Nigel S Key

Summary

Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and Thrombophilia
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1367-75. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic approaches to bleeding disorders
    Nigel S Key
    University of Minnesota Medical School, Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
    Hematology 10:29-32. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Inhibitors in congenital coagulation disorders
    Nigel S Key
    University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Br J Haematol 127:379-91. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Coagulation inhibition for sepsis
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, 480 Mayo Building, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Opin Hematol 9:416-21. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint A 'touch' of the White platelet syndrome
    James G White
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Platelets 16:346-61. 2005
  6. doi request reprint Anthracycline treatment of the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 increases phosphatidylserine exposure and tissue factor activity
    Jeremiah C Boles
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Thromb Res 129:197-203. 2012
  7. pmc Tissue factor promotes activation of coagulation and inflammation in a mouse model of sickle cell disease
    Pichika Chantrathammachart
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Blood 120:636-46. 2012
  8. pmc Tumor-derived tissue factor activates coagulation and enhances thrombosis in a mouse xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer
    Jian guo Wang
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Blood 119:5543-52. 2012
  9. pmc PF4/heparin-antibody complex induces monocyte tissue factor expression and release of tissue factor positive microparticles by activation of FcγRI
    Raj S Kasthuri
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Blood 119:5285-93. 2012
  10. pmc Variant hemoglobin phenotypes may account for differential erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosing in African-American hemodialysis patients
    Vimal K Derebail
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, UNC Kidney Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7155, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Kidney Int 80:992-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and Thrombophilia
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1367-75. 2002
    ..To review the role of an elevated total plasma homocysteine level (hyperhomocyst[e]inemia) in patients with venous or arterial thrombosis, as reflected by the medical literature and the consensus opinion of recognized experts in the field...
  2. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic approaches to bleeding disorders
    Nigel S Key
    University of Minnesota Medical School, Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
    Hematology 10:29-32. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Inhibitors in congenital coagulation disorders
    Nigel S Key
    University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Br J Haematol 127:379-91. 2004
    ..An attempt has been made to focus on recent advances in the immunology of inhibitors, and to speculate on their potential clinical application...
  4. ncbi request reprint Coagulation inhibition for sepsis
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, 480 Mayo Building, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Opin Hematol 9:416-21. 2002
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint A 'touch' of the White platelet syndrome
    James G White
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Platelets 16:346-61. 2005
    ..Genetic studies to determine if this is the case are currently in progress...
  6. doi request reprint Anthracycline treatment of the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 increases phosphatidylserine exposure and tissue factor activity
    Jeremiah C Boles
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Thromb Res 129:197-203. 2012
    ..Malignancy conveys an increased risk for thrombosis and chemotherapy further elevates this risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly defined...
  7. pmc Tissue factor promotes activation of coagulation and inflammation in a mouse model of sickle cell disease
    Pichika Chantrathammachart
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Blood 120:636-46. 2012
    ..Furthermore, it appears that TF contributes to these processes without affecting intravascular hemolysis...
  8. pmc Tumor-derived tissue factor activates coagulation and enhances thrombosis in a mouse xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer
    Jian guo Wang
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Blood 119:5543-52. 2012
    ..The results of the present study using a xenograft mouse model suggest that tumor TF activates coagulation, whereas TF on circulating MPs may trigger venous thrombosis...
  9. pmc PF4/heparin-antibody complex induces monocyte tissue factor expression and release of tissue factor positive microparticles by activation of FcγRI
    Raj S Kasthuri
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Blood 119:5285-93. 2012
    ..Our data suggest that monocyte TF may contribute to the development of thrombosis in patients with HIT...
  10. pmc Variant hemoglobin phenotypes may account for differential erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosing in African-American hemodialysis patients
    Vimal K Derebail
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, UNC Kidney Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7155, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Kidney Int 80:992-9. 2011
    ..Hence, our findings may explain, in part, the difference in ESA dosing between Caucasians and African-Americans with end-stage renal disease but await further study...
  11. ncbi request reprint Views on methods for monitoring recombinant factor VIIa in inhibitor patients
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, Divisionof Hematology, University of Minnesota, MN, USA
    Semin Hematol 41:51-4. 2004
    ..To date, however, no assay endpoint has been developed that can correlate accurately with clinical outcomes in a sufficiently large patient sample...
  12. ncbi request reprint Induction of microparticle- and cell-associated intravascular tissue factor in human endotoxemia
    Omer Aras
    Departments of Medicine Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation and Vascular Biology Center, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Blood 103:4545-53. 2004
    ..MP-associated TF PCA was highly correlated with whole-blood TF PCA and total number of circulating MPs, and whole-blood TF PCA was highly correlated with TF mRNA levels...
  13. ncbi request reprint Clinical and laboratory management of the prothrombin G20210A mutation
    Ronald C McGlennen
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1319-25. 2002
    ..DAT SOURCES: Review of the medical literature, primarily since 1996...
  14. ncbi request reprint Blood outgrowth endothelial cells as a vehicle for transgene expression of hepatocyte-secreted proteins via Sleeping Beauty
    Betsy T Kren
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Endothelium 14:97-104. 2007
    ..Thus, BOECs have the potential to provide clinically relevant secreted proteins for diseases other than those of endothelial origin...
  15. ncbi request reprint Response of factor VIII and IX-deficient blood to wild type and high membrane affinity mutant factor VIIa in an in vitro whole blood clotting assay: possible correlation to clinical outcome
    Nicole Henderson
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108, USA
    Thromb Haemost 88:98-103. 2002
    ..The results may justify larger studies to determine the utility of this assay for evaluation of patient responsiveness and to set factor VIIa therapy levels...
  16. pmc The principal eosinophil peroxidase product, HOSCN, is a uniquely potent phagocyte oxidant inducer of endothelial cell tissue factor activity: a potential mechanism for thrombosis in eosinophilic inflammatory states
    Jian guo Wang
    Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation Section, Department of Medicine, and the Vascular Biology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
    Blood 107:558-65. 2006
    ....
  17. pmc Analysis of tissue factor positive microparticles
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Thromb Res 125:S42-5. 2010
    ..Heterogeneity of TF-bearing MPs, such as the variable co-expression of surface phosphatidylserine, may determine not only their procoagulant potential, but also additional properties including rate of clearance from the circulation...
  18. ncbi request reprint Platelet microparticles are heterogeneous and highly dependent on the activation mechanism: studies using a new digital flow cytometer
    Silvia Perez-Pujol
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Cytometry A 71:38-45. 2007
    ..Platelet-derived microparticles (MPs) are believed to play an important role in coagulation and inflammatory disorders. Unfortunately, MP size renders them difficult to study and analyze by conventional flow cytometry...
  19. ncbi request reprint Stored platelets contain residual amounts of tissue factor: evidence from studies on platelet concentrates stored for prolonged periods
    Silvia Perez-Pujol
    Department of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Transfusion 45:572-9. 2005
    ..The advent of new strategies for pathogen reduction has raised the question of whether platelet (PLT) concentrates (PCs) exposed to longer periods of storage retain adequate hemostatic function...
  20. ncbi request reprint Role of the geneticist in testing and counseling for inherited thrombophilia
    Laura M Reich
    Vascular Medicine Program, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Genet Med 5:133-43. 2003
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Postoperative coagulopathy in a pediatric patient after exposure to bovine topical thrombin
    Sheri S Crow
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 83:1547-9. 2007
    ..This case report alerts pediatric providers to consider these inhibitors when postoperative coagulopathy occurs. Potential treatment options are reviewed...
  22. pmc Increased microparticle tissue factor activity in cancer patients with Venous Thromboembolism
    David A Manly
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7035, USA
    Thromb Res 125:511-2. 2010
    ..7+/-3.8 pg/mL vs 0.6+/-0.4 pg/mL, p<0.05). Further prospective studies are required to determine if levels of MP TF activity may be a useful biomarker to identify patients at increased risk for VTE...
  23. pmc Circulating levels of tissue factor microparticle procoagulant activity are reduced with antiretroviral therapy and are associated with persistent inflammation and coagulation activation among HIV-positive patients
    Jason V Baker
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:367-71. 2013
    ..001), and interleukin-6 (r = 0.20, P = 0.04) levels. Future research should focus on mechanisms driving residual functional TF activity and whether these alterations have clinical consequences for non-AIDS-defining complications...
  24. doi request reprint Studies on the mechanism of action of the aptamer BAX499, an inhibitor of tissue factor pathway inhibitor
    Jen Yea Chang
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Thromb Res 130:e151-7. 2012
    ..Diluted prothrombin time assay was used to investigate the effects of BAX499 on factor VIII-deficient plasma collected from hemophilia patients...
  25. ncbi request reprint Phenotypic correction and long-term expression of factor VIII in hemophilic mice by immunotolerization and nonviral gene transfer using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system
    John R Ohlfest
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center for Transposon Research, University of Minnesota, 6 160 Jackson Hall, 321 Church St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Blood 105:2691-8. 2005
    ..Thus, SB provides a nonviral means for sustained FVIII gene delivery in a mouse model of hemophilia A if the immune response is prevented...
  26. ncbi request reprint Red cell aplasia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia following immunosuppression with alemtuzumab, mycophenolate, and daclizumab in pancreas transplant recipients
    Milena Elimelakh
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Haematologica 92:1029-36. 2007
    ..We report a high incidence of RCA and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in pancreas transplant recipients on alemtuzumab-based maintenance therapy...
  27. ncbi request reprint Lupus anticoagulant associated with transient severe factor X deficiency: a report of two patients presenting with major bleeding complications
    Aneel A Ashrani
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology of the University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Br J Haematol 121:639-42. 2003
    ..We conclude that patients with LA may rarely present with severe acquired FX deficiency. This may be another mechanism whereby patients with antiphospholipid antibodies present with bleeding complications...
  28. doi request reprint Bench to bedside: new developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of thrombosis
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Thromb Thrombolysis 35:342-5. 2013
    ..These insights are likely to result in novel disease biomarkers and perhaps even adjunctive anti-thrombotic therapies...
  29. doi request reprint Acquired hemophilia in malignancy
    Brandi N Reeves
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Thromb Res 129:S66-8. 2012
    ..However, appropriate consideration should be given to the choice of agents, depending on individual risk factors for complications such as thrombosis and infection...
  30. pmc Current treatment of venous thromboembolism
    Nigel S Key
    Harold R Roberts Distinguished Professor, Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, 932 Mary Ellen Jones Bldg, CB 7035, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30:372-5. 2010
    ..In this review, we discuss some of the issues that we believe are among the most critical unanswered questions in the management of venous thromboembolism in the present era...
  31. doi request reprint Tissue factor and its measurement in whole blood, plasma, and microparticles
    Nigel S Key
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Semin Thromb Hemost 36:865-75. 2010
    ..We comment on some of the crucial preanalytical and analytical variables that influence the results and their interpretation...
  32. ncbi request reprint Measurement of bleeding severity: a critical review
    Rachel Koreth
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Transfusion 44:605-17. 2004
  33. ncbi request reprint Sickle blood contains tissue factor-positive microparticles derived from endothelial cells and monocytes
    Arun S Shet
    Vascular Biology Center, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA
    Blood 102:2678-83. 2003
    ..01 for both). These data support the concept that SCD is an inflammatory state with monocyte and endothelial activation and abnormal TF activity...
  34. ncbi request reprint Do inherited hypercoagulable states play a role in thrombotic events affecting kidney/pancreas transplant recipients?
    Horacio E Adrogue
    Department of Medicine, O Brien Kidney Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Transplant 21:32-7. 2007
    ..Pancreas graft thrombosis remains the leading non-immunologic cause of graft loss after pancreas transplantation. We studied the role of hypercoagulable states (HCS) in pancreas graft thrombosis (pthx)...
  35. doi request reprint Platelet tissue factor: how did it get there and is it important?
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Semin Hematol 45:S16-20. 2008
    ..This brief review will summarize the state-of-the-art understanding on the origins and possible role of platelet TF...
  36. doi request reprint Venous thromboembolism in multiple myeloma: current perspectives in pathogenesis
    Noppacharn Uaprasert
    Department of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Eur J Cancer 46:1790-9. 2010
    ..These studies may not only yield greater insight into the pathogenesis of disease but may also define novel targets for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events in patients with multiple myeloma...
  37. doi request reprint Membrane microparticles in VTE and cancer
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Thromb Res 125:S80-3. 2010
    ..The results of prospective clinical studies that are currently underway should clarify any causative relationship...
  38. ncbi request reprint Analysis of individual platelet-derived microparticles, comparing flow cytometry and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection
    Guohua Xiong
    Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Analyst 128:581-8. 2003
    ..This is the first time that a direct comparison between these two techniques is reported...
  39. ncbi request reprint Plasma protein profiling: unique and stable features of individuals
    Gary L Nelsestuen
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proteomics 5:4012-24. 2005
    ....
  40. pmc High prevalence of sickle cell trait in African Americans with ESRD
    Vimal K Derebail
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of North Carolina Kidney Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7155, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 21:413-7. 2010
    ..The potential effect of HbAS on the development and progression of CKD and its effect on the course and management of patients with ESRD deserve further study...
  41. ncbi request reprint Cytokine production by CD4+ T cells specific for coagulation factor VIII in healthy subjects and haemophilia A patients
    Genlin Hu
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, 6 155 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Thromb Haemost 97:788-94. 2007
    ..The polarized high ratios of Th3/Th1 and Th3/Th2 in controls and patients without inhibitors suggest that a preponderance ofTh3 cells in the response to fVIII may help to maintain tolerance to fVIII...
  42. ncbi request reprint Possible synergy between recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate in hemophilia therapy
    Nigel S Key
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
    Thromb Haemost 88:60-5. 2002
    ..Results with other patients supported this hypothesis. With further evaluation, a therapeutic approach combining sequential PCC and rFVIIa may prove useful for treatment of bleeding refractory to either agent used alone...
  43. ncbi request reprint The White platelet syndrome: a new autosomal dominant platelet disorder
    James G White
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Platelets 15:173-84. 2004
    ..However, gray platelets were not present among their circulating cells. The WPS is a unique autosomal dominant condition that can be classified among the platelet granule deficiency disorders...
  44. ncbi request reprint Platelet factor 4 enhances generation of activated protein C in vitro and in vivo
    Arne Slungaard
    Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Mayo Mail Code 480, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Blood 102:146-51. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that PF4 may play a previously unsuspected physiologic role in enhancing APC generation...
  45. ncbi request reprint Sickle cell trait and the risk of venous thromboembolism among blacks
    Harland Austin
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Blood 110:908-12. 2007
    ..We conclude that sickle cell trait is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism and that the proportion of venous thromboembolism among blacks attributable to the mutation is approximately 7%...
  46. ncbi request reprint Is homozygosity for the HR2 haplotype a risk factor for venous thromboembolism?
    Omer Aras
    Thromb Haemost 87:173-4. 2002
  47. ncbi request reprint Elevated whole-blood tissue factor procoagulant activity as a marker of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent implantation
    Eralp Tutar
    Department of Cardiology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Circulation 108:1581-4. 2003
    ..In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that elevated levels of TF in the circulation contribute to the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or stent implantation...
  48. ncbi request reprint Role of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation in hemostasis and thrombosis
    Nigel Mackman
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, Mail Code SP30 3040, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:1687-93. 2007
    ..Understanding how the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation contributes to hemostasis and thrombosis may lead to the development of safe and effective hemostatic agents and antithrombotic drugs...
  49. ncbi request reprint Recombinant FVIIa for intractable hemorrhage: more questions than answers
    Nigel S Key
    Transfusion 43:1649-51. 2003
  50. pmc Tissue factor; from Morawitz to microparticles
    Nigel S Key
    Division of Hematology Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 118:165-73. 2007
    ..Nonetheless, ongoing research suggests that tissue factor may be a rational therapeutic target in a number of human disease states...
  51. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C in adults and adolescents with hemophilia: a randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin
    Michael W Fried
    Division of Digestive Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    Hepatology 36:967-72. 2002
    ..Adolescents treated with combination therapy had a significantly higher sustained response than adults did on the same regimen...
  52. ncbi request reprint Andrographolide attenuates inflammation by inhibition of NF-kappa B activation through covalent modification of reduced cysteine 62 of p50
    Yi Feng Xia
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    J Immunol 173:4207-17. 2004
    ..Notably, it had no suppressive effect on IkappaBalpha degradation, p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, or cell growth rates. Our results thus reveal a unique pharmacological mechanism of Andro's protective anti-inflammatory actions...
  53. ncbi request reprint Coagulation factor concentrates: past, present, and future
    Nigel S Key
    University of North Carolina School of Medicine and Harold R Roberts Comprehensive Hemophilia Diagnostic and Treatment Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Lancet 370:439-48. 2007
    ..In the future, it is likely that bioengineered recombinant proteins that have been modified to enhance pharmacokinetic properties or reduce immunogenicity, or both, will be used increasingly in clinical practice...