Walter S Leal


Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA


  1. Franco T, Xu P, Brito N, Oliveira D, Wen X, Moreira M, et al. Reverse chemical ecology-based approach leading to the accidental discovery of repellents for Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas diseases refractory to DEET. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;103:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..4-Methylcyclohexanol-elicited repellency activity was abolished in RNAi-treated insects. In summary, our search for pheromone receptors led to the discovery of repellents for R. prolixus. ..
  2. Yin J, Wang C, Fang C, Zhang S, Cao Y, Li K, et al. Functional characterization of odorant-binding proteins from the scarab beetle Holotrichia oblita based on semiochemical-induced expression alteration and gene silencing. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;104:11-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We, therefore, concluded that HoblOBP13 and HoblOBP9 are essential for H. oblita reception of the plant-derived kairomones (E)-2-hexenol and phenethyl alcohol. ..
  3. Leal W. Reverse chemical ecology at the service of conservation biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12094-12096 pubmed publisher
  4. Xu P, Choo Y, De La Rosa A, Leal W. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:16592-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Pelletier J, Xu P, Yoon K, Clark J, Leal W. Odorant receptor-based discovery of natural repellents of human lice. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;66:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents the first evidence of the OR pathway being functional in lice and identifies PhumOR2 as a sensitive receptor of natural repellents that could be used to develop novel efficient molecules to control these insects. ..
  6. request reprint
    Leal W, Parra Pedrazzoli A, Kaissling K, Morgan T, Zalom F, Pesak D, et al. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist. Naturwissenschaften. 2005;92:139-46 pubmed
    ..Pyralidae), but (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate is a behavioral antagonist. The new pheromone blend may be highly effective in mating disruption and monitoring programs. ..
  7. Leal W, Ishida Y. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3762 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the antennae, expression of SinvCSP is restricted to the last two segments, which are known to house olfactory sensilla. ..
  8. Leal W. Odorant reception in insects: roles of receptors, binding proteins, and degrading enzymes. Annu Rev Entomol. 2013;58:373-91 pubmed publisher
  9. Leal H, Hwang J, Tan K, Leal W. Attraction of Culex mosquitoes to aldehydes from human emanations. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17965 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, an aldehyde mixture at the same ratio released by subject N did not attract mosquitoes. We, therefore, hypothesized that aldehydes may play a role in the commonly observed differential attraction. ..

More Information


  1. Choo Y, Xu P, Hwang J, Zeng F, Tan K, Bhagavathy G, et al. Reverse chemical ecology approach for the identification of an oviposition attractant for Culex quinquefasciatus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:714-719 pubmed publisher
    ..Cage oviposition and dual-choice assays demonstrated that acetaldehyde is an oviposition attractant in a wide range of concentrations and thus of potential practical applications. ..
  2. Zanardi O, Volpe H, Favaris A, Silva W, Luvizotto R, Magnani R, et al. Putative sex pheromone of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, breaks down into an attractant. Sci Rep. 2018;8:455 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, captures of females in acetic acid-baited traps were also higher than in control traps, possibly because of physical stimuli emitted by captured males. ..
  3. Leal W, Chen A, Ishida Y, Chiang V, Erickson M, Morgan T, et al. Kinetics and molecular properties of pheromone binding and release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5386-91 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence studies shed light on the contributions of Trp-37 and Trp-127 emissions to the overall fluorescence...
  4. Leal W, Ishida Y, Pelletier J, Xu W, Rayo J, Xu X, et al. Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7235 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, AtraPBP1 is highly enriched in male antennae. Fluorescence, CD and NMR studies suggest a dramatic pH-dependent conformational change, with high affinity to pheromone constituents at neutral pH and no binding at low pH. ..
  5. Cardoso Júnior C, Silva R, Borges N, de Carvalho W, Walter S, Simões Z, et al. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris. J Insect Physiol. 2017;101:185-194 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the physiological circuitries underlying a highly eusocial life style may be variable, even within a monophyletic clade such as the corbiculate bees. ..