A H Kral

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities
    A H Kral
    Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1304, U S A
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 16:211-7. 1997
  2. ncbi request reprint Injection risk behaviors among clients of syringe exchange programs with different syringe dispensation policies
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1307-12. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Trends in human immunodeficiency virus seroincidence among street-recruited injection drug users in San Francisco, 1987-1998
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 157:915-22. 2003
  4. pmc HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among men who have sex with men and inject drugs in San Francisco
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Studies, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3180 18th Street Suite 302, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Urban Health 82:i43-50. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis
    A H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies and Departments of Family and Community Medicine, UCSF, 3180 18th Street, San Francisco CA 94110, USA
    Lancet 357:1397-401. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Sex- and drug-related risk among populations of younger and older injection drug users in adjacent neighborhoods in San Francisco
    A H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 24:162-7. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Risk factors among IDUs who give injections to or receive injections from other drug users
    A H Kral
    Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Addiction 94:675-83. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995
    R N Bluthenthal
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1304, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 18:505-11. 1998
  9. ncbi request reprint Trends in HIV seroprevalence and risk among gay and bisexual men who inject drugs in San Francisco, 1988 to 2000
    R N Bluthenthal
    Drug Policy Research Center, Health Program, RAND, Department of Psychiatry, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 28:264-9. 2001
  10. pmc Predictors and prevention of nonfatal overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1998-1999
    K H Seal
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    Am J Public Health 91:1842-6. 2001

Detail Information

Publications35

  1. ncbi request reprint HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities
    A H Kral
    Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1304, U S A
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 16:211-7. 1997
    ..There is a need for epidemiological studies specifically geared toward studying risk behaviors among WSWs. Risk reduction activities need to focus on injection-related risks, as well as sex-related risks, among WSWs...
  2. ncbi request reprint Injection risk behaviors among clients of syringe exchange programs with different syringe dispensation policies
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1307-12. 2004
    ..It is concluded that SEPs that base syringe dispensation policy upon need may facilitate reductions in reuse of syringes...
  3. ncbi request reprint Trends in human immunodeficiency virus seroincidence among street-recruited injection drug users in San Francisco, 1987-1998
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 157:915-22. 2003
    ..21, 0.87). Sensitive/less sensitive enzyme immunoassay testing is an effective tool for assessing HIV incidence. HIV incidence among street-recruited IDUs in San Francisco appears to have remained stable and moderate since the late 1980s...
  4. pmc HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among men who have sex with men and inject drugs in San Francisco
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Studies, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3180 18th Street Suite 302, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Urban Health 82:i43-50. 2005
    ..These findings have implications for the development of HIV interventions that target the diverse MSM-IDU population...
  5. ncbi request reprint Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis
    A H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies and Departments of Family and Community Medicine, UCSF, 3180 18th Street, San Francisco CA 94110, USA
    Lancet 357:1397-401. 2001
    ..We aimed to establish whether injection or sexual risk factors, or both, were associated with HIV-1antibody seroconversion of street-recruited IDUs in San Francisco, from 1986 to 1998...
  6. ncbi request reprint Sex- and drug-related risk among populations of younger and older injection drug users in adjacent neighborhoods in San Francisco
    A H Kral
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 24:162-7. 2000
    ..05). After controlling for confounding factors using logistic regression analysis, all these associations remained significant. There is an urgent need for innovative prevention programs that target younger, homeless IDUs...
  7. ncbi request reprint Risk factors among IDUs who give injections to or receive injections from other drug users
    A H Kral
    Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Addiction 94:675-83. 1999
    ..To assess risk factors associated with injection drug users (IDUs) who give injections to or receive injections from other IDUs...
  8. ncbi request reprint Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995
    R N Bluthenthal
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1304, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 18:505-11. 1998
    ..To determine factors associated with syringe and injection supply sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) in a community with an illegal underground syringe exchange program (SEP)...
  9. ncbi request reprint Trends in HIV seroprevalence and risk among gay and bisexual men who inject drugs in San Francisco, 1988 to 2000
    R N Bluthenthal
    Drug Policy Research Center, Health Program, RAND, Department of Psychiatry, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 28:264-9. 2001
    ..To determine trends in HIV infection and risk behaviors among street-recruited self-identified gay and bisexual male injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco...
  10. pmc Predictors and prevention of nonfatal overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1998-1999
    K H Seal
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    Am J Public Health 91:1842-6. 2001
    ..This study sought to determine prevalence of and risk factors for nonfatal recent overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users...
  11. pmc Incentives and accessibility: a pilot study to promote adherence to TB prophylaxis in a high-risk community
    J Lorvick
    Urban Health Study, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1304, USA
    J Urban Health 76:461-7. 1999
    ..A community-based directly observed preventive therapy (DOPT) program for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection among injection drug users (IDUs) in an inner-city neighborhood...
  12. ncbi request reprint High prevalence of abscesses and cellulitis among community-recruited injection drug users in San Francisco
    I A Binswanger
    Urban Health Study, Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1304, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 30:579-81. 2000
    ..Abscesses are extremely prevalent among IDUs in San Francisco. Skin-popping is a major risk factor, and self-treatment is common...
  13. pmc Naloxone distribution and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for injection drug users to prevent heroin overdose death: a pilot intervention study
    Karen H Seal
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Urban Health 82:303-11. 2005
    ..IDUs can be trained to respond to heroin overdose emergencies by performing CPR and administering naloxone. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this peer intervention to prevent fatal heroin overdose...
  14. pmc Sexual and injection risk among women who inject methamphetamine in San Francisco
    Jennifer Lorvick
    Urban Health Program, RTI International, 28 2nd Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    J Urban Health 83:497-505. 2006
    ..In addition, existing interventions for drug-injecting women may need to be adapted to better meet the risks of female MA injectors...
  15. ncbi request reprint Secondary syringe exchange among users of 23 California syringe exchange programs
    Jennifer Lorvick
    Urban Health Program, RTI International, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 41:865-82. 2006
    ..In the interim, SEPs should consider reinforcing HIV prevention education messages and training IDUs who engage in SSE in safe handling of biohazardous materials...
  16. ncbi request reprint Prescription naloxone: a novel approach to heroin overdose prevention
    Karl A Sporer
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, Section of Emergency Medicine, and the Treatment Research Center, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 49:172-7. 2007
    ..Program implementation considerations, legal ramifications, and research needs for prescription naloxone are discussed...
  17. pmc The impact of legalizing syringe exchange programs on arrests among injection drug users in California
    Alexis N Martinez
    Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, 50 Beale Street, Suite 1300, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    J Urban Health 84:423-35. 2007
    ..More comprehensive approaches to removing barriers to accessing sterile syringes are needed if our public health goals for reducing new HIV/HCV infections are to be obtained...
  18. pmc Estimating past hepatitis C infection risk from reported risk factor histories: implications for imputing age of infection and modeling fibrosis progression
    Peter Bacchetti
    Box 0560, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 7:145. 2007
    ..We sought to examine the accuracy of such imputation and implications for modeling factors that influence progression rates...
  19. pmc Access to sterile syringes through San Francisco pharmacies and the association with HIV risk behavior among injection drug users
    Elise D Riley
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Urban Health 87:534-42. 2010
    ..These results are consistent with prior studies in suggesting that increasing the availability of syringes through SEPs and pharmacies, and developing bridges between them, may further reduce syringe-related risk...
  20. pmc Health and oral health care needs and health care-seeking behavior among homeless injection drug users in San Francisco
    Jonathan Leserman Robbins
    Joint Medical Program, University of California, Berkeley and University of California, San Francisco, 570 University Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720 1190, USA
    J Urban Health 87:920-30. 2010
    ..Recent cuts in Medi-Cal's adult dental coverage may result in a greater burden of oral health care which will need to be provided by emergency departments and neighborhood dental clinics...
  21. pmc Fatal heroin-related overdose in San Francisco, 1997-2000: a case for targeted intervention
    Peter J Davidson
    University of California, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA 94143 1306, USA
    J Urban Health 80:261-73. 2003
    ..We recommend the development of overdose response training targeted at heroin users and those close to them, including the staff of residential hotels...
  22. ncbi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of monetary incentives vs. outreach to enhance adherence to the hepatitis B vaccine series among injection drug users
    Karen H Seal
    Urban Health Study, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 71:127-31. 2003
    ..Due to concerns about non-adherence to multi-dose vaccine regimens however, IDUs are severely under-immunized against HBV and have been excluded from phase III trials of multi-dose candidate HIV vaccines in the United States...
  23. pmc Attitudes about prescribing take-home naloxone to injection drug users for the management of heroin overdose: a survey of street-recruited injectors in the San Francisco Bay Area
    Karen H Seal
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Urban Health 80:291-301. 2003
    ..Nevertheless, strategies for overcoming potential risks associated with the use of take-home naloxone would need to be emphasized in an overdose management training program...
  24. pmc Acceptability of a safer injection facility among injection drug users in San Francisco
    Alex H Kral
    Urban Health Program, RTI International, San Francisco Regional Office, 114 Sansome Street Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 110:160-3. 2010
    ..Since 2007 support for implementation of a SIF in San Francisco has been building. The objective of this study is to assess the acceptability of a SIF among injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco...
  25. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 among injection drug users in San Francisco
    Jonnae Atkinson
    Viral Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:974-81. 2003
    ..These results are consistent with the occurrence of bloodborne transmission of HHV-8 among IDUs...
  26. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus among San Francisco injection drug users, 1998 to 2000
    Fan Chen Tseng
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Hepatology 46:666-71. 2007
    ..During 1987, however, 58.7% of recent initiates had shared syringes within the past 30 days compared with 33.6% during 1998-2000 (P < 0.0001)...
  27. pmc Community characteristics associated with HIV risk among injection drug users in the San Francisco Bay Area: a multilevel analysis
    Ricky N Bluthenthal
    Health Program and Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    J Urban Health 84:653-66. 2007
    ....
  28. pmc Approval of syringe exchange programs in California: results from a local approach to HIV prevention
    Ricky N Bluthenthal
    Health Program and Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corp, 1776 Main S, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407 2138, USA
    Am J Public Health 98:278-83. 2008
    ..We studied the effect of local approval of syringe exchange programs in California (through Assembly AB136) on program availability and performance...
  29. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus testing services at syringe exchange programs: availability and outcomes
    Keith G Heinzerling
    Department of Family Medicine and Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7087, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 32:423-9. 2007
    ..Efforts to increase both the availability of HIV and HCV testing services at syringe exchange programs and the use of existing testing services are needed...
  30. ncbi request reprint Examination of the association between syringe exchange program (SEP) dispensation policy and SEP client-level syringe coverage among injection drug users
    Ricky N Bluthenthal
    Health Program and Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    Addiction 102:638-46. 2007
    ..To determine whether syringe exchange programs' (SEPs) dispensation policy is associated with syringe coverage among SEP clients...
  31. pmc Higher syringe coverage is associated with lower odds of HIV risk and does not increase unsafe syringe disposal among syringe exchange program clients
    Ricky N Bluthenthal
    Health Program and Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407 2138, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 89:214-22. 2007
    ..To determine if adequate syringe coverage --"one shot for one syringe"--among syringe exchange program (SEP) clients is associated with injection-related HIV risk behaviors and syringe disposal...
  32. pmc Sexual relationships, secondary syringe exchange, and gender differences in HIV risk among drug injectors
    Kara S Riehman
    Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    J Urban Health 81:249-59. 2004
    ..More information on network members is needed to understand gender differences in secondary exchange...
  33. ncbi request reprint Persistent HIV incidence among injection drug users in San Francisco during the 1990s: results of five studies
    Alex H Kral
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1667-9. 2004
  34. ncbi request reprint Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs
    Laura M Bogart
    Health Program, RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407 2318, USA
    AIDS Behav 9:423-32. 2005
    ..Interventions that increase awareness about positive aspects of condom use and sexual risk from steady partners may be successful in increasing condom use among injection drug users...
  35. ncbi request reprint Sexual risk among injection drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs in California
    Laura M Bogart
    Health Program, RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407 2138, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 32:27-34. 2005
    ..The objective of this study was to examine correlates of sexual risk among injection drug users (IDUs)...