- Knudsen B, Miyamoto M, Laipis P, Silverman D. Using evolutionary rates to investigate protein functional divergence and conservation. A case study of the carbonic anhydrases. Genetics. 2003;164:1261-9 pubmed..As illustrated by the CAs, these LRTs, in combination with other biological evidence, offer a powerful and cost-effective approach for testing hypotheses, making predictions, and designing experiments in protein functional studies. ..