalgesia may provide useful information for the design of anti-migraine drugs with improved therapeutic profiles. ..
  9. Ferrari L, Araldi D, Levine J. Regulation of Expression of Hyperalgesic Priming by Estrogen Receptor α in the Rat. J Pain. 2017;18:574-582 pubmed publisher
  10. Araldi D, Khomula E, Ferrari L, Levine J. Fentanyl Induces Rapid Onset Hyperalgesic Priming: Type I at Peripheral and Type II at Central Nociceptor Terminals. J Neurosci. 2018;38:2226-2245 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may provide useful information for the design of drugs with improved therapeutic profiles, selectively disrupting individual MOR signaling pathways, to maintain an adequate long-lasting control of pain. ..
  11. Ferrari L, Araldi D, Bogen O, Levine J. Extracellular matrix hyaluronan signals via its CD44 receptor in the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Neuroscience. 2016;324:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define a clinically relevant role for signaling by the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, in increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. ..
  12. Ferrari L, Araldi D, Green P, Levine J. Age-Dependent Sexual Dimorphism in Susceptibility to Develop Chronic Pain in the Rat. Neuroscience. 2018;387:170-177 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that estrogen levels, which vary differently in males and females over the post-natal period, until they stabilize after puberty, impact pain as an adult. ..
  13. Ferrari L, Khomula E, Araldi D, Levine J. CD44 Signaling Mediates High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan-Induced Antihyperalgesia. J Neurosci. 2018;38:308-321 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contribute to our understanding of the role of the extracellular matrix in pain, and indicate CD44 as a potential therapeutic target to alleviate inflammatory and neuropathic pain. ..
  14. Conner L, Alvarez P, Bogen O, Levine J. Role of Kv4.3 in Vibration-Induced Muscle Pain in the Rat. J Pain. 2016;17:444-50 pubmed publisher
    ..3 may contribute to neuropathic pain in people affected by hand-arm vibration syndrome. Our findings establish Kv4.3 as a potential molecular target for the treatment of hand-arm vibration syndrome. ..
  15. Joseph E, Green P, Levine J. ATP release mechanisms of endothelial cell-mediated stimulus-dependent hyperalgesia. J Pain. 2014;15:771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitors of 3 different ATP release mechanisms attenuated this SDH. This study provides support for a role of ATP in SDH and suggests novel targets for the treatment of vascular pain syndromes. ..
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    Levine J, Khasar S, Green P. Neurogenic inflammation and arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1069:155-67 pubmed